Sales Dictionary

 

The Reason I have included a Sales and Closing Dictionary on this Website

Over the years I found that when it comes to closing, either everybody is an expert, or they wholeheartedly believe that closing the sale is really old hat selling.  Well I’ve got news for them, of sell the highly paid professional supersellers I know, those that understand closing techniques and draw on that information in every selling process, are the ones making more sales, bigger sales, more frequently, with a higher closing ration, and subsequently earning more money than most others.

Peter Collins

 

The complete Sales Dictionary is set out below:

 

Dictionary of Sales Terms and Terminology relative to Selling and to Closing Sales

 

Sales Dictionary

 

1-2-3 Close – The salesperson gives prospect’s three reasons why their product or service is better. The benefits are also listed in threes, because prospects are more likely to agree to those reasons.  This stereo is easier to work, fun to use and is more powerful than the others.

24/7 Selling – This is exactly what it says, 24/7, simply because much of the selling industry is moving towards what much of its on-line counterpart has already achieved – twenty four hours a day, seven days a week.

80/20 Rule – This theory, that 20% of effort produces 80% of results, has been a yard-stick employed by the selling fraternity for a number of decades.  Most swear by it and tout out their own figures that justify its means.  e.g., 20% of employees perform 80% of the work. Alternately, 20% of customers produce 80% of revenue. Another twist to the saga is that 80% of the problems are attributed to 20% of the buyers. See Pareto Rule in more detail. It is also known as Pareto Rule or Pareto Principle, and named after its originator.

 

Sales Dictionary

Sales Dictionary entries in A

Go to . . . A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

A1 – This is the top quality rating, applicable to various business situations, such as credit-worthiness, and more general references based on quality and fitness for a specific purpose.

ABC (Always be Closing) – A sales strategy that implies that implies that everything a salesperson does throughout the sales process is in pursuit of looking after the prospect, and ultimately closing the sale.  If the salesperson is not focusing on doing what’s best for the customer, and/or working for the opportunity of getting the order in place, they are not selling in the professional sense.  Some people outside of sales imply that this is a pressure tactic, whereas professional sellers suggest that this is what it should be, the salesperson is simply going about and doing what he or sha are being paid for.

Abilities Salesperson – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Ability and the Peter Principle – In any business hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence’. The theory that employees rise in rank in an organisation until they are finally promoted to a level, and remain there, at which they do not have the ability to do their job as effectively as they did at a lower ranking.  Originally formulated by Canadian author Laurence J Peter (1919-1990)

Ability Employment Equity – A system that promotes equal employment opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender, race, ability, etc.

Ability Prominence – In any manner of sales compensation design, this factor refers to the level of influence a salesperson has within the sales process.  Most sales processes where the salesperson has an above average or somewhat high prominence, this reflects on a situation where a decision is made where its often due to the salesperson’s experience, understanding, affable characteristics and/or ability to be persuasive.

Above Active Prominence – In any manner of sales compensation or sales design, this factor refers to the level of influence a salesperson has within the sales process.  Most sales processes, where the salesperson has an above average or somewhat high prominence, is when this reflects on a situation where a decision is made when its often due to the salesperson’s experience, understanding, affable characteristics and/or ability to be persuasive.

Above Average – A quick (fast-track) route in a career to success and promotion, and is usually associated with high ambition and above average futurization.

Above Quota Top Gun – In many sales organizations, this refers to the top salesperson. There is also quite often, a Top Gun contest that a sales organization may promote throughout the year associated with a special prize, trip trophy, hall of fame membership or other memorabilia.

Above the Line – A&P (Advertising and Promotion) methods are sometimes described as above-the-line – media advertising such as radio, TV, cinema, newspapers, magazines.

Above The Line – This is a form of marketing and advertising through any manner of selected mass-media.  This could be television, radio, newspapers, magazines, Internet, etc., which is less personal than.  Many Below The Line Marketing. Companies usually use advertising agencies for ATL marketing. See marketing.

Absolute Advantage – This is when a manufacturer is able to produce goods more cheaply than other manufacturers.  This can be either on-shore or off-shore.  However, it is more likely that the goods will be manufactured off-shore these days.

Abusing Trust – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Academic Capital – Refers primarily to the skills and knowledge of a company’s employees, which can be used to make the company more successful than its competitors.

Accelerated Sales Promotion – Paid marketing activities which seek to improve and accelerate the rate of consumer purchasing for a specific product or service.

Accelerators – An accelerator in sales these days is either a form of compensation, or it may be a component used to help stimulate and sustain selling efforts. Typically, companies will introduce incentive accelerators after a given level of revenue is reached or exceeded.

Acceptable Sales Process Documented – The accepted way sales are conducted and made by professional salespeople. When done effectively, the sales process is the clearly defined and the acceptable and documented steps an organization takes to satisfy customer requirements are followed to the letter. Typically, the sales process is defined by Phases, Key Activities, Tools, and Observable Outcomes.

Acceptance – Generally a favorable attitude response expressed by an existing customer for a salesperson’s recommendation or solution that has met or exceeded expectations.

Acceptance and High Level Listening – High level listening is a process that is used by the salesperson when certain phrases are used by the prospect and then responded to by the seller.  The secret to this process is to listen and respond with real and personal emotion.  In other words, high level listeners make non-judgmental associations with others, and then offer acceptance through validation plus empathetic support.  In short, it is listening that does not pre-judge.

Acceptance Bonus – This is usually a specified amount paid to an employee who agrees to perform a difficult task.  The amount of the bonus may be unexpectedly increased if the work done far exceeds the expectations of the one setting the task in the first place.

Acceptance of Proposal Automation Software – Proposal automation software refers to newly created software that automates the creation, delivery and acceptance of a personalized sales proposal that is designed to theoretically best meet a buyer’s needs.

Access Gatekeeper – This term is despised by many professional salespeople and mainly refers to a person (usually a secretary or person answering the phones or greeting people in an office or company) who often is responsible for “screening” sales people or strangers who call the company prior to forwarding these sales people or strangers to purchasing agents, managers, or owners.  This may also be a person in an organisation who controls access to the people in the organisation, and/or controls access to information or goods, or even a market. Microsoft could be described as a gatekeeper to the computer industry. Google could be described as a gatekeeper to the internet industry.  An access gatekeeper in essence can also be a term typically referring to the person who controls access to someone you are trying to meet with.

Access Networking – The process of developing and maintaining alliances both externally and internally within a group or a wide variety of contacts that may be able to provide or retrieve additional information, insight, help, and access to others.  Also refers to an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on a number of referrals and introductions that help build a larger data base – either via a face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc.

Access On-demand: This term means, “when needed” or “when required,” and is associated with cloud computing, where the user has immediate access to data stored in remote locations and can retrieve resources up and down almost immediately, as desired.

Accompaniment Visit / Report – This occurs when a manager, supervisor or trainer accompanies a salesperson while working in the sales territory, and usually while meeting prospects or customers along the way. Here the manager would complete an accompaniment visit report on the performance of the seller, which would then be discussed at a later date and a suitable follow-up action or training could be agreed to.

Accomplishment Skill Model – In sales training, this is the set of step-by-step actions someone would follow to accomplish something worthwhile. Skill models form the foundation of the training methods used to develop proficiency in a subject area.

Account Management – This is the process and discipline of working with existing customer accounts in order to build better long-term, and mutually beneficial business relationships.

Account Management and Sales Force Automation (SFA) – This relates to automating the sales activities within an organization. A comprehensive SFA software solution provides functions such as contact management and account management, workflow and approval processes, sales lead and opportunity tracking capabilities, note and information sharing, quick proposal and presentation generation, product configurators, calendars and to-do lists and reporting capabilities.

Account Manager Whale – Whenever it is used in sales terminology, a whale is a prospect at least 10 times larger than your average sale.  With B2B sales, a whale prospect is often a company that’s far larger than your own.  It also reflects a huge opportunity, or a huge account being worked on by a senior salesperson, account manager or sales manager.

Account Planning – The process or method used to assess the opportunities within a nominated client account and what is then needed to achieve mutual goals with that customer.

Account – This could refer to a customer, usually in a business-to-business organization; a major account in a large organization; a national account that is a customer with branches or sites that constitute a nationwide coverage, and which typically requires special pricing and senior sales attention.

Accountable Directors – These are the assigned individuals who are held accountable for the responsible and timely completion of goals, plans, targets, objectives and expected work-loads of the nominated team leader.

Accountable Sales Manager – This is usually the executive or individual responsible for training and/or motivating and managing individual salespeople while accounting and being responsible for tracking the results of a sales team.

Accounting Function – When used in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, for example; sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc. Understanding the work functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations.

Accounting Write-Off – A term used in accounting, to reduce the book value of an asset, sometimes to as low as zero, or to cancel a debt which has not been, or is unlikely to be, paid.

Accounts – An individual’s or company’s financial records of transactions. This can also be an arrangement to keep certain amounts of money with a financial institution, e.g., a bank, building society, etc. See financial terms.

Accounts Rationale – When working with accounts, the ‘rationale” refers to the process of establishing a believable business process for the company’s products or services. The use of this term is more directed to complex selling situations, rather than to any of the shorter term business decisions available.

Accrual – An accumulation of payments or benefits over time.

Achievability Study – Generally referred to a preliminary assessment of a new project, which usually includes the related costs, risks, etc., in order to determine whether the project under scrutiny has the potential of being both successful as well as practical.

Achieve BOAT – Acronym – Background, Objective, Achieve, Time. This acronym is mainly used to recall and remember certain factors the salesperson wants to consider in their opening statement with a customer.  The use of the acronym of Background, Objective, Achieve, Time is a powerful way to establish the basis of the call and can be one to use as a form of revision as well – either prior to closing the sale or as a button up to the sale.

Achieved Sales Threshold – When used within a sales concept for the means of compensation, this refers to the minimum level of sales to be achieved before a commission or an incentive is paid to the salesperson.

Achievement and Total Target Cash Compensation – In sales and the associated compensation factors, this refers to the total compensation a salesperson earns once the expected goals are achieved. This may include salary and incentive components earned if the individual achieves the pre-defined goals.

Achievement Based Selling – That product or service which is the one required or wanted by a customer. The ability of a sales professional to surface viable, “must address” needs (vs. wants)  always leads to greater sales success.

Achievement Plan – The set of steps outlining how the solution agreed to by the prospect or customer will be implemented. Implementation plans need to include What, Who, and By When elements.

Achievement Selling System – This refers to the divisions of a selling organization that when, looked at as a group, comprise of complementary components to define how the organization sells on an overall level.  They are also aware that when the selling system is functioning well, the sales organization is said to be highly productive and effective in achieving results that constantly exceed expectations and/or break sales records.

Achievement Success and a Sales Plan – For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Achievers Never Say Selling is a Numbers Game – A totally misguided belief that is based on performing some manner of sales related activities the are predicted to result in pre-determined results and are always based on the numbers and statistics. However, only those that are believers of this theory are generally untrained people who dabble in sales and in far too many cases only last one two or more years.  Professional salespeople on the other hand understand that the numbers they need to concentrate on are their personal performance statistics based on conversion and closing percentages.  The narrower the conversion number between calls and sales, the better the seller, or the sales manager that helps guide the salesperson.

Acknowledged Referral Appreciation Gesture – A-This is when a salesperson acknowledges their appreciation for receiving a referral from a prospect or current customer by sending a thank you note or small present or by simply calling them and saying thank you.  It is also a good idea to keep the referrer informed of what may have transpired as this will invariably encourage more referrals to be passed on.

Acquisition Footprint – The exact and appropriate steps an order must transgress through from acquisition to delivery.

Acquisition Price Market-To-Market – This is the process of valuing a security, share, etc., on a daily basis to assess its current price, rather than its acquisition price or book value.

Across The Board – A system that has been put into place that can have a bearing on the involvement of, or affect on, everyone or everything in an industry or company.

Act or Action Questions – The questioning process within the early part of a presentation is possibly the most revered primary prep-selling tool used to explore and understand a prospects or customers situation at the time of the call. Effective questioning is considered to be among the highest level skill of the successful sales professional. Most questions can be described with multiple labels, each with different objectives. Some sample question labels may include: Strategic Questions, Big Picture Questions, High Value Questions, Clarification Questions, Act and Action Questions, etc.

Action Close – The salesperson gets the prospect to physically make an effort to do something that brings them closer to buy. This could include filling in forms off-line, calling third parties or asking them to get others to contact you. “Could you email me please?”

Action Leverage – Mostly referred to an action a particular salesperson may take to strategically position one or more of the exclusive advantages of a product or service. If the suggested product benefit is perceived positively, the salesperson “leverages” that benefit in order to build momentum for the sale to be made.

Action Metrics – Theses are the procedures, actions and/or measurements used in a sales organization to track progress and to assess individual, organizational or corporate momentum applied towards securing a sale.

Action Plan – A specific set of steps one can take to achieve a desired objective. Typically, good action plans are target specific and have a designated completion date assigned to them.

Action Plan as in Territory Business Plan – This is usually a hands-on, tactical process where each salesperson examines the performance of his/her territory over usually the previous 12-month period – or perhaps a shorter term such as a half-year, quarter or month. A Territory Business Plans will identify the strengths, weaknesses, competitive presence, opportunities for growth, and action plans for the upcoming period.

Action Proactive Selling – This refers to those salespeople that tend to take action without being asked to, or take action before it is absolutely necessary.  These actions are considered to be proactive.  In most cases, proactive salespeople are the ones that commit to anticipating the key issues and suggest a possible solution or suggestion to what they consider to be blatantly obvious.

Action Reflective Listening – The process usually used by a coach or another in a similar position to gain full understanding of a situation before taking action. It is through the process of asking questions and listening, in order to gain understanding by the coach and because of this insight is gained by the coachee.

Action Skill Model – In sales training, this is the set of step-by-step actions someone would follow to accomplish something worthwhile. Skill models form the foundation of the training methods used to develop proficiency in a subject area.

Action Taken to Save Face – A slang term used to denote a conscious strategy a sales professional may use to make the best of a situation brought about by a poor decision or action taken by the prospect or customer. This is typically done to maintain or retain self-esteem and to build on the relationship being developed with the prospective customer.

Actions and Sales Related Activities – This refers to those actions that are usually and directly related to closing a sales call at the demonstration stage. This will usually include prospecting, setting appointments, doing product demonstrations, and attempting to close the sale.  Prospecting and setting appointments can sometimes be performed through marketing systems.

Active Listening – The practice of being fully focused and engaged as listening takes place. Here the listening process spans beyond the use of the ear, as eye contact, positive body language, and active clarification, are a vital part of the many skills used in active listening.

Active Listening Levels – This is a term used to describe high level of listening capability together with appropriate methodology, in which the sales person actively seeks to understand how the speaker feels, and what their issues are.  That way the type of listening extends far beyond common inattentive listening.  Related to empathy and the need to be understood.

Active Proactive Selling – This refers to those salespeople that tend to take action without being asked to, or take action before it is absolutely necessary.  These actions are considered to be proactive.  In most cases, proactive salespeople are the ones that commit to anticipating the key issues and suggest a possible solution or suggestion to what they consider to be blatantly obvious.

Active Sales Assistant – A person whose primary role and objective is to actively assist in the sales and servicing process, with the sole purpose of increasing the available time a sales professional has to find and support new business and sales opportunities.

Active Sales Effectiveness – Sales effectiveness is the ability for a sales organizations to “win over” the prospect at each stage of the customer’s cycle, thereby winning the business and improving sales results.  It is also the term used to cover the broad range of activities a sales organization uses in order to improve the productivity and the results of its sales teams. Sometimes the words “Sales Excellence” are used as synonyms to further explain sales effectiveness.

Active Sales Effectiveness Process – Refers to a variety of systems, activities, processes and information that support and promote knowledge-based sales interactions with clients and prospects. The responsibility of this kind of limited sales enablement is typically co-owned by the sales organization and a variety of other parts of the organization, including marketing, product development, human resources and others.

Activities and Sales Anticipated Forecasts – These kind of sales anticipated forecasts are future sales predictions based on activities and results from nominated past sales periods. They are predictions made by a sales organization of prospective sales that are in the sales pipeline, their associated revenue vales and the period of time in which they will convert to and order being placed.

Activities and Sales Force Automation (SFA) – This relates to automating the sales activities within an organization. A comprehensive SFA software solution provides functions such as contact management and account management, workflow and approval processes, sales lead and opportunity tracking capabilities, note and information sharing, quick proposal and presentation generation, product configurators, calendars and to-do lists and reporting capabilities.

Activities and Sales Promotion – Paid marketing activities which seek to improve and accelerate the rate of consumer purchasing for a specific product or service.

Activities and Sales Report/Reporting – A commonly used business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of salespeople too. A sales report can be required daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often may include the need to provide sales forecasts.

Activities in Transition – This is usually the term used to refer to that time frame within a sales call, or in the sales process or when one is moving between activities.

Activities Mission Statement – A brief statement which encapsulates and then sets out the activities and objectives of a company or organisation.

Activities Value Mission Statement – Explains an organization’s purpose for being. Mission statements typically communicate what are the organizations values. Superior salespeople take the trouble to learn what their customer’s mission statements are, and align their services to how they can advance the organization’s mission.

Activities Vision Statement – Explains an organization’s, company’s or individuals vision for it’s future. Vision statements generally share details of the future through a defined vision. Most staff get involved in their company’s vision mission statement.

Activities Watch List – This is a list of investments being especially monitored because they are showing signs of unusual activity, often because the companies who own the shares may be takeover targets themselves.

Activity and Vested Interest – This term is applied when an individual, or business or group has a special interest in something, such as property, an activity, etc., from which there is a high probability of personal and/or financial gain.

Activity Enterprise – A company or business or a business project that is generally one which is sometimes difficult and/or risky to get right.

Activity Management – This is the study and management of those activities a professional sales organization performs in order to achieve desired end results. Where the time is spent on the nominated specifics is the primary component of activity management.

Activity Pre-Approach – An obvious two word statement used to describe the activities a competent salesperson engages in either prior to making contact with a prospect, and/or after an appointment is made. This could include researching the prospect’s business, assessing if a competitor is currently entrenched, determining the point of entry with the most potential, completing a pre-call plan worksheet, etc.

Activity Pursuit Management – The management and study of those activities the sales organization performs on behalf of the sales force in order to achieve the desired sales results where time is spent is the primary component of activity management.

Actual Cost Close – When faced with a buying decision will either want to acquire the best possible item, at the best quality and at the best price.  Suggest more buying benefits by telling them a few, then adding phrases like, “What benefit do you get from that?” then write it down and ask more questions.

Actual Gap Analysis – Enables a company to assess the notable gap between its actual performance and its potential performance, by openly comparing what skills, products, etc. are available as to what is required to improve performance, output, etc.

Actualization in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Abraham Maslow is the inventor of the “needs pyramid” that suggests that all human beings will always satisfy their needs from a triangle format that resembles a pyramid, with their primary needs being satisfied at the widest point, signifying the base.  The needs factor both reduces as it moves upwards from that point.  In Maslow’s theory, if a lower level need is not satisfied, people will continue to focus on that need before they address a higher one.  At the first level are the essentials (food, shelter) and these are automatic and not negotiable, and most of the selling is done by supermarkets, department stores and food outlets. Selling at the second level is still basic, but now encompasses a new take-it-or-leave-it level that centers around security.  Alarm system sales can satisfy these needs.  The third level centres around social needs and are catered for by clubs, restaurants and specialist groups like golf clubs etc.  The fourth level caters for status needs like luxury cars, nice homes etc.. And at the top level, where the width is the narrowest and the demand the most costly, self-actualization such as self-help products and the more exclusive and costly products such as unique travel, high-end jewelry and exclusive and very costly services.

Actuals – These are the real costs, cost of sales, and other related costs etc., that have actually occurred, rather than just estimations or expectations.

Acute Aspect Tangible – Whenever it is used in a selling context, this describes, or is, an acute aspect of the product or service on offer that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost, value and so on.  As an example, any physical feature of the product, spare parts, delivery, or installation, or a regular service visit, or a warranty agreement, and so on.

Ad hoc – Where something is created or done for a particular purpose as a vital and necessary factor that has not been planned in advance.

Add-on Sales Closing – It has been suggested that add-on sales make up less than 5% of the total sale made, and because of this the potential for selling more on each call can be as high as 50%.  Yet most salespeople who learn how to apply the add-on sales process tend to get charged up after closing with add-ons and subsequently keep making more sales because of their enthusiastic attitude.

Added Markup – The amount added to the cost price of a product or service to determine its selling price and the cost price of goods to cover overhead and profit.  The amount a producer, retailer, etc., puts on the price of the goods or services they are selling in order to make a profit. To raise the price of an item for sale.  Moreover, this is the money that a selling company adds to the cost of a product or service in order to produce a required level of profit. Strictly speaking, percentage mark-up refers to the difference between cost and selling price as a factor of the cost, not of the selling price. So a product costing $1 and selling for $2 has been given a mark-up of 100%; (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). It can also relate to the amount or percentage that a product is “marked up” from DELIVERED COST, to create a wholesale or retail price.

Added Value – This has a two fold meaning.  In a sales process it enhances the perceived value of goods or services.  As a business asset it enables and justifies a profit in business.

Added Values – Generally recognized as the element(s) of a service or product that a salesperson or selling organization provides, and is that what a customer is prepared to pay for because of the benefit(s) obtained. Added values may be real or perceived; tangible or intangible. A good, reliable, honest, expert, and fully informed salesperson becomes a very significant part of the selling organization’s added values, as openly perceived by the customer – if not by the selling organization to the same extent.

Addendum – An added in section of information in a letter or report.

Adding Value – This is generally interpreted as the process of going the extra mile with a prospect or a customer. Adding value also is used to describe situations when products and services include additional features beyond what is generally expected by the prospect or customer at no additional cost.

Additional Benefit – An extra sum of money paid to an employee on top of their salary, often for achieving or bettering targets.  The recipient may or may not be in sales, but is generally attached to sales.  However, as a sales compensation, this refers to a type of incentive payment, typically awarded when the salesperson or sales team achieves pre-determined financial objectives.

Additional Commission Windfall – In sales, this refers to a time when a salesperson receives significant additional compensation (commissions) due to actions taken by the company or a large or unexpected purchase by a prospect or customer that favorably impact sales results. This may happen because additional commissions might accrue as a result of some form of territory realignment, or a major purchase is made by someone that was neither solicited, nor expected.

Additional Objections Sealed-Off – A technique used to pre-prepare the prospect from voicing too many objections and generally brought out to minimise any additional objections.  This process can also be used to prevent an endless stream of objections and may be used to bring the prospect to a point of decision (close)

Additional Sales Windfall – In sales, this refers to a time when a salesperson receives significant additional compensation (commissions) due to actions taken by the company or a large or unexpected purchase by a prospect or customer that favorably impact sales results. This may happen because additional commissions might accrue as a result of some form of territory realignment, or a major purchase is made by someone that was neither solicited, nor expected.

Additional Side-Selling – This is a form of the art of selling an additional or “complimentary product’ to a prospect who is already using a competitors product for a lead product or preferred primary product.

Add-on Cross Selling – When a salesperson has more than one type of sales product on offer to consumers, that could be beneficial to them, and is able to sell a consumer more than one item, either at the time of purchase, or to be ordered for delivery at a later date.  In cases like this, the salesperson is adept enough to identify a need the customer has, and fulfills that need by recommending an additional product.  (Note: cross-selling differs from up-selling).  Se also Up-selling.

Add-On Sales – A term applied in all forms of retailing, and retail selling.  It is the practice of putting related products together on display in order to encourage customers to purchase in a batch or several items as they buy product by product as they see the need for each.

Add-on to Retail Price – This is the price a retail store may place or consider placing an additional levy on a product or service to sell to the ultimate consumer. Typically, in many industries, this price is approximately 50% on to double the price paid for the item, including or not including and known or additional delivery costs.  All add-on costs are fully dependant on retailer policy.

Addressing the Point of Pain – This is generally a well used slang term used in sales to describe the areas where the prospect or customer is most being challenged or the areas where the prospect or customer can most benefit from using a salespersons solution.  Finding the customer’s Point of Pain is a powerful selling tactic as most research in on this subject concludes that a prospect or customer is more likely be willing to act decisively when there is a definite need to alleviate a problem. While relieving “pain” is considered more powerful than promoting “gain,” both play a focused, yet powerful role in driving the needs an organization has to address in order to remain affective.

Adequately Prepared Sales Preparation – Whenever this is used in the context of the selling process, this is generally the work done by the salesperson to research and plan the sales presentation and/or the formal sales call to a particular prospect or customer. Without exception in professional selling, calls need to be adequately prepared for, and sales that fail to manifest are usually due to under-preparing the presentation, the proposals within the call and the method used to close the sale.

Adjournment Close – If the salesperson is unable to close at the first attempt, the prospect should be given time to think or to consider the offer just made.  When this happens, a new appointment should be made to continue the sell at another time.

Adjunct – This is a document or file that is added or attached as a supplementary item, rather than an essential part of something larger or considered more important.

Admiration Principle Close – Be nice to your prospects by telling them how wonderful they are.  Be genuinely amazed and impressed by them.  Show them how impressed you are and make them out to be the expert so that they sell themselves.  Tell them How good they look and sound, how others will be impressed by them and how impressed you are with them as a person and admire their ability.

Adoption Process – This is another way of saying “the buying process.” The stages of a potential buyer goes through, from learning about a new product or service to either becoming a loyal customer or rejecting it.  The potential buyer may or may not end up purchasing/adopting that product or service.

ADPS (Average Dollar Per Sale) – Refers to the average dollar per sale which can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period of time by the number of sales made (closed sales) during the same period of time.

Advance – A new way of doing something.  The introduction of new ideas, goods, etc., or new methods of production.

Advancing Key Events – The observable key events that occur in the sales process which reflect what is happening for the advancing a sale.

Advantage and Opportunism – This refers to the practice of exploiting and/or taking advantage of any of the opportunities which present themselves, with no regard for other people or any of the eventual consequences that may eventuate because of this.

Advantage Attributes – The positive attributes of a feature are kept in relative terms (not in emotional or beneficial terms). For example: “An advantage to having a 4 wheel drive (feature) is that the driver may be able to navigate through adverse weather conditions more easily than if riding only in a 2 wheel drive.” (The feature here is not to be confused with the benefit)

Advantage Close – History’s most successful entrepreneurs have been skilled salespeople, who were able to represent and promote their companies and products to their advantage.  Advantage selling is a face-to-face selling process with the purpose of selling a product in a pre-determined way to a specifically targeted prospect base. The Advantage Close is just that, closing in a way that advantages the group or individual who is a part of that targeted base.

Advantage FABs – This relates to the vital links between a product description and its advantage over other similar products, and the benefits that may be derived by the consumer by using it.  This is one of the better, if not central, if not rather predictable technique used in the presentation stage of the selling process.

Advantage Feature Benefit Close – Most salespeople, either in retail, internal or field sales, don’t honestly understand the difference between features and benefits.  Perhaps the reasons for this is, that there are three elements in the application of features and benefits, not two, and they should consider  incorporating advantages of into the selling and closing equation.  The Advantage Feature Benefit Close addresses the manner in which both the selling and closing processes are enhanced for the buyer and seller alike.

Advantage of a Trade Secret – This is what may be considered to be a secret device or formula used by a company in the manufacturing of a product which they believe gives it a distinct advantage over the competition.

Advantage – This factor deals with the aspect of a product or service that seems to make it better than another product or service, especially the one similar to that of a competitor.

Advantageous Inside Track – A known and/or openly considered  position of an advantageous nature within a company or organisation. To know about something before others get to hear about it.

Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Advantages Presentation/Sales Presentation – This is generally referred to as the process by which a salesperson explains/presents the product or service to the prospect (be it a single contact or a group), and will ideally include an explanation of the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are pertinent/relevant to the needs of the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but will more usually involve the use of visuals, common bullet-points, text slides and images on a computer display, tablet or projected onto a screen.  They can incorporate a video and/or physical demonstration of the product(s) or service(s).

Advantages Product offer – How the product and/or service offer is positioned and presented to the prospect or to the market, (which would normally include features and/or advantages) and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (via alternate segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully.

Advertised Price (AP) – Known as the ’Label Price’ in Australia and as the ‘Sticker Price’ in the USA. Both locations refer to the List Price as the advertised price (AP) or recommended retail price (RRP) of a product.

Advertising – This is the promotion and selling of a product or service to prospects and potential customers. Advertising may also announce publicly or draw attention to an event, etc.

Advertising and Marketing – This refers to the act of promoting a company, or its products, and services in the effort to attract a primary influence to a company (normally pertains to customers) and is perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising.  However, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through to market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions. It’s the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it.

Advertising and Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Advertising and Psychological Pricing – This refers to the practice of pricing slightly below whole numbers or “jumps” to give the perception of a slightly lower price. As an example you may price something at 99cents instead of $1.00; or $49.95 instead of $50.00.

Advertising and Sales Forecast Projections – This is also known as sales projections, these are the predictions that sales people and sales managers are required to make about future business levels, necessary for their own organisation to plan and budget everything from stock levels, production, staffing levels, to advertising and promotion, financial performance and market strategies.

Advertising and Search Engine Marketing (SEM) – A form of online marketing aimed at increasing a given website’s visibility on a search engine results page (SERP) by both optimizing the website for indexing and purchasing ads or paid inclusions.

Advertising and Sponsorship – A company, group or individual who may help, most usually in a financial way, a team, an event, a sports meeting or concert, etc., in return for publicity or to advertise their own company or product in some way or another.

Advertising and Stealth Marketing – Also known as Buzz Marketing. This is a method or style of advertising a certain product where the prospects don’t realise they are being persuaded to buy some form of external persuasion such as existing customers, or well known individuals recommending a product on Internet Chat Forums, without those being sold to realising that the person is paid by the company or actually works for the company or manufacturer selling the product.

Advertising Concept – Referred to as a thought or notion that relates to an idea for a new product, an advertising campaign, or new marketing idea etc.

Advertising Direct Response – These are some of the ways of utilizing direct response marketing via advertising, mailers, letter box drops, emails, postcards, etc. to solicit interest from prospects and to receive responses (leads) that can be worked.

Advertising Directories – Sites that list and link to other sites, including online stores, are referred to as directories.  There are also physical directories such as business directories, yellow pages advertising directories, pink pages directories, telephone directories, specialist industry directories and internet directories, etc.

Advertising Flighting – Considered to be a cost effective method of advertising. This happens when a commercial is scheduled to appear on TV, usually when viewing figures are high (flight). There are periods in between the flights when the commercial does not appear on TV (hiatus). During the TV hiatus the product being advertised will often appear in newspapers or magazines, so the public is continually aware of it.

Advertising Footfall – The measure, tally or the extent of the numbers of people who visit a business or shop or another retail, leisure, or entertainment venue during any given period of time. Footfall is a crucial factor in modern retailing methods, and also in all forms of promotion and advertising which focuses on the physical presence – on foot – of prospects and consumers at a particular location.

Advertising in the Yellow Pages – A local or regional telephone directory, usually printed on yellow paper, which lists businesses, organisations, retailers, etc., in alphabetical order in categories according to the service they provide.  The Yellow Pages telephone directory classified section accepts visual advertisements based on the largest sized entries in front of the smaller sized entries.  Once that is established, each of the sizes have their placement determined by the size purchased governed by the date that size advertisement was signed for.

Advertising Leads – These are the sales opportunities that become available for a product or service. In fact, these opportunities may surface from responses to advertisements, referrals from a network, or through self generated initiatives in a market.

Advertising Mass Marketing – The process of marketing a product or service to the general public through the mass media, for example, TV, radio, newspapers and magazines.

Advertising Reference Pricing – A very widely used and usually a highly controversial marketing, advertising, or promotional tactic, where a selling company advertises a product (or less commonly a service), at what may be deemed a (usually heavily) discounted price compared to a (typically unfeasibly high) previous selling price, and commonly described by the seller as the ‘usual’ or ‘normal’ price (the ‘reference price’).

Advertising/Advertising and Promotion/A&P – These are the methods used by a company to publicise and position its products and services to its chosen market sectors, including product launches, image and brand building, press and public relations activities, merchandising (supporting and promoting the product in retail and wholesale outlets), special offers, generating leads and enquiries, and incentivising distributors, and agents, and arguably sales people.

Advertorial – This is a form of an advertisement in a magazine or newspaper that is mostly written like an article, giving facts rather than appearing as an advertisement for a product.  It can also be in the form of an article written by a journalist and then accompanied by an advertisement either above it, below it or on an adjacent page.  Advertorial prices may be higher or lower than a standard advertisement depending on whether this is an editorial feature or a one off.

Advisor – This is often considered the role many senior salespeople aspire to. Business advisors are perceived and looked to for counsel by their clients. They are highly trusted such that the customer does not want to make strategic business decisions (at least in regard to the sales organization’s product or service) before talking to one of these sales professionals. The best business advisor sales professionals are sought after for their counsel in areas not directly related to their product or service because they are perceived to have a high business acumen.

Advisory Think Tank – This occurs when a  group or organization which may research and/or advise on issues relating to technology, economy, politics, selling processes and social strategy invites a group of like-minded people together to collectively think-through solutions to a variety of challenges and/or specific problems confronting and industry or selling-based team or organization.

Advocate Executive Sponsor – Refers to someone in the organization who is an internal coach, supporting a financial solution to those being sponsored. This may also refer to the customer executive sponsor who is the primary advocate for the project or solution you are attempting to sell.

Advocate Internal Coach – Two words that typically refer to someone in the organization who is your internal coach, supporting your solution. This may also refer to the customer executive who is the primary advocate for the project or solution you are attempting to sell, e.g. Executive Sponsor.

Advocates – These are the people in the customer’s organization a salesperson works with who support the recommendation being offered to the prospect or client.

AdWords Pay Per Click (PPC) – Mostly refers to an online advertising model where the advertisers pay only when a prospect clicks on an advertisement and is then redirected to the advertiser’s website. Google’s AdWords platform is an example of pay-per-click promotion.

Affable Characteristics and Prominence – In any manner of sales compensation design, this factor refers to the level of influence a salesperson has within the sales process.  Most sales processes where the salesperson has an above average or somewhat high prominence, this reflects on a situation where a decision is made where its often due to the salesperson’s experience, understanding, affable characteristics and/or ability to be persuasive.

Affiliate – An affiliate is generally a company or person controlled by or connected to a larger organization.  In web marketing, an affiliate normally receives a commission for promoting another company’s products or services.  An affiliate may also be a publisher or site owner that forwards qualified web traffic to an online merchant on a pay-for-performance basis.  For this reason this person is called an affiliate in the context of online marketing.

Affiliate Links – A universally recognized (uniform) kind of resource locator (URL) that includes an affiliate’s identification number and additional information to make it easier for merchants to track affiliate activity through an affiliate link.

Affiliate Marketer Reseller – Relates to a company that purchases goods or services for the purpose of resale, not consumption. In web economics, a reseller may also be a form of affiliate marketer, promoting a re-branded product or service.

Affirmation and the Qualifying of a Prospect – The process required/applied when a salesperson or other source attempts to obtain any manner of verbal affirmation that a predetermined prospect is indeed the person capable of making a purchasing decision.

Affluent Yuppie – A term derived from the term Young Urban Professional. This term has been used since the 1980s to describe a young person who has a well-paid job and lives an affluent lifestyle.

Affordability Factor Pricing – The process used to evaluate the eventual price of a product by taking into account the cost of production, the price it was purchased by the seller at that point, the price of similar competing products, the market situation, and the affordability factor of the buyers at that point and the exclusivity of those goods or services in the available and determined marketplace.

Affordable Close – Any objections they have about price should be isolated and the seller should ensure the prospects can afford what is being sold.  If they still have a price issue, bring out a finance plan that fit’s their capacity to pay.  “How much can you afford to pay a month?  That seems a little shy, could you afford and extra $50 a month.  Good, on that amount we can do business.”

After the Presentation Close – After a sales meeting that does not result in a close, call the prospect and explain that it is a normal follow-up procedure with your company to make a follow-up call in order to build bridges between the prospective clients and the company.

Age Based Market Sector – An integral part of the market that can be described, categorised and then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics.  These sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, as an example, a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc.

Agenda Driven Sale – An attempted sale where there are multiple decision makers and influencers, who often have different requirements, applications and agendas. These types of complex sales typically take much longer than an average sale to organize before they are closed.

Agent / Broker – This is a person who has the authority (or is empowered) to represent a company or a company’s products and services. Agents and brokers are used by many selling organizations to capitalize on the agent’s/broker’s local presence and capacity to support the organization’s purpose or mission.

Agent Based Qualifying Leads – This relates to the process of assessing whether or not a prospect or customer or an alternate opportunity represents a potential fit for a specific product or service either supplied by a retailer, agent, distributor, wholesaler or manufacturer.

Agent Distributor – Notably an individual or company or a wholesaler that buys products, mostly from manufacturers, and then resells them to other wholesalers, agents, retail outlets or direct to customers.

Agent Maximum – In selling and sales compensation, this form of maximum refers to the maximum a salesperson or sales agent can earn in a given period.

Agent Overriding Commission – Refers to a commission paid to an agency or agency office manager based on the amount of business created by agents who work at that office.

Agent Quarterly Payout – A sales, agent or seller commission compensation payment term that is typically used to describe the frequency by which an incentive payment is made.

Agent Rack Jobber – This usually refers to a type of wholesale middleman (perhaps an agent or distributor) who agrees to maintain stock of convenience type merchandise and then fills allocated display racks or shelves in retail stores as needed by periodically checking the stock, and replenishing or topping up the inventory.

Agent Retainer – A fee paid in advance to someone, such as a salesperson, agent, lawyer etc., to engage their services as and when they are required.

Agent RFP (Request for Proposal) – An acronym  (RFPs) Request for Proposal is/are often used by prospects or customers to assess who will respond to, and/or evaluate solutions being posed either by the manufacturer, distributor, company, agent or salesperson in regards to a certain venture or market shift/movement

Agent RFP (Request for Proposal) Software – Software that enables an organization to create a library or repository of information containing the best content that can be used for responding to Requests for Proposals (RFPs). The software now allows a seller (and not the prospect or customer) to quickly search or browse for the best answers to the questions in a RFP and to easily respond to the RFP using that content.

Agent/Agency Channel – The process by which a business house or an organization prefers to use to sell their products and services. A company who uses their own sales force is said to have a “direct channel.” Other sales channels could include the use of distributors, wholesalers, retailers, agencies, etc.

Agents as Primary Influences – These generally relate to the overall direct and indirect primary influences on any company, in business at any point in time, and may include Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Sales Personnel, Distributors, Agents, Banks, Lenders, Vendors, Other Institutions, Stock-holders, etc.

Aggegate Profit Margin – Generally expressed as a percentage of the profits earned, in other words, what is left from a company’s sales after cost of goods sold is paid out. Gross profit margin is obtained by dividing the gross income by the net sales.

Aggregate Margin – The difference between the cost paid for goods sold and the price at which they were sold.

Aggressive Hard Sell – Refers to what many in sales may consider to be an over-the-top aggressive or overly forceful selling technique, made popular in the 1960s, and since then regaining popularity among advocates/practitioners of old-fashioned one-way sales methods, that constantly may use high pressure and cynical so called sales tactics to cajole customers to buy. This style of selling today is rarely successful and mostly never sustainable. Contrasts with ‘soft sell’.

Aggressive Selling – An aggressive type of selling which many consider unethical these days that puts a lot of pressure on a prospective customer to buy a product or a service from someone in the selling field currently that is unlikely to remain in sales for too long.

Aggressively Marketed Consumers – These are generally considered to be a part of the largest and technically lowest level of the company’s focus point as they are the easiest to sell to as they are the ones that actually use the products or services being more aggressively marketed to other harder to sell to sectors.            

Agile Development Method – A type of business development method which gets things moving quickly and adapts easily during the development of a project, as distinct from today’s conventional planning and project management implementation.

Agreeable Person with an Amiable Style – The prospect, customer or new buyer who takes an amiable approach is generally the one who is agreeable, devoted, responsible, warm hearted, considerate, caring, practical, patient, but is also the one that is generally mostly indecisive in everything.  Why?  Simply because this person does not like “rocking the boat” and try to be all things to all people.

Agreed Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Agreed Price Fixing – This is often an illegal, practice of prices being fixed, by agreement, by competing companies who provide the same goods or services as each other.

Agreed to Sales Target – When considered within a sales context this is generally the issued (or ideally agreed) minimum level of sales performance for a salesperson or a team or department over a given period of time. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, and future positions etc., may all be dependent on the nominated sales staff meeting sales targets. Targets are established at the beginning of a fiscal trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular reviews throughout the year. Also see forecasting.

Agreed Value Sale – This is a common way of establishing a considered or agreed value experienced by the customer as a result of the purchase of a product or service.  Salespeople who focus on communicating benefits and aligning those benefits to a customer’s business objectives, increase the likelihood of completing a sale.

Agreement Close – Used something like you would the assumptive close, but with the agreement close, the salesperson gives the prospect the offer and puts out his or her hand. This kind of gesture doesn’t give the prospect much time to think things through and hopefully encourages the seller close the sale.

Agreement Intermediary – A term used for a mediator or agent who negotiates between two parties who are unable or unwilling to reach an agreement by themselves.

Agreement Negotiation Hierarchy – The level of execution that may have to be touched to gain a favorable decision on a product or service. This may vary significantly fro customer to customer, yet it is an essential component of coming to an agreement in more involved sales a good proportion of the time.

Agreement Tangible – Whenever it is used in a selling context, this describes, or is, an acute aspect of the product or service on offer that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost, value and so on.  As an example, any physical feature of the product, spare parts, delivery, or installation, or a regular service visit, or a warranty agreement, and so on.

Agreement Terms of Credit or Sale The conditions or requirements within a sales contract, purchase order, or agreement, may include such shipping costs, minimums, payment options, or extension of credit.

AIDA – Acronym – Attention, Interest, Desire, Action – an early and fundamentally useful model/process for effective communications. They are the four steps of the Purchase Funnel (although most agree the funnel is more complex than what is represented in this traditional model), wherein customers travel from awareness to purchase. analysis and reporting of all sales related activities and data.  It is also called the ‘hierarchy of effects’ as we all buy things, and decide to change something, after passing through these four key stages. It is still considered by some to represent the essential components of selling.

Aimed Search Engine Marketing (SEM) – A form of online marketing aimed at increasing a given website’s visibility on a search engine results page (SERP) by both optimizing the website for indexing and purchasing ads or paid inclusions.

Alert to Red Flag – Slang term used to describe conditions that may present danger to or within the selling organization. This is generally used to highlight those areas the sales professional needs to be alert to, or must solve, in order to move the sale forward.

Aligned Sales Methodology – Refers to the “how” of the art of selling as a skill set.  The majority of sales methodology aligns to the customer buying decision process and the orientation, objectives, analysis, discussion, initiation, evaluation and decision processes and applicable methodologies.

Aligned Value Sale – This is a common way of establishing a considered or agreed value experienced by the customer as a result of the purchase of a product or service.  Salespeople who focus on communicating benefits and aligning those benefits to a customer’s business objectives, increase the likelihood of completing a sale.

Aligning Communications Styles – These can be the varying styles that a prospect or customer might project during a sales call. Aligning to each communications style can help bring commonality to the sales conversation.

Aligning Smarketing – This term is usually used to refer to the practice of aligning a variety of Sales and Marketing efforts.  In a perfect world, marketing would pass off lots of fully qualified leads to the sales team, who would then subsequently work every one of those leads enough times to close them anywhere from 50% to 100% of the time.  This isn’t always how it works, simply because it’s a key for Marketing and Sales to align their efforts to impact the bottom line the best they can through coordination through communication.

Alignment – This is generally considered to be the process of taking the elements of your offer to a customer and bringing those elements “into line” to match, or to be connected to the customer’s objectives.  Once the match or connection is achieved, so is the alignment.

Alignment Smarketing – Refers to the alignment of sales and marketing processes to make both teams stronger and more effective.

A-list – This is a usually compiled priority list of the most celebrated or sought-after companies or individuals in a given demographic locality or specific demographic grouping.  One may be on a number of A-lists of one commercial group in a number of adjacent areas and not make the A-list on any other similar commercial groups in that area.

All Become Winners with the Win-Win Process – Describes a situation, understanding or arrangement in which all parties benefit or profit.  It also describes a situation where all parties involved in a formal selling process meet their primary objectives and all become winners negotiation.

All Encompassing Consultative Selling Ideology – This implies that the salesperson is taking in the responsibility for a full, thorough, and all encompassing professional diagnosis for the challenge before them in order to suggest a solution – with no preconception as to the outcome.

All I’ve Got Close – When selling something, say that you only have a limited number of goods or a limited amount of time. As you do this you should be looking away from the prospect looking down slightly to the right while you deliver the message.  Some sellers say it works better if you look sad at the time.  By selling something under this limited tag, creates a tactic that implies that this is not only ‘limited offer’ but a ‘final offer’.  It also implies that your prospect should buy from you because it’s a good thing to do.

All Parties Win-Win – Describes a situation, understanding or arrangement in which all parties benefit or profit.  It also describes a situation where all parties involved in a formal selling process meet their primary objectives and all become winners negotiation.

All Things to All People Person with an Amiable Style – The prospect, customer or new buyer who takes an amiable approach is generally the one who is agreeable, devoted, responsible, warm hearted, considerate, caring, practical, patient, but is also the one that is generally mostly indecisive in everything.  Why?  Simply because this person does not like “rocking the boat” and try to be all things to all people.

Allegation – In sales, a consequence (either positive or negative) that occurs as a result of taking action, or of not taking action. Understanding and surfacing negative implications is often considered a strong selling strategy, as existence of negative implications often lead the customer to a buying decision.

Alleviating Pain Ladders – Alleviating pain is considered one of the more successful selling methodologies. Although many may consider this to be old-fashioned style selling, the pain ladder here refers to a formal leveled listing of the pain that has been affected and communicated by each of a salesperson’s key contacts in selling to a specific account. In fact, the pain ladder here reflects the pain levels of the key players involved in the selling process. By understanding the “pain” at each level within the organization, and the effect it would have upon the prospects being presented to, a sales professional is able to strategize on the solution that most alleviates the pain that is being felt.

Alliance Networking – The process of developing and maintaining alliances both externally and internally within a group or a wide variety of contacts that may be able to provide or retrieve additional information, insight, help, and access to others.  Also refers to an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on a number of referrals and introductions that help build a larger data base – either via a face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc.

Allocated Training Period – This usually refers to the amount of training time that needs to be allocated to a rookie salesperson before they are expected to meet quota or start producing the required sales results.

Allocation – In many sales organizations today, the word “budget” is usually a synonym for a quota or for the financial sales goal. The more traditional definition as used by prospects, customers and other organizations is the level of the resource allocated for a particular purpose.

Allocation and Territory Design – This is the process applied that primarily sales managers engage in to allocate territories in order to ensure potential exists, and to balance the opportunities among their sales team members. This is mostly done build a sense of equal opportunity within the sales force.

Ally and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Alpha Test – The first stage of testing a new product – especially computer software or hardware – and carried out by a nominated developer under controlled conditions.

Alter Those Restrictions – In sales and other forms of negotiation, this technique is often used to explore an individual’s ultimate requirements (needs) in order to progress the selling process. A salesperson might say, “Let’s assume that these constraints do not exist If that were the case, what would you like to see happen?”

Alternative Choice Close – This is a close in which the salesperson offers the prospect with two choices, both of which will usually end in a sale. “Would you prefer that in green or beige?”

Alternative Close – This is an easy closing style to use.  The salesperson simply offers the prospect a limited set of choices.  “Would you prefer the blue one or the green one?” “Can we meet this week or would next week be better?”

Alternative of Choice Close – This is a closing style where the seller gives the prospect two or more choices where all choices generally only need a ‘Yes’ response – and no matter which part of the question they respond to – any of the answers can be an agreement. “Would you be able to take the package home yourself, or would you like me to arrange delivery?” “You can pay with credit card or eftpos, or would direct debit work better for you?”

Alternative Option Close – The Alternative Option Close works by offering more than one clearly defined alternative option to the customer.  “Would you like it delivered next Tuesday or next Friday – or alternately which other day would suit you best?”

Alternative Solution – A summary of how a salesperson addresses a prospect’s challenge, or problem, or provides an opportunity to the prospect as a viable alternative. It generally includes the product or service the salesperson intends to sell, including the units, dollars involved, method, approach, etc. that is being recommended.

Alternative to Profit-centres – A business division or a department or a unit which is charged with the responsible of producing a profit.  This may be a shop unit within a chain of shops, or a branch within a network of dealerships.  Importantly a Profit-centre business unit will use a form of ‘Profit and Loss Account’ as a means of managing and reporting the business based on the fact that a profit centre is involved in selling to customers as an alternative to a Cost-centre, which primarily appears to be responsible for internal services and perhaps also the supply to other departments within the group.

Alternatives and Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Alternatives and Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Alternatives to Price Control – Refers to maximum and minimum price limitations, and is trotted out often during periods of inflation, during which a government may be forced to promote a variety of alternative but essential goods and/or services.

Always Be Connecting – This is a sales strategy that implies that everything a salesperson does through the sales process is in pursuit of looking after the prospect, and ultimately closing the sale.  If the salesperson is not focusing on doing what’s best for the customer, and/or working for the opportunity of getting the order in place, they are not selling in the professional sense.  Some people outside of sales imply this is a pressure tactic, whereas professional sellers suggest this is what it should be.  The salesperson is simply going about and doing what he or she are being paid for.  Also see ABC

Amalgamate – A process engaged into when two or more existing companies combine to form one larger organisation.  Many a times one of the two, or three, or more will lose their trading name and identity in favour of the one that has now become the dominating name.

Amazon – In the retail arena, Amazon is a multi-national online retailer with market capitalization exceeding $128 billion U.S. as of January 2013. Amazon also hosts a marketplace wherein other Internet companies may display and sell their products.  Amazon also offers several software-as-a-service and infrastructure-as-a-service solutions for business.

Amazon Multi-Channel Retailing – A form of retailing products through more than one channel where channels include online stores, online marketplaces like Amazon, physical stores, physical catalogs, and other similar factors.

Ambition – A quick (fast-track) route in a career to success and promotion, and is usually associated with high ambition and above average futurization.

Ambitious SMART Goal – A mnemonic used to describe the components of a well-defined and realistic goal statement.  It stands for a goal needing to be Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, and Time bound.

Amiable Style – The prospect, customer or new buyer who takes an amiable approach is generally the one who is agreeable, devoted, responsible, warm hearted, considerate, caring, practical, patient, but is also the one that is generally mostly indecisive in everything.  Why?  Simply because this person does not like “rocking the boat” and try to be all things to all people.

Amortize – A process where one gradually reduces and/or writes off the cost of an asset in a company’s accounts over a period of time.

Amounted Habits and Schedules – A salespersons regular sales schedules and habits which in turn dictate the amount of demonstrations and sales are ultimately made.

An Assumption Close – With this close the salesperson does not ask for the prospect’s decision at the time of assuming the close.  Instead the salesperson simply assumes that the prospect is buying and without further ado simply starts writing the order. They then should ask questions like, “Do you want to pay by cash, direct debit, or by credit card?” Then follow up with, “Where would you like this delivered?”

Analysed Sales Yield – A measure used by many selling organizations to track and analyse the results of selling efforts.

Analysis and Sales Methodology – Refers to the “how” of the art of selling as a skill set.  The majority of sales methodology aligns to the customer buying decision process and the orientation, objectives, analysis, discussion, initiation, evaluation and decision processes and applicable methodologies.

Analytical close – This is a unique close that is able to examine the pros and cons of different available options or otherwise analyze the prospect’s decision, leading him/her to a logical purchase option.  Once the close has been applied, the salesperson simply asks, “Is there anything else I should help you with?”

Analysis in Market Research – This is often referred to the process of gathering and analysing information about customers, competitors, etc., in order to make decisions and solve problems connected with selling products or services.

Analysis Sales Questions – Perhaps the most important type of questions are sales questions.  These questions are constantly at the root of effective selling, consulting, and coaching. There are generally four types of high-level analysis based questions, and these offer, Clarification, Cause, Implication, Quantify.  Moreover, each having its own role in the discovery process.

Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Ancillary Staff – These are the people who provide necessary support to the primary activities and work of an organization, including schools, hospitals, etc.

And That’s Not All Close – Based on a short and often used phrase and is a familiar phrase to those inclined to watch infomercials on a regular basis.  It’s also a technique may also involve rattling off a series of gifts or concessions to make more appealing.  There are several possible variations whenever this tactic is used.        

Annoying Name Dropping – This may be referred to a form of mentioning or the “dropping of names” that may make no sense to a prospect. On the other hand, when name dropping becomes obvious and possibly annoying to a prospect if he or she feels the salesperson is blatantly dropping names for personal gain or to brag for any reason.

Annual Sales Report/Reporting – A commonly used business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of salespeople too. A sales report can be required daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often may include the need to provide sales forecasts.

Annual Territory Business Plan – This is usually a hands-on, tactical process where each salesperson examines the performance of his/her territory over usually the previous 12-month period – or perhaps a shorter term such as a half-year, quarter or month. A Territory Business Plans will identify the strengths, weaknesses, competitive presence, opportunities for growth, and action plans for the upcoming period.

Annual Yield – This refers to the annual income earned from an investment, usually expressed as a percentage of the sum invested.

Another Call to Action – The-is refers to the process of asking for a commitment, although this may not necessarily be for a commitment to purchase.  Other types of commitment could be for another appointment, a future meeting, to bring in a more senior person, or the promise to explore specific issues with another decision maker within the same organization.

Answers for Pre-Call Briefing – The process usually led by a manager or coach and purposely involving a salesperson in order to strategize for a call, define certain desired objectives, prepare for those must answer questions, and build positive momentum for those necessary discussions with the prospect and/or existing customer.

Antagonistic Selling – An aggressive type of selling which many consider unethical these days that puts a lot of pressure on a prospective customer to buy a product or a service from someone in the selling field currently that is unlikely to remain in sales for too long.

Anticipated Cash Advance – In sales, this form of compensation generally refers to a cash advance in anticipation of future sales performance or sales written and the employer is waiting out the cooling off period before the commission can be paid.  It is sometimes seen as a way to provide a salesperson with cash compensation without providing them with a guaranteed salary. Draws against are typically recovered against future commission payments the salesperson earns. Some commissions only sales organizations offer “non-recoverable draws, often considered similar to a temporary salary, during the first months of the salesperson’s employment.

Anticipated Proactive Selling – This refers to those salespeople that tend to take action without being asked to, or take action before it is absolutely necessary.  These actions are considered to be proactive.  In most cases, proactive salespeople are the ones that commit to anticipating the key issues and suggest a possible solution or suggestion to what they consider to be blatantly obvious.

Any Question Close – The salesperson should never assume that whatever way you approach the sales procedure, your explanation of any process, or features, or even the benefits, is perfect.  It’s this simple, ask, “Do you have any questions?” Wait briefly, decide if you need to ask the question immediately, or stall things by saying, “If you can allow me a little time, I’ll be covering that point shortly,” then go on with the presentation.

Any Reason We Can’t Proceed Close – The Any Reason We Can’t Proceed Close, in the simplest of terms, this is a great close. This close works exactly the way it says it does, and assuming the salesperson has followed the selling process, and presented a solution, your closing question could simply be, “Is there any reason we can’t proceed with _______”

Anything Close-itis – This usually refers to a common salesperson syndrome, mainly recognizable by an overwhelming desire to do or say something, in fact say anything to a superior, or sales manager, that the prospect (or existing client) does mean to buy something, although it may not be happening at this point in time.  Most superiors and managers will also suggest that the salespersons time could be better spent looking elsewhere for the business.

Anything Else You Need to Know – As the seller gets close to the end of the selling process, the seller needs to be sure that they have addressed all the prospects wants, needs and concerns. So instead of asking, “What do I need to do to sell you this product?” which may possibly sound like a high-pressure sales tactic, yet so many salespeople won’t think twice about asking, the seller should substitute it with, “Is there anything else you need to know?”

AP (Advertised Price) – Known as the ’Label Price’ in Australia and as the ‘Sticker Price’ in the USA. Both locations refer to the List Price as the advertised price (AP) or recommended retail price (RRP) of a product.

Apathy – An attitude that is expressed by a customer when they perceive no need, or because they are satisfied with their current product or service.

Apathy Selling/Apathy Marketing – A sales or marketing method which assumes a prospect or prospective customer’s agreement or ‘opt-in’ to a sales proposition or contract unless the prospective customer actively refuses or ‘opts-out’. Usually this sort of marketing is generally considered illegal, especially where a commercial supply of this nature is explained in ‘small print’, or not at all, although many organizations flout the law, which places the onus on the customer to seek redress/recovery/escape. The technique applies to privacy and personal rights, as well as purchasing and contract extensions, and especially conversion of free or low-cost trials into chargeable contracts.

Apology CloseThis can be a tricky close where the salesperson apologizes for not closing the sale at that stage of the presentation. “John, I owe you an apology, because for some reason I must have left out important information.  But we both this product suits you perfectly, and I apologise that we have this situation now – I’m sorry, truly sorry.”

Apparent Needs-Creation Selling – This relates to a selling style that was popularised in the 1970s and 80s which than asserted that sales people could create needs in a prospect for their products or services even if no needs were apparent, obvious or even existed. This method was one that required the salesperson to question the prospect in order to identify, discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product or service being sold. However, time proved that this method was no substitute for good research and proper targeting of prospects who have both the need and use of the products and services being sold at the time of the call.

Apparent Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Appeal and Target Salary – This generally refers to a form of sales compensation within a business, that concerns itself with the mix of salary and incentive that is generally universally considered necessary in making a job appealing to attract a qualified set of candidates for a specific type of sales position.

Appeal Feature – A characteristic of a product or service or the distinct part of a product or service that can be described. It may also refer to an aspect of a product or service, eg., colour, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc.  Salespeople often believe features sell products, but it is the benefit of a feature that is more attributable for the sale.  It also refers to a function of a product that can solve for a potential buyer’s need or pain point; usually a distinguishing characteristic that helps boost appeal.

Appeal Marketing Mix 4Ps – In marketing strategies, this refers to the set of tools an individual salesperson or sales organization uses to appeal to a certain market segment. The “4Ps” of the marketing mix are Products, Price, Promotion, and Place.

Appeal Mass Market – Describes those products or services which are considered to have mass market appeal and are aimed at large numbers of people or a whole population.

Appeal of the Test Market – In a marketing sense, this usually relates to a product or service which is usually tested in a particular area of the country before it is launched nationally.  In fact, it relates to a process of evaluating the appeal of a product or service generally by selecting cities, prospects, existing customers and locations in which to introduce the product or service, and monitor its receptivity by those intended users.

Appeal Principle Close – Whenever the seller appeals to the prospects values and other known basic motivators, very few of them are able to resist.  This is primarily because we live by our values and other rules adopted from society, laws, religion and peer group pressure that both give strong direction to, and in many cases will influence our behaviour.

Appealing Positioning – A calculated methodology that refers to a business and marketing strategy to “position” a product or service in the minds of consumer, thereby appealing to the prospective buyer segment for which that particular positioning has value, and will  hopefully elicit an valuable buying response.

Appliance White Goods – Refers mainly to large domestic electrical appliances, such as kitchen ranges, washing machines, dryers, freezers, fridges, etc.

Application Negotiation – Negotiation can have multiple meanings depending on the individual or the application. For some, it is the process of exploring known positions and alternatives to reach outcomes that gain the acceptance of all or some of the parties in negotiation with the presenter.  However, in many forms of selling, many believe that negotiatory process only begins when the known selling skills are exhausted and impasse is reached. Therefore, it is considered that negotiation focuses on overcoming the impasse, and working through the differences to eventually reach agreement on any negotiated financial terms, conditions, volumes and deliverable processes.

Application Programming Interface (API) – An API is a procedure created to allow separate software solutions to communicate over a relatively simple interface. For this reason Software Developers will often use APIs to connect or integrate systems and services.

Application Service Provider (ASP) – This is used to describe an organization who offers a service, which is typically technology oriented and can be viewed over the internet, as a primary method of doing business.

Application Telesales – This refers to the procedure of selling using the phone and covers both the application of inbound and outbound calls. While outside salespeople may consider they generally and consistently sell over the phone, this term primarily refers to specialised outbound call centers.

Appointment Call to Action – The-is refers to the process of asking for a commitment, although this may not necessarily be for a commitment to purchase.  Other types of commitment could be for another appointment, a future meeting, to bring in a more senior person, or the promise to explore specific issues with another decision maker within the same organization.

Appointment Cold Calling – The old fashioned way of making contacts with possible prospects (via the phone or in person) to attempt to set an appointment, conduct a phone or in person sales presentation, and ultimately close a sale.

Appointment Credibility in Sales – This is the degree that people that matter (the prospects and clients) find it easy (and worthwhile) to believe in the ideologies expressed by the salesperson.  Short term credibility is never the yard-stick that a sale is made on, but what the buyer believes will be able to hold-over into the long term.  On the other hand those that believe that all they need is to have enough credibility to make the appointment, or to get through a single meeting with a prospect are the ones that the prospect will usually deem have no credibility at all.           

Appointment Goals Board – A thick paper board, document or electronically inspired printed artwork to track prospecting approaches, appointed calls, presentations made and sales achieved.

Appointment Goals Card – A paper card, document or electronic device to track prospecting approaches, appointed calls, presentations made and sales achieved.

Appointment Introductory Letter – This is a very effective way to improve appointment-making success, and to open initial dialogue, especially for selling to large organisations.

Appointment Pre-Approach – An obvious two word statement used to describe the activities a competent salesperson engages in either prior to making contact with a prospect, and/or after an appointment is made. This could include researching the prospect’s business, assessing if a competitor is currently entrenched, determining the point of entry with the most potential, completing a pre-call plan worksheet, etc.

Appointment Sales Calls – These are calls made by phone or in-person or through contacts to flush out prospects, or to set an appointment, or to conduct a sales presentation or a sales conversation over the phone .

Appointment Telemarketing – This refers to any pre-sales activity that may be conducted by telephone, usually by specially trained telemarketing personnel that are able to research, make appointments, provide services and promote products.

Appointment – This amounts to nothing less than a personal sales visit to a prospect, or client and is usually arranged over the phone prior to making the visit.

Appointments and NSA’s – This generally relates to any actions that are not directly related to “sales-related-activities” (and usually may exclude prospecting, setting appointments, demonstrations, closing the sale etc). NSA examples may include “surfing the web,” and including “obsessive email/voicemail checking.”

Appointments and Sales Related Activities – This refers to those actions that are usually and directly related to closing a sales call at the demonstration stage. This will usually include prospecting, setting appointments, doing product demonstrations, and attempting to close the sale.  Prospecting and setting appointments can sometimes be performed through marketing systems.

Appointments and Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

Appointments Made Social Proof – This is the real world evidence that a salespersons solution for a certain individual or business challenge works.  This evidence may take the part of a testimonial or other similar kinds of proof, however, the best proof is still the amount of sales made at the lowest conversion rate.  And the more sales made, the better the social.

Appraisal – This is a review of performance, capability, needs, etc., that are typically of any employee.  The full measure of this, in it’s full term is normally individual ‘performance appraisal’.

Apprehensions and Objections – A term often used in sales organizations or sales processes when a prospect challenges or rejects a salesperson’s suggestion, or when the prospect brings up issues that prevent the sale from moving forward.  Alternately it may refer to a prospect’s challenge to or the rejection of a product or service, as a natural part of the sales process.  However, these days, many sales organizations tend to be moving away from the word “objection,” preferring to use a more collaborative term such as “concerns” to describe the same reaction by the prospect.  Regardless of the term used, how a salesperson handles the situation will determine whether a sale will be made.

Approach and Solution – A summary of how a salesperson addresses a prospect’s challenge, or problem, or provides an opportunity to the prospect as a viable alternative. It generally includes the product or service the salesperson intends to sell, including the units, dollars involved, method, approach, etc. that is being recommended.

Approach Close – This is an interesting closing formats generally used at the beginning of the sales presentation. With this closing style the purpose is to get the prospect to make a commitment to a decision at the end of your presentation rather than having to saying afterwards, “I have to think it over.”

Approach of a Strategic Plan – This is usually the approach the individual, team or company will use to market and sell products, services and solutions to a buyer market whether it be to the end consumer, direct sales, retailers, wholesales, distributors or the internet.

Approaches and Sales Process Engineering – This refers to the extent an organization takes to examine its selling practices and then uses this information to transform them to new behaviors, approaches, and strategies.

Approaching Event – An upcoming event that is expected to occur created to drive the rationale for a customer making a decision for your product or service.

Appropriate Benefits Solutions Selling – This is a common description for a more customer-orientated selling method that is dependent on identifying prospect wants and needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a formal package or a specified solution. This term is based on the premise that prospects don’t buy products or features or benefits – but instead buy solutions to their organizational challenges and problems.  Some say that it’s a similar approach to what is loosely known as ‘needs-creation’ selling. Solutions selling remains relevant in modern selling and its methods can usefully be included in an open plan selling style.

Appropriation – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Approval – Generally a favorable attitude response expressed by an existing customer for a salesperson’s recommendation or solution that has met or exceeded expectations.

Approval Process Sales Force Automation (SFA) – This relates to automating the sales activities within an organization. A comprehensive SFA software solution provides functions such as contact management and account management, workflow and approval processes, sales lead and opportunity tracking capabilities, note and information sharing, quick proposal and presentation generation, product configurators, calendars and to-do lists and reporting capabilities.

Aptitude Employment Equity – A system that promotes equal employment opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender, race, ability, etc.

Arbiter – A person who settles a dispute or has the ultimate authority to decide the outcome of a matter under dispute.

Arbitrator – An independent person or body of people officially appointed to settle a dispute.  This is another name for a person who settles a dispute or has the ultimate authority to decide the outcome of a matter under dispute.

Archive/Archives – A collection of records that are no longer active.  Whenever the pluralised version is used (archives) it too means the same, when referring to the place of storage.

Area Group Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Area Market Test – The testing of a product or service in several capital cities, states and pre-determined areas of the country to see if customers will like it and want to buy it.

Area of Focus – A salespersons pre-determined “area of focus,” is an area from which they allowed to obtain sales. Most sales territories are organized by post codes, zip codes or geographical boundaries.. Many sales territories are also “protected,” meaning that those companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and disallow another salesperson to sell in that pre-determined sales territory.

Area Potential – A term used openly in sales to evaluate a salesperson’s assessment, either in dollars, or units and/or relationship, of doing business with a particular area, region, company, group or individual customer.

Area Territory Design – This is the process applied that primarily sales managers engage in to allocate territories in order to ensure potential exists, and to balance the opportunities among their sales team members. This is mostly done build a sense of equal opportunity within the sales force.

Areas of Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Arousing Sale – A Prospect that for a variety of reasons is emotionally “wanting” your product or service. Your Prospect is excited and interested.

Arranged Pre-Call Plan – This refers to the salesperson’s written description of either the determined objectives for the call, the key questions that will be asked during the call, and/or the strategy that will be taken in order to move the sales process forward in a positive manner.

Art of Sales Methodology – Refers to the “how” of the art of selling as a skill set.  The majority of sales methodology aligns to the customer buying decision process and the orientation, objectives, analysis, discussion, initiation, evaluation and decision processes and applicable methodologies.

Articles in a Research Dossier – This may typically represent a collection of a salesperson’s notes, articles and collateral that is gathered during the planning phase of the sales process. Having a prospect’s or customer’s unique research dossier with on a call, the salesperson communicates to the prospect or customer that they have done their homework properly and have their best interests at heart.

Artifact First Mover – An individual, a business, an organization or a charity that obtains an advantage by being the first (first mover) to establish a specific market or by establishing  itself in a specific market by producing a new product or offering a new service, or by being the first to use new technology.

Artisan Close – In this close the salesperson show cases the skill and ability that has gone into the creation of the product or service that is being sold. “It may seem like a simple adjustment here on this unit, but it took the engineering team three years of training to know how to make the right adjustment.”

Artistic Needs-Creation Selling – This relates to a selling style that was popularised in the 1970s and 80s which than asserted that sales people could create needs in a prospect for their products or services even if no needs were apparent, obvious or even existed. This method was one that required the salesperson to question the prospect in order to identify, discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product or service being sold. However, time proved that this method was no substitute for good research and proper targeting of prospects who have both the need and use of the products and services being sold at the time of the call.

Ask Directly Close – With this closing style the salesperson simply asks the prospect directly if they want to buy.  Far too often, far too many salespeople are discouraged from using this technique unless they are really sure the prospect is ready to buy.  “Is this what you want?” “Are you ready to take this to the next level?” “Are you ready to buy now?”

Ask for the Order Close – One of the things that is important for the seller to understand is, once having presented to your customer in a professional manner EVERY salesperson has the right to ask for the order, and what’s more, your prospect or customer expects you to do so.

Ask the Manager Close – A favorite in the car industry.  The seller suggest he or she only has the authority to discount a certain amount. Any more, and they have to ask the manager.  But don’t come back right away and make it look like you’re trying to persuade your manager.

Ask Three Why’s – The word ‘why’ is considered to be one of the most powerful words used in the art of selling. By learning the “why” of something, salespeople often learn the reasons the prospects try and cover their needs or behaviors. By asking three ‘why’s’ in the course of a question specific conversation, the salesperson is usually able to find the real want or need a prospect / customer may have. Asking a series of different ‘whys’ while questioning normally requires the salesperson maintaining a neutral, curious tone, so as not to be perceived as overtly challenging a prospects or customers statement.

Ask Trial Closing Questions – This is the technique where a salesperson asks a minor buying question to test a prospect’s level of temperament (a temperature tester) towards the purchase.  It’s a technique by which a salesperson tests the prospect’s readiness to buy, traditionally employed in response to a buying signal.  There is also no need to immediately respond to a buying once one becomes obvious.  Simply pause, and ask politely why a certain factor is the question is key.  They may ask, “Does it come in green?” to which the seller may reply, “If I can get you one in green, would you take it?”

Asking Consequences – Those things that will happen if an action or condition continues, or is static and not alleviated.  Superior salespeople focus on asking questions based on consequence as an integral part of their sales process. These questions are powerful because they help the salesperson and the customer explore the long and short-term effects of addressing, or not addressing, their business issues, or those of capitalizing on available opportunities.

Asking for a Call to Action – The-is refers to the process of asking for a commitment, although this may not necessarily be for a commitment to purchase.  Other types of commitment could be for another appointment, a future meeting, to bring in a more senior person, or the promise to explore specific issues with another decision maker within the same organization.

ASP – Acronym – Application Service Provider. – This is used to describe an organization who offers a service, which is typically technology oriented and can be viewed over the internet, as a primary method of doing business.

Aspect Tangible – Whenever it is used in a selling context, this describes, or is, an acute aspect of the product or service on offer that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost, value and so on.  As an example, any physical feature of the product, spare parts, delivery, or installation, or a regular service visit, or a warranty agreement, and so on.

Aspirational Brand – A brand or a product which people admire and believe is of high quality – and wish to own because they think it could give them a higher social position.

Aspiring Sales Advisor – Often is the next career role many senior salespeople aspire to attain or develop into. Business advisors are perceived to be good at what they do and are looked to for counsel. In fact, many are that highly trusted that the customer does not want to make strategic business decisions (at least in regard to the sales organization’s products or services) before talking to the sales professional advisor. The best business advisor sales professionals are sought after for their counsel generally in areas not directly related to their product or service because they are perceived to have higher than usual business acumen.

Assertive Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Assertive Selling – An aggressive type of selling which many consider unethical these days that puts a lot of pressure on a prospective customer to buy a product or a service from someone in the selling field currently that is unlikely to remain in sales for too long.

Assessable SMART Goal – A mnemonic used to describe the components of a well-defined and realistic goal statement.  It stands for a goal needing to be Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, and Time bound.

Assessing Qualifying Leads – This relates to the process of assessing whether or not a prospect or customer or an alternate opportunity represents a potential fit for a specific product or service either supplied by a retailer, agent, distributor, wholesaler or manufacturer.

Assessment Close – Assessment Closing is a kind of preliminary testing to see where the possibility of a sale may be at, at that point in time during the presentation.  Some salespeople may refer to this as a form of Trial or Test closing.  “Does this seem to be the kind of solution you are looking for?”

Assessment Potential – A term used openly in sales to evaluate a salesperson’s assessment, either in dollars, or units and/or relationship, of doing business with a particular area, region, company, group or individual customer.

Asset Investment – Money or capital that is primarily invested in a business or in an account with a financial institution in order to make a profit or earn interest.

Asset Stripping – This is where someone buys a financially stricken company and then sells off its assets with no thought for the future of the company or its people, staff, customers, etc.

Asset Working Capital – Also known as Net Current Assets Capital. This refers to the amount of funds which are made available to an individual, an enterprise or a company for its everyday running costs, such as wages, overheads, rent, etc.

Assets – Anything that is of value which is owned by an individual, company, organization, etc.   

Assist Profits Value Proposition – Also known as “Value drop” for short.  In other words, a key benefit for purchasing a product or dealing with a company intending to make the purchase more attractive to a potential buyer/s by markedly differentiating itself from its competitors.  This may also refer to a presentation by a salesperson, or a sales organizations broad statement of the value of an offer.  But to many, the value is seen as a situational proposition by many.  On the other hand, in sales, a key way to be perceived as adding value is by demonstrating how the product or service may increase potential revenues, assist profits, or reduce costs.

Associate Referrals – Obtaining additional profile information about other possible prospects from a current prospect or customer, associate, client, neighbour or family member.

Assume a Trial Close – This is the technique where a salesperson asks a minor buying question to test a prospect’s level of temperament (a temperature tester) towards the purchase.  It’s a technique by which a salesperson tests the prospect’s readiness to buy, traditionally employed in response to a buying signal.  There is also no need to immediately respond to a buying once one becomes obvious.  Simply pause, and ask politely why a certain factor is the question is key.  They may ask, “Does it come in green?” to which the seller may reply, “If I can get you one in green, would you take it?”

Assume the Sale Close – If the salesperson works using a thoroughly pre-prepared and carefully structured selling structure, the salesperson has more than likely earned to assume that the prospect is going to buy, then during the presentation the seller will subtly allow the prospect to both feel and observe that you are assuming that they will become your customer.

Assumed Question Close – This is a simple closing style, the salesperson simply asks an assumptive question and then works at closing the sale by asking an assumptive question similar to, “I’ll use this company address for billing purposes. Is the morning or the afternoon the best time to have it delivered?”  Followed up with, “Will you have the manpower necessary to offload the delivery?”

Assumption Close – This is a close that could change the prospect’s thinking away from a, ‘yes’ or a ‘no’ decision.  Amongst the salespeople I know, a really popular method of closing.  And this close is one that the seller maintains control and can close things down at his/her discretion. “How does what we have agreed to so far sound to you?”

Assumption Pro-Forma – This refers to the process of preparing a hypothetical income statement for customers, generally based on a given set of assumptions. As an example, a sales professional may need to prepare a pro-forma of revenues anticipated based on the result of a solution being accepted, and when compared to the costs being incurred.

Assumptive Alternative Close – In order to maximize impact, ask a question that does not let a ‘no’ come into the equation. Such a question involves giving alternative choices to the prospect other than a straight ‘yes’ or ‘no’. “Which of these three units seems best for you, the first, second or perhaps the third?”

Assumptive Close – Here the seller assumes the close, assumes the price is OK and assumes it’s what the prospect wants. It’s all about the salesperson being confident the sale has been made before it is signed for. There is pressure on buyer to say no, but if they agree with the assumptions, saying no is difficult.

Assumptive Closing – acting as if they are ready to decide.

Assumptive Statement close – With this close the salesperson asks an assumptive question and works at closing the sale by asking an assumptive question similar to, “I’ll use your office address for billing purposes. Is the morning is the best time of day to have it delivered to your warehouse?”

ATL Marketing – This is a form of marketing and advertising through any manner of selected mass-media.  This could be television, radio, newspapers, magazines, Internet, etc., which is less personal than.  Many Below The Line Marketing. Companies usually use advertising agencies for ATL marketing. See marketing.

ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) – An informal but common term for a cash dispensing machine, also called a Hole in the Wall

Atmosphere and Ice Breaker Statement – This refers to the first sentence or two (usually prepared and rehearsed) a salesperson could say to a prospect at the first meeting for a specific product, services or solutions presentation.  This could also be used on a following-on or follow-up call by a relational representative or salesperson.  Mostly it is used to settle down the atmosphere and to create a thought-provoking introduction a vitally important idea, new concept or innovative way of doing something previously thought of as conventional.  Similar to the concept of using attention grabbing statements but with a more direct focus.

Attachment – This is a document or file that is added or attached as a supplementary item, rather than an essential part of something larger or considered more important.

Attainable Target Performance – In sales organizations, this may be the term used to describe one or more attainable performance goals around which that business considers and/or may prepare one or more compensation plans.

Attendee of Wholesale Trade Shows – There bare generally larger to massive sized temporary marketplaces, that can offer hundreds or at times thousands of exhibitor booths by manufacturers, producers, representatives, importers, and distributors. Only buyers from that trade or industry (e.g. retailers and distributors) are the one that may register as an attendee and obtain pass access.

Attention Grabbing Statement Pre-call Notes – These are the notes taken by a salesperson during any pre-call research that will or can be used to prepare an effective opening attention grabbing statement, and to create the necessary strategy for the call.

Attention Mirroring – Mirroring relates to the gestures, body movements, and mannerisms by which a person communicates their outlook or frame of mind. Paying attention to and reading body language can provide valuable insight in the selling process.

Attention to Detail Close – There are certain groups, professions and individuals that thrive on attention to detail.  In fact, needing to acquire detail before a purchase is made can be the driving force (or the ‘hot button’) that tips the buyer who insists on more and more detail into signing on the dotted line.  “Do you feel you could you better use the second option, or do you still want to go with the first option I showed you?”

Attitude – The frame of mind of a professional seller or sales manager.  The Attitude of these people is considered extremely important in the world of sales, as it drives compelling behavior to a level where the seller closes one sale after another – this is called being in the zone. A salesperson’s ability to assess the attitude of the customer is equally important. Being able to align with or address a wide range of customer attitudes is always essential in effective selling

Attitude and Customer Service – This denotes the attitude, service level, policies, and other intangible activities put forth toward prospects and customers by a business (including front line employees) in conjunction with the basic goods and services it sells.

Attitude and Misunderstanding – An attitude communicated by a prospect or customer about something that is generally believed to be true, when in effect, it is not true. The salesperson’s objective, therefore, is to simply clear up the misunderstanding.

Attitude and Sales Mind-Set – The frame of mind of a salesperson or a sales manager may be in at a specific time in the selling process. Attitude is considered to be extremely key in the world of sales, as it drives compelling behavior. A salesperson’s ability to assess the attitude of the customer is equally key in the selling process, and being able to align with or address a wide range of customer attitudes is essential in effective selling

Attracting – This is the process of winning over, attracting, and highly involving the end consumer (or customer).  In many of the more consultative roles, it can also mean the process of being secured to perform a pre-defined task or service.

Attraction Based Target Salary – This generally refers to a form of sales compensation within a business, that concerns itself with the mix of salary and incentive that is generally universally considered necessary in making a job appealing to attract a qualified set of candidates for a specific type of sales position.

Attraction Market Penetration Price – A lower than usual price at which a new product is offered when it first comes onto the market, in order to attract customers, after which the price is usually increased.

Attraction Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Attraction Niche or Target Market – Distinct and definable segments of generally a larger market segment that a business may seek to attract and satisfy individuals or groups with targeted goods and/or services directly or indirectly suitable for the niche market.

Attractive Value Proposition – Also known as “Value drop” for short.  In other words, a key benefit for purchasing a product or dealing with a company intending to make the purchase more attractive to a potential buyer/s by markedly differentiating itself from its competitors.  This may also refer to a presentation by a salesperson, or a sales organizations broad statement of the value of an offer.  But to many, the value is seen as a situational proposition by many.  On the other hand, in sales, a key way to be perceived as adding value is by demonstrating how the product or service may increase potential revenues, assist profits, or reduce costs.

Attrition – This is the process of reducing the number of work employees in an organisation by not replacing the people who leave their jobs.

Auction – A preferred marketing option where the seller lists the property without a price, supported by very intensive marketing campaign leading buyers to the auction day.  It’s not until the auction where the buyers must bid against each other to successfully purchase your property in an unconditional situation.

Auction Site Listing Fees – Today’s established marketplaces and online auction sites, like eBay, may charge a nominal listing fee for posting products for sale on their site.

Auctioneer – Person holding a Real Estate Auctioneer’s License who is able to conduct auctions.

Australian Sales Territory – This relates to the pre-zoned geographical area of responsibility assigned to a salesperson, a sales team or sales organization. A few generations ago, in Australia, a field-based salespersons territory would commonly be a zoned area within a state or the state itself. In the USA a field-based salespersons territory would be a region, a county or a state.  Now days, as fact-to-face selling is becoming more costly, so much more of the selling is done online, or remotely by telephone, so field-based sales territories are now much larger and can be two, three or 10 times larger.

Authorised Encryption – The ability to convert data into a code form which cannot (and should not) be easily understood by people who have no authorisation to view it.

Authority and Network of Influence – These are the systems people in authority including, decision makers, directors, community leaders, councilors, influencers and to a lesser extent, consumers try to influence productivity within a target organization.  Most people in this grouping are able to temporarily act at a level below, but will almost never accept a role a level above.  Once the group is underway, most of those in some form of leadership will abandon the post and return to their normal role within the community.

Authority Buyer Qualification – This refers to the process of determining whether a potential buyer has obvious and certain characteristics that qualify him or her as a leader.  These characteristics could be budget, authority, time line and so on.

Authority Decision Maker – This refers to an individual (or group of individuals) who are in a position to make the final decision to purchase (or not to purchase) whatever is being sold at the time.

Authority Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Authorization – A payment on a card transaction performed specifically to determine if the payment account has sufficient funds to complete a given transaction.

Authorization Close – The seller describes the plan of action, and at the end of the selling process the seller simply places an X on the signature line and wraps things up as if the prospect had said, “I’ll take it.” Then as the prospect accepts the order form (even if it not signed), the seller then reinforces the sale adding, “Good, I’ll take care of all the details.” The fact is, most times the customer didn’t know how much he or she wanted to buy until the salesperson offered to take care of all the details.

Authorized Distributor – A manufacturer-approved or designated distributor able to sell products in quantity to commercial customers such as Internet retailers.

Authorized Retailer – A manufacturer-approved or designated retailer enable to sell products directly to consumers.

Auto Lease Purchase – A finance purchase agreement in which an item, generally a car, is leased for a certain period of time with an option to purchase at the end of the contract.

Autocratic – Offensively a self-assured or given to being able to exercise unwarranted power. This person spends their time expecting to be obeyed and does not care about the opinions and feeling of others. See X-Y Theory.

Automatic Reciprocation Close – A win/win situation close with an unexpected twist usually unnoticed by the buyer – where the seller wins more often than not.  As you make the closing offer, extend your hand for a handshake, smile and nod as if the deal is done, look expectant and if necessary raise your eyebrows slightly.  Then say, “Are you ready to buy from me today?”

Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) – An informal but common term for a cash dispensing machine, also called a Hole in the Wall

Automation Proposal Software – Proposal automation software refers to newly created software that automates the creation, delivery and acceptance of a personalized sales proposal that is designed to theoretically best meet a buyer’s needs.

Automotive Lemon – Mostly refers to a defective product which is either of poor quality and/or fails to function as promised. Predominantly used in the automotive industry, and more specifically for a poor-quality second-hand car, or a sub-standard new vehicle.

Automotive Marque – Primarily refers to a brand name or model of a well-known manufactured product, especially an expensive car.

Autonomous Sales Representative – A singular person or couple working as a commission-only seller, salesperson or sales representative without the benefit or support of a larger organization.

Availability Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Availability Pricing – The process used to evaluate the eventual price of a product by taking into account the cost of production, the price it was purchased by the seller at that point, the price of similar competing products, the market situation, and the affordability factor of the buyers at that point and the exclusivity of those goods or services in the available and determined marketplace.

Available Segmentation – The division of a market into discrete smaller units that generally have similar characteristics. This in turn allows a selling organization to focus on the unique needs of each segment, and to develop strategies to capitalize on the different opportunities available as the needs of each segment.

Available Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

Average Dollar Per Sale – (ADPS) – Refers to the average dollar per sale which can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period of time by the number of sales made (closed sales) during the same period of time.

Average Dollar Per Sale: (ADPS) – Your average dollar per sale can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period by the number of sales made (closed sales.)

Average Time Sales Cycle in Brief – The sales cycle in short represents the average amount of time it may take from getting a suspect interested enough to become a prospect and the appropriate time cycle needed to progress them to become a client/customer.  That time cycle varies from industry to industry and company to company.  Over time a time frame formula will emerge to suit the individual business associated with sales.

Avoidance Flight Capital – The on-going movement of large sums of money from one of investment to another, or from one country to another.  This is generally done to avoid high taxes or financial instability due to political unrest.

Avoidance Stall – A condition that exists when a prospect avoids making a decision and, in essence, puts the entire sales process on hold. Stalls often happen due to hidden issues the prospect faces and is unwilling to share them with the salesperson.

Awaiting Event – An upcoming event that is expected to occur created to drive the rationale for a prospect or customer making a decision for a salespersons product or service.

Awkwardness Close – With is close you can work at making them feel somewhat awkward (if not ashamed) of the current product they use, or the inaction of not buying a more appropriate or undated product.  It is easy to show them how unfashionable they are, and how others may consider them to be staid in their ways.

 

Sales Dictionary

Sales Dictionary entries in B

Go to . . . A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

B-2-B – A sales organization whose primary focus is selling to and doing business with other businesses.

Awkwardness Close – With this close you can work at making them feel somewhat awkward (if not ashamed) of the current product they use or their inaction over not buying a more appropriate or updated product.  It is easy to show them how unfashionable they are and how others may consider them to be staid in their ways.

B2B (Business-to-Business) Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in Telecoms and IT sectors).

B-2-C – A business oriented sales organization whose primary effort is selling to and doing business with consumers, or with individual users.

Back Room Inside Sales – This term refers to those sales professionals who typically work over the phone, or behind the counter in a retail or warehouse based establishment.

Background BOAT – Acronym – Background, Objective, Achieve, Time. This acronym is mainly used to recall and remember certain factors the salesperson wants to consider in their opening statement with a customer.  The use of the acronym of Background, Objective, Achieve, Time is a powerful way to establish the basis of the call and can be one to use as a form of revision as well – either prior to closing the sale or as a button up to the sale.

Background Profile – Researched information regarding leads or determined prospects such as first and last name, best time to call, background information, possible needs, and most importantly, names in common that salespeople can use to create and build rapport.

Backwards Close – Imagine starting a sales presentation in reverse order. Instead of qualifying and probing at the beginning of the call, you were asking for referrals and discovering additional selling opportunities.  To the majority of salespeople this process will seem insane.  This technique, when executed well, is not only an effective sales tool but usually is one of the least stressful closes you, and your prospects, could ever experience.

Back-Order – Products ordered but not shipped, generally due to a depleted manufacturer’s inventory.

Back-out – A consumer who is trying to or did manage to cancel their order.

Back-Scratching – Informal term for reciprocity or returning favours to another – as in the term ‘you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours’.

Back-To-Back Loan – A loan in which two companies in separate countries borrow each other’s money at the same time for a specified period at a mutually agreed upon interest rate.

Back-up Plan – Usually referred to as a “Plan B” if a salesperson’s primary call objective is not reached through their “Plan A”

Back-up Service Variable – This is an aspect of the sale or negotiation that can be adjusted and/or adapted in order to find the middle ground to better meet the needs of the seller and/or the buyer by way of concession. Here the typical variables may be price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up service, breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty, and so on. Variables may be real or perceived, and often the perceived ones are the most significant in any negotiation that may take place

Bad Decisions – The replacement of a strong or offensive word or phrase with a carefully chosen alternative word or phrase considered to be milder or less inoffensive. Euphemisms are used widely and very wrongly by politicians and business people attempting to avoid responsibility and personal acknowledgment of mistakes, bad decisions and unjustifiable actions, etc. Euphemisms in such situations are part of ‘spin’ story process, or the spinning a story.

Bad Ethics – this would not have appeared in a selling glossary, simply because the line between right and wrong is wide. Honesty, morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in the majority of effective selling methods. Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but these days they carry far greater risks. Consumers are wiser, better informed, authories and courts are less tolerant and more senstitive to transgressions. Today, poor ethics guarantee personal and/or business failure.

Bad Leads – These are the leads that have been worked and are deemed unlikely to be sold – or considered to never become paying customers. This kind of lead can become a salespersons worst nightmare, simply because they are considered to a waste of time to be recontacted by the majority of salespeople – but in most cases, in the right hands, they can be sold.  Leads should never be prejudged by anyone in sales.  The leads others say are unworkable, real professional salespeople work them – and sell them.

Bad Selling and Business Failure – This is especially important to understand, especially when the business owner/s may personally believe that the selling is done in the right way, to the right people, at the right time, in the right place, and at the right price. A second consideration should be marketplace positioning.  And despite what the business owner/s may feel is right in their opinion, and unless this issue is handled professionally based on where and how the product needs to be positioned for best effect, a business can also fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically suggests that salespeople are unable to sell successfully – and in far too many cases this is untrue – as the salespeople were not adequately trained as to how best position the product or service to the prospect in the first place. There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills, and the product/service, but the venture fails because the positioning is wrong and because the business is where it is, not based on sound business concepting or marketing, but purely on personal opinion held by the business owner. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service. Effective selling is not only about quality and skills – its about suitability of targeting.

Bait-and-Switch – This term in retail sales, when customers are lured by advertisements for a product at a low price, but then find that the product is not available but a more expensive substitute is available.

Balance and Territory Design – This is the process applied that primarily sales managers engage in to allocate territories in order to ensure potential exists, and to balance the opportunities among their sales team members. This is mostly done build a sense of equal opportunity within the sales force.

Balance Sheet – This is a pre-determined financial document that illustrates the relative financial strength of a company at a specific point in time. Assets less Liabilities equal Net Financial Value.

Balance-sheet Close – The seller uses a piece of paper to separate the for and against factors for the buyer.  The for factors are tabled by the seller and buyer, the against factors are tabled by the buyer alone.  It creates trust and the seller is able to answer any objections on the spot.

Balanced Feedback – A communications skill used by coaches to communicate both what is working well and what needs to be changed or eliminated for the progress to continue.

Balloon – This is describes a long term loan in which there is a large final payment to be made when the loan finally matures.

Bandwagon Close – From time to time, every salesperson encounters a prospective customer is not overly confident about making a decision, this approach helps them feel safe.  “Mary, I have to mention that this is the best choice you can make, because it’s the same one that everyone else is buying.”

Bank Assurance – The combined selling of both insurance and banking services.  These are  usually sold by a major bank.

Bank Lifeboat – This is an emergency business loan offered to an individual, or company, or bank which is considered to be in financial trouble.

Bank Loan – A loan made by a bank to an individual, company, etc., for a fixed term, and all to be repaid with interest.

Bankers Hours – This is usually termed as a short working day, often with a long lunch break.

Bankruptcy – This is when the individual, company or organization not having enough finances or assets available to pay all the debts.

Banks as Primary Influences – These generally relate to the overall direct and indirect primary influences on any company, in business at any point in time, and may include Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Sales Personnel, Distributors, Agents, Banks, Lenders, Vendors, Other Institutions, Stock-holders, etc.

Banned Sales Territory – Refers to a sales person’s “area of focus” from which they are to obtain sales. Most territories are organized by post codes (zip codes) or geographical boundaries. Many territories are also “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and usually disallow another salesperson to sell in another team member’s territory.

BANT – An acronym used in sales for lead qualification that stands for Budget, Authority, Need, Timeline.  BANT is a famous tool for salespeople (and leaders) to help them determine whether their prospects have the Budget, Authority, Need, and the right Timeline to buy what they sell.  A more in-depth explanation is: B = Budget: Determines whether your prospect has a budget for what you’re selling.  A = Authority: Determines whether your prospect has the authority to make a purchasing decision.  N = Need:  Determines whether there is a business need for what you are selling.  T = Timeline:  Determines the timeline for implementation.  The BANT formula was originally developed by IBM a number of decades ago.  Many consider that the BANT process is good enough in today’s market.

Bar Code/Universal Product Code (UPC) – Relates to a classification for coding data onto products by a series of thick and thin vertical lines, also known as Bar Codes. It allows retailers to record the pertinent data such as the model number, size, color, etc. when an item is sold, and to store or transmit the data to a computerized data system to monitoring unit sales, inventory levels, and other factors.

Bargain Close – Here’s how it works. First, ask the prospect to tell you what problems is with what’s been discussed so far and listen to the response intently.  Then double check that these are the only problems.  Next strike the bargain by saying something along the lines of, “If I can sort out all of these problems so you’re completely happy, will you go ahead with the order?” which will almost certainly get a, “Yes, of course” type of reply.  Now you have to sort out the buyer’s problems and close the sale.

Barter – The process of exchanging one item or commodity for another – at times with a cash charge or levy to complete the transaction. Bartering many times will involve going back and forth or “haggling” to reach mutually agreed outcome.

Barter and Haggle – More than just the ability to negotiate with someone over the price of something until an agreeably mutual price is reached.  Most haggles will try to lower the price for no other reason than they can.  This process continues until the seller cannot accept a price any lower than the last price agreed upon.

Barter Trading – To barter is to enter into a process of exchanging one item or commodity for another. Bartering usually involves going back and forth or “haggling” to reach mutual agreement.  However, over the past few decades there have been a number of commercial barter companies that encourage the exchange of goods between members where the organization takes a cash fee for acting as the middle-man in the commercial barter exchange process.

Bartering/Barter Exchange – The process of the exchanging one item or commodity for another item or commodity. Bartering usually involves going back and forth or “haggling” to reach mutual agreement.

Base Salary – The guaranteed portion of a salesperson’s monetary compensation in the form of a weekly salary. Base salaries reward salespeople for their accumulated experience and overall selling efforts – before the bonus of a commission is included to the equation.

Base: Base Salary – see Base Salary.

Based Proposal/Sales Proposal – This is a proposal that is usually based on a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms, conditions, and warranty arrangements, created by a salesperson or selling organization to a specified prospect. Mostly this can be an immensely challenging part of the process to get things right, in that it must be a concise, yet complete, persuasive and objective, but well specified while purposely orientated to the customer’s applications.  Here an outline proposal is often deemed to be a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesn’t need.

Based Rapport – These are usually the things a salesperson or selling group has in common with a prospect.  Most salespeople usually refer only to what matters most to build genuine relationships like names in common (also known as based rapport)  joint and/or mutual benefits of doing business with each other and whatever else it may take to get things humming along with as little interruption as possible.

Basic Income – This refers to the amount of income a person is left with after taxes and basic essentials, such as food, housing, etc., have been deducted.

Basic Key Players – The (key) men and women situated inside an account who are essential to the selling organization for the seller’s gaining a positive decision.

Basic Sales Plan – Refers to a written document that ideally should incorporate related key goals and strategies that a salesperson should review regularly in the presence of a sales manager.  For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Beating Objections – (Overcoming Objections) – Here the salesperson answers questions or addresses concerns allowing the prospect to make an intelligent purchasing decision.

Bedrock Keystone Pricing or Keystoning – A process that doubles the wholesale cost by the retailer, which may or may not include shipping fees, depending on the retailer. This is standard markup in some industries, such as gifts and related gift supplies. However, in areas with high real estate values, such as large cities in Sydney, Melbourne, or Perth retailers may often triple the wholesale cost or more.

Beginning – In this context the word introduction has two different primary meanings in selling: Introduction refers either to first stage of the face-to-face or telephone sales call, or the term means a personal introduction – also called a referral – of the sales person to someone in the buying organisation by a mutual friend or contact. Personal introductions of this sort tend to imply endorsement or recommendation of the seller, and since they are made by an existing contact they help greatly in establishing initial trust. The value and potency of a personal introduction generally reflects the importance of the introducing person and the strength of their relationship with the buying contact.

Behavioral MindSet – The frame of mind of a salesperson or a sales manager may be in at a specific time in the selling process. Attitude is considered to be extremely key in the world of sales, as it drives compelling behavior. A salesperson’s ability to assess the attitude of the customer is equally key in the selling process, and being able to align with or address a wide range of customer attitudes is essential in effective selling

Behaviour and Emotional Quotient (EQ) – EQ refers to one’s ability to assess and monitor certain emotions and behaviour, and to interact effectively with others.  In the area of sales, the capacity of a salesperson to direct emotional energy effectively can lead to an overall improvement in sales.

Behavioural Passion – Those salespeople who are known to have passion are the ones that are said to have boundless enthusiasm for what they do and for helping their customer succeed. When passion, properly channeled, it can be a powerful selling behavior, as the sellers customers can also feel it and are also usually energized by it.

Belief – Belief is a point of view, or a conviction about the truth held by an individual or a group. In sales, beliefs help shape the reality a salesperson conveys. And a salesperson’s beliefs can be contagious and will often flow to the prospect or customer in a sales conversation.

Beliefs and Convictions – Based around strong, unshakeable beliefs.  These are the motivators that keep driving a professional salesperson from one call to the next, and one day to the next.  Without conviction and passion there is no driven salesperson, just a slothenly shell of one.         

Beliefs and Ending Questions – These are primarily thought provoking questions that are generally used at the end of an opening statement.  These types of questions will get the prospect thinking about what the salesperson has said, and encourages the prospect to make a comment and/or ask more questions.  Questions of this nature are not only those that would encourage the prospect to share their ideas, beliefs, opinions, and views on a subject, and once shared it allows the salesperson to take the situation into any direction of interest to the prospect and in turn can generate more thought provoking questions.             

Bell Shaped Curve – This is generally a visual representation displaying how a sales person’s skills impact on their sales results – often more for show than function, especially on computers, cameras, etc., to make the product more attractive to buyers.

Belligerent Selling – An aggressive type of selling which many consider unethical these days that puts a lot of pressure on a prospective customer to buy a product or a service from someone in the selling field currently that is unlikely to remain in sales for too long.

Below The Line – BTL. Describes marketing which has a short-term duration, such as non-media advertising, direct-mail, e-mail, exhibitions, incentives, brochures, etc., which is targeted directly at the consumer/customer. Often used by companies on a limited budget.  These are non-‘media’ methods or materials such as brochures, direct-mail, exhibitions, telemarketing, and PR; advertising agencies generally receive a commission (discount ‘kick-back’) from above-the-line media services, but not from below the line services, in which case if asked to arrange any will seek to add a mark-up.

Below the Line Marketing – This is a form of marketing and advertising through any manner of selected mass-media.  This could be television, radio, newspapers, magazines, Internet, etc., which is less personal than.  Many BTL Marketing Companies usually use advertising agencies for BTL marketing.

Beneficiary or Patron – Relates to a person or persons who purchase goods or services, quite often on a regular basis, from a certain shop or company. It may also refer to a benefactor or sponsor who supports and/or gives money to an individual or any organization, that can be a direct beneficiary such as a charity or non-profit organization.

Benefit – This relates to the value of a product or service that a consumer of that product or the service experiences. Benefits are to be kept distinct from features, and salesperson should sell based on benefits that are supported by features.  This can also be a gain (usually a tangible cost, but can be intangible) that accrues to the customer from the product or service.

Benefit Analysis – This is the method a customer (or sales organization) follows to assess the viability of a recommendation, by examining the total amount of money, time, and resources used relative to the value being received.

Benefit Close – The salesperson simply closes down the appropriate benefits one at a time or as often as necessary.  Short decisions such as, “Do you see a benefit in that?” are generally what is needed to go through to the next step of what you are working on.  That way you are helping your prospect (and yourself) to better understand what the prospect is after, and the more times you get the prospect to say “yes,” the closer they get to owning your product.

Benefit FABs – This relates to the vital links between a product description and its advantage over other similar products, and the benefits that may be derived by the consumer by using it.  This is one of the better, if not central, if not rather predictable technique used in the presentation stage of the selling process.

Benefit Factor – This factor deals with the aspect of a product or service that seems to make it better than another product or service, especially the one similar to that of a competitor.

Benefit Free Rider – A person or one or more organisations that enjoy benefits and/or suitable services provided by another or others, and doesn’t pay their fair share of the costs.

Benefit Leverage – Mostly referred to an action a particular salesperson may take to strategically position one or more of the exclusive advantages of a product or service. If the suggested product benefit is perceived positively, the salesperson “leverages” that benefit in order to build momentum for the sale to be made.

Benefit Trade-off – In all forms of sales negotiation, an exchange of something for something else of lesser known or lesser quality is known as a trade-off. Typically, it involves giving up one benefit for another that may be considered equal to or more desirable among various alternatives at the time.

Benefit Uniqueness – This usually relates to a function, feature or benefit (and in some cases all three) that is/are peculiar to a product or service or supplier.  It may also be that no other competitor can offer it. Uniqueness is usually a much overlooked aspect of selling. The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and services, and because of that inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price differences.  On the other hand, the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which will dramatically reduces competitive pressures.

Benefit Value – This is often considered the primary reason for a buyer to purchase something. Value is the relative worth, utility, importance, or perceived financial benefit that is assigned by a buyer to the product or service an organization or individual may sell.

Benefit Value Proposition – Also known as “Value drop” for short.  In other words, a key benefit for purchasing a product or dealing with a company intending to make the purchase more attractive to a potential buyer/s by markedly differentiating itself from its competitors.  This may also refer to a presentation by a salesperson, or a sales organizations broad statement of the value of an offer.  But to many, the value is seen as a situational proposition by many.  On the other hand, in sales, a key way to be perceived as adding value is by demonstrating how the product or service may increase potential revenues, assist profits, or reduce costs.

Benefit Visualization – This is the ability to present a clear mental picture of the end result so that the prospect or customer can clearly  “see” the benefit or value of the product or solution on offer.

Benefits – These are the good things that happens when the purchaser uses the product, service or solution.

Benefits and Features Spray and Pray – A very old slang term (know to grandparent salespeople) and used to describe salespeople who “spray” the customer with all the facts they can, add all the features, and benefits about a product or service they have ever learned, and then “pray” that one of those features influences the customer to buy. This is typically done by salespeople who do not engage the customer in dialog to express his/her needs directly.

Benefits Golden Handcuffs – A financial incentive or a number of incentives or benefits given to or provided for a valued employee to ensure that they continue working for a company, and to discourage them from wanting to leave to work for another company.

Benefits Presentation/Sales Presentation – This is generally referred to as the process by which a salesperson explains/presents the product or service to the prospect (be it a single contact or a group), and will ideally include an explanation of the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are pertinent/relevant to the needs of the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but will more usually involve the use of visuals, common bullet-points, text slides and images on a computer display, tablet or projected onto a screen.  They can incorporate a video and/or physical demonstration of the product(s) or service(s).

Benefits Product Offer – How the product and/or service offer is positioned and presented to the prospect or to the market, (which would normally include features and/or advantages) and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (via alternate segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully.

Benefits Solutions Selling – This is a common description for a more customer-orientated selling method that is dependent on identifying prospect wants and needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a formal package or a specified solution. This term is based on the premise that prospects don’t buy products or features or benefits – but instead buy solutions to their organizational challenges and problems.  Some say that it’s a similar approach to what is loosely known as ‘needs-creation’ selling. Solutions selling remains relevant in modern selling and its methods can usefully be included in an open plan selling style.

Benjamin Franklin Close – Tell them Benjamin Franklin was a wise man and whenever he wanted to make an important decision, he approached things this way.  List both the benefits of the purchase (for) and also the costs or non-benefits (against).  Of course, the for’s (the reasons to buy) will win.  Write it down like a balance sheet.  Now make sure that the for’s column is longer (and more impressive) than the against’s which should also include the things they did not want and are not getting.

Best Case Close – This is basically an adjunct way to close within any part of the presentation – whether it is used in conjunction other closes, as a stand-alone close or as a part of another close.  It give the salesperson control over which close to use and when based on what is achieved.  ”What is the worst thing that could happen to you because you’ve made this purchase today?” They say, “It doesn’t work after I get it home.” You say, “Then you’d bring it back for a refund or exchange of the product.”

Best Choice Close – Here is a unique closing style that builds off of the buyer’s ego and allows the salesperson to work off and capitalize on their comments.   “You know William, you are clearly looking at the best package we have available in all of our showrooms – are you as happy with your selection as your face tells me you are?”

Best Customer Template of Ideal Prospects (TIP) – The creation of this template is the easiest part as it is simply a list of the characteristics shared by a company’s best customers.  Once the characteristics are compiled, those listed characteristics are then able to point marketers towards the promising suspects gathered from industry lists, industry sources, industry journals or the yellow pages telephone directory.  There is also your own company or individual ideal or referrals lists that you have not contacted about your products, services or solutions, but who may benefit from what you have to offer.

Best of Thought Leadership – A (generally academic) term used to project an image of innovation and/or a forward vision associated with that innovation. The best of the sales organizations and salespeople who are mainly perceived to be “thought leaders” are the ones looked to for creative ideas and innovative approaches to today’s known business challenges and problems.

Best Practices – In sales organizations, Best Practices represent many of those proven methods salespeople or sales managers use to achieve a specific objective. The sharing of methods and the documentation of best practices is integral to an organization’s ability to create lift and raise its own standards of excellence.

Best Time Close – The best time to buy is always now!  With this close the salesperson asks the prospect to decide there and then.  They emphasise that  there is no better time to buy than right now through agreed to urgency.

Best-Selling Market Leader – A company or brand name which has the highest sales of a particular product to be deemed a best-selling product.

Better Quality Up-Selling – A sales technique in which the salesperson works at persuading the prospect or customer to purchase more expensive and/or more goods than they may have originally intended.  As an example, say you committed to a mobile phone (cell phone) plan and the salesperson asked a few questions and suggested you would be better served by another plan with more calls and data for a slight increase in monthly outgoings.  If you agreed to the new plan, this is an up-sell.

Better Sales Productivity – This is the science and study of being efficient and effective in producing sales results. Also refers to the use of tools and methods to produce more – faster, cheaper, and better.

Beyond the Expected References – This refers to an individual, group or company that is willing to back up certain claims of what your product or service may achieve either under ordinary conditions, extraordinary conditions, or beyond what is generally expected and/or experienced.  References may be recorded by way of personally written testimonials, recorded testimonials and/or visually recorded testimonials.

Biased Spin – Generally accepted as a form of biased presentation of current news, or reports, or information mainly by politicians, entrepreneurs, business-people, etc., often times typically cynically, dishonestly, or unethically, but mostly told in a highly positive way, or in a way designed to support a particular thought or position. The term is derived from the sense of putting a ‘spin’ on a story, in such a way as to distort the truth to suit a particular purpose. This use of unreasonably optimistic interpretations in referring to one’s own point of view while providing unreasonably negative interpretations when referring to their critics and/or competitors and their actions.

Bid Bond – This relates to the sum of monies agreed to – to be paid by a company that wins a contract if the work is not carried out.

Big Picture Questions – The questioning process within the early part of a presentation is possibly the most revered primary prep-selling tool used to explore and understand a prospects or customers situation at the time of the call. Effective questioning is considered to be among the highest level skill of the successful sales professional. Most questions can be described with multiple labels, each with different objectives. Some sample question labels may include: Strategic Questions, Big Picture Questions, High Value Questions, Clarification Questions, Act and Action Questions, etc.

Big Picture Questions – These are high-level questions that seek to understand the broad business issues an organization is facing.

Big Time Meltdown – An often awkward situation in which something, or someone, suddenly dramatically ceases to function properly.

Biggest Need Close –  This is a closing style that  positions the sellers offer as perhaps the best way to satisfy the critical need the prospects may have.  “As you are aware, you do have a huge need and I personally feel that this is the best way to help you deal with it.”

Bigpond – Australia’s largest internet network and telecommunications network provider and on-seller.

Bilateral – Agreement, involvement or action by two people, parties, companies, countries, etc. Unilateral – Agreement, involvement or action by two people, parties, companies, countries, etc.

Bing – Microsoft’s search engine, Bing, displays results in response to a user’s search query in a similar way to Google search. The site uses a complex and secret algorithm to select which sites to display in response to a particular search. Bing also offers a pay-per-click advertising platform, and allows merchants to offer a discount to shoppers.

Birmingham Close – The close is technically known as the Birmingham Number 2 Close, others refer to it as the Birmingham Close. A close novice salespeople may attempt, but usually do so at their peril.  Top professional sellers will use derogatory terms when describing this close.  Just say, “Do you want it or what?”

Black Economy – Where money earned in private cash transactions, which is supposedly untraceable, and therefore non-taxable.

Black Market – This term, unlike the “Grey Market/Gray Market” does not refer to counterfeit goods. The term usually alludes to the older expression ‘black market’, and is used (or analysed) most commonly from the standpoint of manufacturers, who generally regard grey/gray markets as threatening to their marketing distribution and pricing strategies.

Blamestorming – A term contrived from a combination of Brainstorming and Blame.  It refers to meetings or discussions seeking to allocate responsibility for a failure or disaster. Popularised in the late 1990s by viral emails which listed amusing office terminology.

Blatant Misuse – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Blatant Name Dropping – This may be referred to a form of mentioning or the “dropping of names” that may make no sense to a prospect. On the other hand, when name dropping becomes obvious and possibly annoying to a prospect if he or she feels the salesperson is blatantly dropping names for personal gain or to brag for any reason.

Blatantly Obvious Proactive Selling – This refers to those salespeople that tend to take action without being asked to, or take action before it is absolutely necessary.  These actions are considered to be proactive.  In most cases, proactive salespeople are the ones that commit to anticipating the key issues and suggest a possible solution or suggestion to what they consider to be blatantly obvious.

Blatherskite – A person who is able to talk at great length without really saying anything useful.

Blind Test – A research method in which people are asked to try a number of similar products which are not openly identified by brand name, to decide which product is the best/most superior, or tastes the best/most superior.

Blind Trial – A trial, conducted with two groups of people, to test the effect of a new product, especially in medicine. One group is given the real product while the other group is given a placebo (or ‘sugar pill’), which does not contain any medication.

Blitz – A slang term used in sales, and applied to denote a concentrated effort or activity to achieve a proposed objective. The term is usually used to describe a concentrated effort in some form of sales prospecting, i.e. telemarketing, door campaigns, letter-box drops with follow-up.

Blitz Close – With this closing style there are two separately defined similar offers simultaneously presented by the salesperson. “Which would work better for you, the small starter box or the larger box at a reduced introductory price?”  Then as quickly as the prospect has answered, the seller two more separate products or services for the prospect to choose from a second time.  This can be expanded to three or more separate products for the prospect to choose from.

Blog – A blog is in essence an online journal or publication that includes relatively short, but discrete articles, called posts, that are organized by date with the most recent posts first. Frequently, blogs allow readers to add comments to posts. The term blog is a combination of “web” and “log.” At first, blogs were mainly personal journals or opinion sites, but the term has come to include an array of different publications. Blogs are frequently used as a marketing tool, and may be included in a merchant’s social media or content marketing campaigns.

Blog Lead – This relates to a person or company who shows interest in a product or service, in some way, shape or form.  It may be the result of them filling out a form, subscribing to a blog, or they may have shared their contact information in exchange for a coupon.  Generating leads is a critical is a critical part of a sales prospect’s journey to becoming a customer, and it falls in the second stage of the larger inbound marketing methodology.  Landing pages, forms, offers and calls-to-action are just a few tools to help companies generate more on-line leads.

Blown Away – A term used to describe the impact a salesperson might have had on the prospect or customer as a result of a well though out and successful presentation.

Bluebird – A form of sales slang for an opportunity to sell (or an actual sale made) that presents itself to the salesperson (or selling organization) without having made much direct effort in having to close the sale to secure it. They say that the sale was a “bluebird.”

Blueprint – A mental visual, scribble notes or an actual drawing which lays out in detail the approach that needs to be used to trial in part a sales or business proposition prior to a formal trial or marketing concept. Often, blueprints are also referred to as “models,” or “prototypes.”

Blueprint Prototype – Relates to an original design or a working model of something, that may or may not be often used in sales demonstrations.  It may also relate to some form of visual, graphic or drawing which lays out the detail of the approach that could be used. Oftentime, blueprints are also referred to as “models,” or “prototypes.”

Blue-Sky Thinking – This is a combination of somewhat open-minded, but mainly original and creative thinking, that is not restricted by either convention or conservative thinking.  Most will recall the phrase, “the sky is the limit” which is most appropriate in this situation.

BOAT – Acronym – Background, Objective, Achieve, Time. This acronym is mainly used to recall and remember certain factors the salesperson wants to consider in their opening statement with a customer.  The use of the acronym of Background, Objective, Achieve, Time is a powerful way to establish the basis of the call and can be one to use as a form of revision as well – either prior to closing the sale or as a button up to the sale.

Body Language – This is a process that relies on the physical reading of body gestures, body movements, and mannerisms by which a person outwardly communicates their outlook or frame of mind. Paying attention to and reading body language can provide invaluable levels of insight in the selling process based on what the body gestures reveal – which may align with or even contradict what the person being observed is saying.

Body Language Mirroring –  Mirroring relates to the gestures, body movements, and mannerisms by which a person communicates their outlook or frame of mind. Paying attention to and reading body language can provide valuable insight in the selling process.

Bona Fides – These are either singular of plural credentials which reveal someone’s true identity. It is based on the Latin, meaning with good faith.

Bonded Warehouse – An external warehouse in which imported goods are mainly stored under bond, until the import taxes are paid on them.

Bonding Story Close – Tell a third party story about a person who is “just like” the target customer, with similar problems and concerns and who bought what you are selling and is now really happy.  Make sure the prospect emphasizes with the person in the story.  Ensure you use a real person and a real story.

Bonus – An extra sum of money paid to an employee on top of their salary, often for achieving or bettering targets.  The recipient may or may not be in sales, but is generally attached to sales.  However, as a sales compensation, this refers to a type of incentive payment, typically awarded when the salesperson or sales team achieves pre-determined financial objectives.

Bonus Close – This close gives them something they want. To close the sale include something that you know they would like to help them sign. If they like the bonus enough, it should entice them to proceed with the purchase.

Bonus Culture – A term used when certain companies give their executives huge bonuses in addition to their large salaries.  This can happen even if their performance has been poor, and is paid especially to leaders of financial institutions.

Bonus Incentives – This relates to any form of compensation or reward made to a salesperson or sales team to influence immediate and future sales results. These incentives typically include compensation elements such as bonuses, commissions, and other non-financial rewards an organization may offer, such as recognition trips, catalog award points, etc.

Bonus Paid – This is usually a specified amount paid to an employee who agrees to perform a difficult task.  The amount of the bonus may be unexpectedly increased if the work done far exceeds the expectations of the one setting the task in the first place.

Bonus Payments and Sales Target – When considered within a sales context this is generally the issued (or ideally agreed) minimum level of sales performance for a salesperson or a team or department over a given period of time. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, and future positions etc., may all be dependent on the nominated sales staff meeting sales targets. Targets are established at the beginning of a fiscal trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular reviews throughout the year. Also see forecasting.

Book Value Write-Off – A term used in accounting, to reduce the book value of an asset, sometimes to as low as zero, or to cancel a debt which has not been, or is unlikely to be, paid.

Boomerang Close – Whenever a prospect suggests something cannot be done or may seem impossible, with this closing style, the seller is able to use the prospects own arguments like a boomerang, so that whatever they say goes around in a circle and then comes back to persuade them it is doable.  “Let’s face it, the house really does need a lot of work, but as you said, you’re quite a good handyman – that’s right, isn’t it?”

Boomlet – A very small period of rapid growth in trade and economic activity.

Bootstrapping – Starting a business from scratch and in the process building it up with minimum outside investment.  As a business ideology, bootstrapping is the concept of self-funding a new company, meaning that a business pays its operating expenses either with profits or from its founder’s own investments, rather than accepting external capital.

Borrower Interest Rate – A fee which the lender is charged for borrowing money, e.g., a loan from a bank or financial institution, lease arrangement, goods bought through hire purchase, and so on.

Boss – A person, business or organisation, etc., that specifically pays for the services of the workers and others it employs.

Boss Close – This is a great close at the times a salespersons confidence may be low, or the salesperson may be going through a slump, or is simply ‘batting out of his or her depth’ on the day.  There are also a host of other companies that do a good bulk of their business in a manner similar to this.

Boss Follow-up Close – The obvious thing to do with this close is to prearrange to have the boss call and work on confirming the status of proceedings, and to see if they could be anything more to do on behalf of the company to close the order and arrange for delivery.   “The end of our current business is almost upon us and we’re a little short on achieving our budget, so is there anything I can do to get your business at this point?”

Bottleneck – Whenever this term is used in sales, it refers to the point at which both parties are deadlocked in some way, and are not able to move forward unless the parties enter into more mutually substantive negotiation.

Bottleneck and Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Bottlenecks – These are the things that hinder progress in an organization, or within an organization – such as the sales department. There are also the salespeople who sell effectively look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist. By identifying them, areas of opportunity may surface where the selling organization can help improve productivity and overall performance.

Bottom Line and Smarketing – This term is usually used to refer to the practice of aligning a variety of Sales and Marketing efforts.  In a perfect world, marketing would pass off lots of fully qualified leads to the sales team, who would then subsequently work every one of those leads enough times to close them anywhere from 50% to 100% of the time.  This isn’t always how it works, simply because it’s a key for Marketing and Sales to align their efforts to impact the bottom line the best they can through coordination through communication.

Bottom of the Funnel (BOFU) – A stage of the buying process that propels forward when the sales group is just about to close in on new customers / prospects.  In this case the prospects have identified a problem / challenge / issue and have been shopping around for possible solutions, and are very close to buying.

Bounce – In economic terms a bounce is a small quick or partial recovery of the economy after a recession – which may subsequently continue upwards in growth, or plateau – neither growing or contracting, or even descending back into recession.

Bounce Back Coupons Offers – This can be a any group of offers, discounts, or coupon “enticements” delivered with physical products or emailed with digital confirmation or even with receipts. The goal of a Bounce Back Coupon is to “entice” a customer to place a follow-up order or to renew their contract for the next period of time by offering a discount or special if the customer responds by a certain date or time.

Bounce Rate – This is an Internet marketing term used to describe the percentage of site visitors that arrive at a single page on a given website, and then leave (bounce) from that same page without visiting any other page on the site.

Boundaries and Sales Territory – Refers to a sales person’s “area of focus” from which they are to obtain sales. Most territories are organized by post codes (zip codes) or geographical boundaries. Many territories are also “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and usually disallow another salesperson to sell in another team member’s territory.

Boundless Passion – Those salespeople who are known to have passion are the ones that are said to have boundless enthusiasm for what they do and for helping their customer succeed. When passion, properly channeled, it can be a powerful selling behavior, as the sellers customers can also feel it and are also usually energized by it.

Boutique – Usually referred to as a  small shop or outlet typically selling fashionable and expensive items such as clothing, footwear and accessories. The term ’boutique’ is also now increasingly applied as a descriptive word in various other sectors and products to denote an outlet/supplier of small-scale, highly individual, bohemian, quirky, or hand-made quality.  Boutique may also refer to the more newly termed Hotels, Bistro’s and Bed and Breakfast establishments.

Bracket Creep – Where the tax payer slowly moves into a higher tax bracket due to small pay increases over a period of time.

Bracket Close – This close gives your customer options – one of them being your target option by using the other two to be just out of their budget or bad enough that they won’t consider it. The seller here gets them to choose the middle option, which is your option.

Bracket Drag – An economic situation in which real wages rise because of inflation but the related income tax thresholds are not increased, which in turn, can push tax paying individuals into higher tax brackets and therefore forces them pay an increased proportion of their wages in tax.

Brag Book – This is generally established through the use of a presentation binder or book featuring stories, pictures, or testimonials regarding previous projects performed for customers. Sales people often present their Brag Books to prospects to display their success providing products or services for their current and past customers.

Brainstorming – A kind of methodology undertaken by a person or a team of like-minded people to solve a specific problem or to jointly generate ideas by rapidly listing a variety of possible solutions and approaches to the challenge at hand.  In other words, the art of problem solving in small groups, contributing ideas and developing creativity.

Branch Profit-Centre – A business division or a department or a unit which is charged with the responsible of producing a profit.  This may be a shop unit within a chain of shops, or a branch within a network of dealerships.  Importantly a Profit-centre business unit will use a form of ‘Profit and Loss Account’ as a means of managing and reporting the business based on the fact that a profit centre is involved in selling to customers as an alternative to a Cost-centre, which primarily appears to be responsible for internal services and perhaps also the supply to other departments within the group.

Brand – This generally refers to a brand name, term, symbol or logo used to identify the products and services of the selling organization and to differentiate them from those of their competitors.  It may also refer to a unique identifying symbol, trademark, company name, etc., which enables a buyer to distinguish a product or service from its competitors.

Brand Association – In essence this is usually something or someone which makes the buying audience think of a particular product or service.

Brand Loyalty – The name associated with the process when a consumer buys a particular brand of product on an on-going basis and is reluctant to switch to another brand.

Brand Market Leader – A company or brand name which has the highest sales of a particular product to be deemed a best-selling product.

Brand Marque – Primarily refers to a brand name or model of a well-known manufactured product, especially an expensive car.

Brand Motivational Research – A stylized type of market research used to investigate the reasons why people buy specific products or brands.

Brand Name Intangible Asset – A company’s assets which generally do not physically exist, such as their brand name, trademarks, copyrights, etc.

Branded Products – In the marketing field, business ‘diversion’ refers to the unofficial distribution and/or availability of branded consumer products. The supply of branded products through unauthorised stockists, retailers or other suppliers, notably marketing through the web is a concern world-wide. Diversion does not simply refer to pirated or counterfeit or ‘fake’ goods. Diversion refers to official goods being sold through unofficial channels.

Branding and the Unique Selling Proposition (USP) – This is a marketing term to allow an individual or business to differentiate themselves with a unique manner of branding.  It may be applied as a “catch-on” phrase to the branding or brand name, or it may just be a unique way of selling that individual or business has applied.

Bread and Butter – Applied to someone who’s main source of income is primarily from just the one company or an individual.

Break and Fix Close – This is a closing style that jars prospects out of a normal mindset and makes them more eager or willing to agree to whatever you say next.  “We can provide this insurance to you at $1260.00 for 12 months.”

Break Clause – A condition within a contract that allows the contract to be broken in particular circumstances.

Break Even – The process used to make just enough money to cover the costs. In business, it refers to the point at which sales equals costs.  And it also may refer to the times when the organization or individual make neither a profit or loss – but just mark time.

Breakdown Service Variable – This is an aspect of the sale or negotiation that can be adjusted and/or adapted in order to find the middle ground to better meet the needs of the seller and/or the buyer by way of concession. Here the typical variables may be price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up service, breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty, and so on. Variables may be real or perceived, and often the perceived ones are the most significant in any negotiation that may take place

Bribe and Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Bribe Hush Money – Generally refers to a bribe or under the counter payment, which is often considered illegal, and is given to someone to stop them from disclosing information, or usually to prevent bad publicity or to purposely hide a crime.

Bribery and White Collar Crime – Can refer to any number of illegal acts including fraud, embezzlement, bribery, etc., that are committed by a worker, business partner or director in a business or administrative function.

Brick & Click Store – Refers to a retail outlet or business type with a minimum of one physical location and at least one ecommerce enabled website.

Brick & Mortar Store – This is generally referred to a lone retail outlet or business with at least one physical location.

Bridging/Bridging Loan/Bridge – A short term loan, normally at higher that usual rates of interest, calculated daily, which ‘bridges’ a period when funds are unavailable, typically when payment has to be made before finance can be released from elsewhere to cover the transaction.

Broad Range Sales Effectiveness – Sales effectiveness is the ability for a sales organizations to “win over” the prospect at each stage of the customer’s cycle, thereby winning the business and improving sales results.  It is also the term used to cover the broad range of activities a sales organization uses in order to improve the productivity and the results of its sales teams. Sometimes the words “Sales Excellence” are used as synonyms to further explain sales effectiveness.

Broad Range Sales Effectiveness Process – Refers to a variety of systems, activities, processes and information that support and promote knowledge-based sales interactions with clients and prospects. The responsibility of this kind of limited Sales enablement is typically co-owned by the sales organization and a variety of other parts of the organization, including marketing, product development, human resources and others.

Broad-Appeal Long Tail – The Long Tail is Chris Anderson’s idea that markets and marketplaces, especially online, are moving away from mainstream, broad-appeal products and toward niche products. In ecommerce, most new retailers may now find it easier and more cost effective to focus on niche products.

Brochure Direct Marketing – This is when the marketing of products, services, etc., is done directly to strategic individual potential customers by sending them catalogues, leaflets, brochures, etc., by mail (including e-mail), or calling them on the telephone or flushing them out and then calling on them door-to-door.  It is also known to be a form of retailing where a producer/manufacturer, importer, or distributor markets directly to an end consumer without the use of a retailer.

Brochures and MOFUThe sector that a sales lead enters after identifying a problem or specific challenge for the prospect or customer.  Once established the prospect or customer will be looking to conduct further research to find a solution to the problem. Typically middle of the funnel offers may include case studies, product brochures, or anything that brings the sellers business into the equation as a solution to the problem the lead is looking to solve.

Broker / Agent – This is a person who has the authority (or is empowered) to represent a company or a company’s products and services. Agents and brokers are used by many selling organizations to capitalize on the agent’s/broker’s local presence and capacity to support the organization’s purpose or mission.

Brochures and MOFO (Middle of the Funnel Offers) – The sector that a sales lead enters after identifying a problem (or specific challenge) for the prospect or customer.  Once established, the prospect (or customer) will be looking to conduct further research to find a solution to the problem.  Typically middle of the funnel offers may include case studies, product brochures, or anything that brings the sellers business into the equation as a solution to the problem a lead is looking to solve.

Brokers – Similar to a manufacturers’ representatives, but generally works almost exclusively in higher volume food markets such as grocery and food service, import-export, etc. Commission rates are generally much lower than for sales representatives, due to the larger volumes.

Brown Goods – Manly consists of the sale of household electrical appliances, entertainment goods and other appliances such as televisions, radios and music systems.

Brownfield – This is usually previously developed land, either for commercial or industrial purposes, which has been cleared again for redevelopment.

Brown-noser – This is generally known as an insulting slang term. Brown-nosing describes any form of “crawling” or “creeping” to please a work superior – boss or supervisor.  In many cases it is an amusingly disturbing interpretation of various expressions which juxtapose the head of the follower with the backside of the boss.  As in rude slang metaphors such as kissing arse, arse-licking, bum-licker, etc.

BTL Marketing – Below the Line Marketing – This is a form of marketing and advertising through any manner of selected mass-media  And it could be television, radio, newspapers, magazines, Internet, etc., which is less personal than.  Many BTL Marketing Companies usually use advertising agencies for BTL marketing. See marketing.

Bubble Economy – This refers to any unstable fiscal boom when the economy experiences an unusually rapid growth, with rising share prices and increased employment.  The reason why it is referred to as Bubble Economy, is that bubbles eventually burst and usually leave behind a wake of disaster that then needs to be addressed by others.

Budget – In many sales organizations, the word “budget” is a applied as a quota of for any of the financial sales goals set by management. The more traditional definition used by customers and other organizations is the sum of financial resources allocated for a particular purpose.  It can also mean an allocation of funds or the estimation of costs for a department, project, etc., over a specific period – or the management of spending and saving money.

Budgeted Win Rate – This is the rate at which a salesperson or sales organization “wins” new business, “wins” back old customers, or “wins” more sales than originally budgeted for.  Often, this is expressed as a percentage of the overall proposals submitted vs. the percentage of sales closed.

Build Rapport Profile – Researched information regarding leads or determined prospects such as first and last name, best time to call, background information, possible needs, and most importantly, names in common that salespeople can use to create and build rapport.

Bulk Bought Commodity Sales – This refers to the sale of something that is typically bought in bulk and consumed continuously.  And refers to products such as solvents, oils and gasses, a number of paper goods that fit into the commodities sector.

Bulk Commodity Sales – This refers to the sale of something that is typically bought in bulk and consumed continuously.  And refers to products such as solvents, oils and gasses, a number of paper goods that fit into the commodities sector.

Bullet Point – This generally a symbol, e.g. a dot or a square, which is usually printed prior to the beginning of each item on a list.

Bullet-point Presentation/Sales Presentation – This is generally referred to as the process by which a salesperson explains/presents the product or service to the prospect (be it a single contact or a group), and will ideally include an explanation of the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are pertinent/relevant to the needs of the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but will more usually involve the use of visuals, common bullet-points, text slides and images on a computer display, tablet or projected onto a screen.  They can incorporate a video and/or physical demonstration of the product(s) or service(s).

Bundle Option Close – Here the salesperson needs to break everything down into small packages and then price them individually and negotiate them one at a time. Next focus on selling or negotiating the main item first and then show what extra parts are needed, but avoid talking about the total cost until you have had agreement on each individual item.  In other words, rather than selling a bundle, the seller individualises each item before it’s bundled together.

Business Advisor – This is often considered the role that many senior salespeople aspire to. Business advisors are perceived to be good at what they do and often looked to for wise counsel. They are also highly trusted individuals so good at what they do that most of their customer won’t make strategic business decisions (at least in regard to the sales organization’s product or service) before talking to these sales professionals. The best of the business advisor sales professionals are sought after for their counsel in areas not directly related to their product or service because they are perceived to have high business acumen.

Business Aims Selling Strategies – This proposition is strongly linked to the achievement of strategic business aims – typically and including improvements in costs, revenues, margins, overheads, profit, quality, efficiency, time-saving and competitive strengths areas. There is a strong reliance on seller having excellent strategic understanding of prospect organization and aims, market sector situation and trends, and access to strategic decision-makers and influencers.

Business Allies Project Management – Relates to the sciences and disciplines of planning, organizing, overseeing, managing and tracking projects within an organization. Project Management can be a simple or it can be a sophisticated process to help implement systematic change within an organization. “Farmer type” sales professionals who become proficient at effective project management can also be considered as valuable business allies by their prospects and customers/clients alike.

Business and Relational Selling – A common selling methodology where the customer highly values the relationship with the salesperson or the sales organization they are doing business with. In relational selling, the salesperson’s credibility, trust, likeableness, and dependability become key factors in the immediate and on-going decision making process.

Business Angel – Also referred to as a Private Investor. This person is usually a wealthy individual who invests money in developing (often at high risk) companies, and who provides their advice, skills, knowledge and contacts in return for an equity share of the business.

Business Buyers – The best part here is, that the people who could have conceivably bought from you are now buying from you and your company.  Remember this, when you first make contact with a referral you have never met before, you are still interacting with a potential buyer.  That also goes for the fact than when you are interacting with the largest client your company may be dealing with, you’re still interacting with a buyer.

Business Case – When working with all manner of accounts within the business, this sector refers to the process of establishing a believable business rationale for any product or service. The use of this term is more directed to complex selling situations than to other shorter term business decisions.

Business Challenges and Thought Leadership – A (generally academic) term used to project an image of innovation and/or a forward vision associated with that innovation. The best of the sales organizations and salespeople who are mainly perceived to be “thought leaders” are the ones looked to for creative ideas and innovative approaches to today’s known business challenges and problems.

Business Competitor – Considered to be a business rival, who is usually one who manufactures or imports and sells similar goods and/or services to the ones that your company produces or imports and sells.

Business Competitor Analysis – This can also be called a Competitive Analysis. It is most prominent when a  company’s marketing strategy, that involves assessing and tracking of the performance of its competitors in order to determine their overall strengths and weaknesses, in order to gain advantages whenever and as often as possible.

Business Consequences – These could be the things that happen if a certain action or condition continues, or is not alleviated.  Superior salespeople focus on asking questions based on business consequences as an integral part of their sales process. These questions are powerful because they help the salesperson and the prospect or customer explore the long and short-term effects of addressing or not addressing their business issues, or of capitalizing on opportunities.

Business Customer – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Business Customer Retention Costs – This simply means keeping existing customers and not losing them to competitors. Today’s cost conscious companies realise that it’s far more expensive to find new customers than to keep existing ones, and therefore put a sufficient amount of time and investment into looking after and growing existing buyers and/or business accounts.  Alternatively, those without this cost overview could find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity.  This is likened to a hole in the bucket, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.

Business Cycle – This refers to a sequence of economic activities typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at times, periods of financial decline. Salespeople who are attuned to a company’s business cycle are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced and know how their products and services can alleviate some of the conditions being experienced in the business cycle.

Business Directories – Sites that list and link to other sites, including online stores, are referred to as directories.  There are also physical directories such as business directories, yellow pages advertising directories, pink pages directories, telephone directories, specialist industry directories and internet directories, etc.

Business Disposal Strategy – A structured plan by an investor to dispose of a personal or business investment, such as shares in a company, to make a profit, or a business owner or group to dispose of their company, by selling the business, floating it on the stock market, ceasing to trade, handing it over to another family member, etc.

Business Entrepreneur – A highly ambitious individual who starts new business ventures in order to make a lot of money, and is a person who often takes financial risks.

Business Ethics – this would not have appeared in a selling glossary, simply because the line between right and wrong is wide. Honesty, morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in the majority of effective selling methods. Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but these days they carry far greater risks. Consumers are wiser, better informed, authories and courts are less tolerant and more senstitive to transgressions. Today, poor ethics guarantee personal and/or business failure.

Business Failure and Positioning – This is generally referred to as more a marketing term than a sales term, although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers.  The term is usually related to some manner of targeting.  In other words, positioning refers to how a product or service or proposition is presented or described or marketed in relation to the market place, with a focused reference to customers, competition, image, pricing, quality, etc. Positioning basically refers to whether a proposition is being sold appropriately, namely in the right way, to the right people, at the right time, in the right place, and at the right price. A business can also fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically suggests that salespeople are unable to sell successfully – and in far too many cases this is untrue – as the salespeople were not adequately trained as to how best position the product or service to the prospect. There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills, and the product/service, but the venture fails because the positioning is wrong. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service. Effective selling is not only about quality and skills – its about suitability of targeting.

Business Figurehead – Usually referred a person who holds an important position or office but lacks real power or authority for that position.  This person can also be referred to as a ‘front man’ either in business, organizations, politics, etc. The term was originally derived from the carved painted figurehead models which traditionally were fixed to the front of sailing ships.

Business Firepower – This generally relates to the amount of power, or money, and/or influence that is available to be used by a business or business organization.

Business First Mover – An individual, a business, an organization or a charity that obtains an advantage by being the first (first mover) to establish a specific market or by establishing  itself in a specific market by producing a new product or offering a new service, or by being the first to use new technology.

Business Fit – The word Fit in marketing and business situations refers to the degree which a product, service, solution, organization matches customer requirements. It is useful to consider Fit in 5 dimensions: Product Fit, Technical Fit, Solution Fit, Financial Fit, and Business Fit. Salespeople who organize their thinking around this Fit scenario and are able to align their solution to as many of these dimensions as possible elevate the probability of them effectively preparing then making the sale.

Business Forward Integration – This is usually a well used business strategy where a company takes control of its distributors for the sole purpose of guaranteeing the distribution of the controlling company’s products.

Business Gone To The Wall – This is an adequate description of a business which has failed.

Business Growth Cycle – A considered and recorded sequence of economic activities typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at times, decline. Salespeople who are attuned to company business cycles (either individually or corporately) are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced by their prospects, and then capitalise how their products and services can alleviate some of the conditions being experienced in the business cycle.

Business Growth Targeted Opportunities – A process that is mainly used in sales organizations where mainly the gaining more sales is a function of taking away business from one or more business streams of those considered to be competitors.  Here the ratio used is usually a percentage to measure of the number of targeted opportunities sold when compared to the number of opportunities pursued.

Business Inner circle – These two words typically refer to the most senior executives/personnel  responsible for running a company.

Business Issue – This refers to a partially or fully exposed business problem, challenge or concern that has the possibility to drive the need for your product or service to be considered by your prospect or an existing customer. Most business issues tend to reflect areas the customer is challenged by, or the ones that are predominantly on the customer’s mind. By aligning their product or service to these business issues, salespeople are perceived as more consultative and valuable to the customer.

Business Keyword Advertising – A process generally used on the Internet. When a user types in a particular ‘keyword’, an advertisement which is linked to a business relevant to that word, is displayed alongside the search engine results.

Business Lifeboat – This is an emergency business loan offered to an individual, or company, or bank which is considered to be in financial trouble.

Business Low Hanging Fruit  – A term often used in business for something (or at time someone) which is easily obtainable and highly noticeable, and provides a quick and easy way of making a profit.

Business Market Economy – A situation in which businesses may operate in a free market, i.e., when they are in competition with each other and are not under government control.

Business Marketing Myopia – This occurs when a business is being shortsighted regarding the needs of its customers, and is only focusing on its products or short range goals and in the process is missing marketing opportunities.

Business Marketing – This refers to the act of promoting a company, or its products, and services in the effort to attract a primary influence to a company (normally pertains to customers) and is perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising.  However, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through to market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions. It’s the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it.

Business Maverick – Generally referred to an independent thinker who does not conform to accepted opinion on certain matters and takes a stand from other people.

Business Mercantile – A business term relating to trade or commerce.

Business Model Distribution – These are usually the methods or routes by which products and services are mostly taken to the marketplace. Sales distribution models can be many and varied, and in the main, are constantly changing and new ones are constantly being developed. Understanding and establishing best sales distribution methods – together with the established routes to market – are crucial aspects of running any sales organisation, and/or business model.

Business Modeling Extrapolation – An estimated determination of what will happen in the future by extending (extrapolating) of any known information or data. The verb ‘extrapolate’ is common and means using mathematics or other logical processes to extend a proven trend or set of data. ‘What if’ scenarios and business modeling generally involves some manner of extrapolation. It’s also a way of predicting something by assuming that a certain historical pattern will continue into the future.

Business Motivators – Those areas which, if known by salespeople and their management, can be used to position solutions to align with a decision maker’s most key criteria for selection.

Business Needs Opportunity – A situation, or a need, or a condition, or a circumstance where the salesperson has the potential to meet a customers business needs.  Though every company has different processes for defining what criteria could suggest what is another’s opportunity to buy – in essence, it’s a basic sales description used when a qualified lead is being worked by a salesperson, or someone else in sales.

Business Net Profit – This is the gross profit of a product or service minus any of the operating expenses.  This is also the difference between any known business’ revenue and its related costs – or of all of its costs.  In many cases net profit may be thought of as the money left over after every bill is paid.

Business Networker – A person who continually meets with others and builds relationships with a variety of people in order to make business or social contacts.

Business Networking – The process of developing and maintaining alliances both externally and internally within a group, or a wide variety of contacts, that may be able to provide, or retrieve, additional information, insight, help, and access to others.  Also refers to an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contact, based on a number of referrals, and introductions that help build a larger database – either via a face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as a phone, email, social media and/or business networking websites, etc..

Business New Customer – A person or group or business who has never ordered before from that particular supplier.

Business Operating Expenses – These are the expenses related to the running of a business not including the cost of inventory (cost of goods sold).

Business Overhead – These are the ongoing expenses associated with operating a business.

Business Partner White Collar Crime – Can refer to any number of illegal acts including fraud, embezzlement, bribery, etc., that are committed by a worker, business partner or director in a business or administrative function.

Business Partners – Realise this one thing. The people, small businesses, companies and organizations that have bought from a salesperson, but have not only just bought, they have become to depend on you.  They are now your business partners, and they will now depend more on you, and your company’s resources to grow and prosper.

Business Pecking Order – This refers to hierarchy in businesses, organizations, etc, and relates to the order of people at different ranks.

Business Perato Rule – Perato Rule generally relates to the theory that 20% of sales efforts produces 80% of results and very many similar effects.  Some say it is fact and not simply a theory.  In fact, most believers openly state that 80% or their business is written by 20% of the sales force, or 80% of the business comes from 20% of the customers.  Others suggest that 80% of business problems come from 20% of customers.  Also known as Pareto Rule or Pareto Principle, after its originator.

Business Peter Principle – In any business hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence’. The theory that employees rise in rank in an organisation until they are finally promoted to a level, and remain there, at which they do not have the ability to do their job as effectively as they did at a lower ranking.  Originally formulated by Canadian author Laurence J Peter (1919-1990)

Business Pipeline Selling – Refers to the step-by-step process where salespeople progressively go through a known selling process style, or formula, in order to convert a prospect into a customer.  Whenever this occurs, the sales pipeline is often divided into stages for each step in the sales process, where the salesperson is responsible for moving opportunities through each of the stages.  It can also refer to the many facets of a visual presentation within the sales process, where every opportunity is arranged based on the sales stage the salesperson has led the prospect into.

Business Plan – This mainly refers to a written document which sets out the need for a business to plan for their future objectives, and how they will achieve them.  In many cases this will be achieved through their marketing, development, production, and other objectives.

Business Point of Entry – It is an accepted fact that the more experienced salespeople generally ascertain where they believe to be the most logical place, or point in time, to begin a relationship with a customer. Often, this point presents the least difficult entry point or it becomes a place where there is a clear differentiated value that can be worked for mutual benefit. Moreover, this now newly exposed entry point can be the springboard for deeper access to the individual or business being worked on.

Business Positioning Appeal – A calculated methodology that refers to a business and marketing strategy to “position” a product or service in the minds of consumer, thereby appealing to the prospective buyer segment for which that particular positioning has value, and will  hopefully elicit an valuable buying response.

Business Potential – A term used openly in sales to evaluate a salesperson’s assessment, either in dollars, or units and/or relationship, of doing business with a particular area, region, company, group or individual customer.

Business Primary Influences – These generally relate to the overall direct and indirect primary influences on any company, in business at any point in time, and may include Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Sales Personnel, Distributors, Agents, Banks, Lenders, Vendors, Other Institutions, Stock-holders, etc.

Business Profit-and-Loss (Income) Statement – This is a financial document which is designed to provide a summary of business operations, primarily revenues and expenses recorded over a particular period of time.

Business Profit-centre – A business division or a department or a unit which is charged with the responsible of producing a profit.  This may be a shop unit within a chain of shops, or a branch within a network of dealerships.  Importantly a Profit-centre business unit will use a form of ‘Profit and Loss Account’ as a means of managing and reporting the business based on the fact that a profit centre is involved in selling to customers as an alternative to a Cost-centre, which primarily appears to be responsible for internal services and perhaps also the supply to other departments within the group.

Business Rapport – These are usually the things a salesperson or selling group has in common with a prospect.  Most salespeople usually refer only to what matters most to build genuine relationships like names in common (also known as based rapport) joint and/or mutual benefits of doing business with each other and whatever else it may take to get things humming along with as little interruption as possible.

Business Recession Cycle – A sequence of economic activities which are usually typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at other times, through decline. Salespeople who are attuned to a company’s business cycle are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced at the time and know how their products and services can alleviate some of the tougher conditions that may be experienced within the business cycle at any given time.

Business Retailer – A business or individual who stocks, buy’s in, or sells pre-determined or market driven products or services directly to the customer.

Business Retailers – Companies, businesses and/or individuals that generally sell goods from a physical location, either a shop or warehouse, but now more increasingly over the internet, sell products and/or services directly to end consumers and collect sales tax, or goods and services tax (when and where applicable) on those transactions. Some direct sales companies and other organizations might also fit in this category. Since retailers buy at wholesale or in other ways, and sell at retail, is what makes them “retailers”.

Business Review – This is considered to be a powerful tactic for developing key accounts, and business reviews in a formal setting where executives of the selling company formally meet with executives of the customer organization to present what has been accomplished between their two companies during the previous 12-months. When done well, this method is a collaborative two-way dialog, where the sellers and customers are involved in setting and agreeing to mutual goals for the on-going business relationship.

Business Sales Advisor – Often is the next career role many senior salespeople aspire to attain or develop into. Business advisors are perceived to be good at what they do and are looked to for counsel. In fact, many are that highly trusted that the customer does not want to make strategic business decisions (at least in regard to the sales organization’s products or services) before talking to the sales professional advisor. The best business advisor sales professionals are sought after for their counsel generally in areas not directly related to their product or service because they are perceived to have higher than usual business acumen.

Business Sales And Marketing – This is about the business of promoting and selling a company’s products and/or services. The factor of doing business within a business that carries out these activities in order to prepare the company and or it’s sales-force to sell it’s products or services is what the marketing process is all about.  Selling on the other hand, is getting prospects to accept and want to purchase the products or services on offer

Business Sales Cycle in Brief – The sales cycle in short represents the average amount of time it may take from getting a suspect interested enough to become a prospect and the appropriate time cycle needed to progress them to become a client/customer.  That time cycle varies from industry to industry and company to company.  Over time a time frame formula will emerge to suit the individual business associated with sales.

Business Sales Process – This incorporates a series of steps to bring about a desired end result. In sales, the process refers to the clearly defined steps that an organization or a salesperson takes the time or trouble to initiate and secure certain business processes to satisfy all manner of customer requirements.

Business Sales Report/Reporting – A commonly used business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of salespeople too. A sales report can be required daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often may include the need to provide sales forecasts.

Business Savvy – A unique sales term used to describe a sales professional who has strong understanding of business fundamentals, business common sense, and as many other drivers that motivate a customer to make business decisions.

Business Solution Testimonial – This refers to either a verbal or written expression of the value an existing customer has received by having used or purchased a specific product, service, or overall business solution.  Asking for and using testimonials is also a powerful selling tactic, as it provides a third party’s affirmation of the claims a salesperson or a company is making. Testimonials are particularly useful when a prospect or existing customer being presented to is skeptical about your product or service, and the salesperson needs to offer more proof before a decision is made.

Business Structure – Refers to a company’s current legal status or organization. It also often refers to incorporation or the possibility of incorporation.

Business Supply Chain – A progressive chain of businesses or individuals through which a product passes from raw materials to manufacturing, distribution, retailing, etc., until it reaches the end consumer.  Alternately this could refer to a network or system of businesses involved in moving a product from its manufacturing point to the customer. In online retailing, the supply chain usually represents the distributor and manufacturer of a product.

Business Suspects – This refers to those individuals, company’s or organizations that are suspected potential clients but have not been contacted by the salesperson or organization for an exploratory appointment.  These suspects are usually compiled into lists based on territories, business size and revenue ranking and potential status.

Business Synergy – The working together of two or more individuals, groups, businesses companies, etc., to produce a greater result than working individually.

Business Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Business Target Performance – In sales organizations, this may be the term used to describe one or more attainable performance goals around which that business considers and/or may prepare one or more compensation plans.

Business Team Selling – This refers to the ability to sell as a team, and although this term might mean many things to different people, but when team selling occurs, it’ because of pre-defined roles and tactics on the part of the sales team to acquire a given product or service to a specific business.

Business to Business – B2B – These are commercial transactions or activities between two or more businesses.

Business to Consumer – B2C – This primarily refers to transactions in which businesses sell goods and/or services to end consumers or existing customers.

Business Top Dog – This refers to the person who has the highest authority and is in charge of a whole operation, company, business, etc.

Business Trilogy Close – This is an alternative way of saying we will not only give you the product you feel will best serve your needs, but should also be able to include two other items or services you previously found to be valuable to you.  The unique difference in using this close is that the salesperson relies on the application of a set of three items, at the one time, that the prospect feels are of interest to them.

Business Type Sales Pipeline Principle – This is generally known as a linear equivalent of the Sales Funnel principle.  In both equations, prospects need to be fed into the pipeline in order to drop out of the other end as sales and buyers. The length of the pipeline is the sales cycle time, which depends on business type, market situation, and the effectiveness of the sales process.

Business Vendors – Refers to an organization or manufacturer that manufactures and/or supplies specific goods or services to businesses in a specified category, or range of categories, within a particular industry group.

Business Vested Interest – This term is applied when an individual, or business or group has a special interest in something, such as property, an activity, etc., from which there is a high probability of personal and/or financial gain.

Business-To-Business (B2B) Sales – Or in normal communications this is referred to as ‘business to business’. This relates to a commercial trading model by which a business supplies other businesses, and by implication does not generally supply consumers, i.e., domestic private customers (which would be B2C). A B2B provider is therefore a provider of business services or products, for example: cAompany auditors, manufacturers of industrial machinery, conference organizers, corporate hospitality, advertising agencies, trade journals, wholesalers, warehousing and logistics, management consultancies, mining, farming, industrial chemicals, paper mills, etc.

Business-to-Business Discipline – Mostly relates to either personal discipline, or discipline within the context of an organization.  As a job role of any kind, discipline in a necessity.  Discipline can also refer more generally to a certain capability or responsibility, such as ‘financial disciplines’, ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.  Discipline can also mean separately ‘control’ of others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling. In the business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people can be affected by a change or proposition, usually accompanying the sale of a product or a service.

Business-to-Business Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufactuerers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecomms and IT sectors).

Buy Line – Depicted as a graphical, visual “line” that suggests where a prospect is at, at that point of time regarding the emotional and intellectual factors being sold. If a prospect is “above the buy line,” the buyer would theoretically sign the contract if asked to do so at that time.

Buy Now Close – What the seller needs to do here is to simply highlight the cost of not buying now, and putting it off, even for a little while. If done with a pen and paper in hand, in a balance sheet kind of adaptation, it will not be too difficult to show that that the actual cost of doing business today is not as high as it appears, when compared bto the price of leaving it for a latter time.

Buyer – This is the person who purchases or procures the product or service you are selling on the day. The irony here is that the person may also be the decision maker, but not necessarily so.

Buyer Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Buyer Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Buyer and Prospect – This refers to a potential buyer or customer for specific products and or services.

Buyer and the Decision Maker – This refers to an individual (or group of individuals) who are in a position to make the final decision to purchase (or not to purchase) whatever is being sold at the time.

Buyer Behaviour – This generally the way, or way, a consumer identifies, considers, and chooses products and services before they commit to buy.  Buyer behaviour is often influenced by the consumers want’s, need’s, desires, aspirations and inhibitions, together with their role and standing within the community of the social and cultural environment they live in.

Buyer Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Buyer Letter Of Indemnity – A document in which an individual, company, etc., guarantees to protect either a purchaser or another from costs, liability, etc., as a result of certain actions which may be carried out.

Buyer Market Strategic Plan – This is usually the approach the individual, team or company will use to market and sell products, services and solutions to a buyer market whether it be to the end consumer, direct sales, retailers, wholesales, distributors or the internet.

Buyer Objection/Overcoming Objections – Technically (in the role of sales) an objection is a point of resistance that is raised by a prospect, and primarily, usually price, such as, “It’s too expensive,” but can be brought up at anything at any stage of the selling process.

Buyer of Real Estate – Buyer of the listed property.

Buyer Perception – The notion of how something is seen or regarded by someone, usually by the prospect or customer, irrespective of what is believed or presented by the seller, ie what it really means to the customer after they acquire it.

Buyer PersonaFirst defined in 2002, the buyer persona is a powerful tool for both salespeople and marketing folks. It is also considered to be semi-fictional representation of a salespersons ideal customer based on market research and real data about possible existing customers. While it helps inbound marketers define their target audience, it can also help salespeople qualify the leads available to them.

Buyer Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Buyer Qualification – This refers to the process of determining whether a potential buyer has obvious (and certain) characteristics that qualify him or her as a lead.  These characteristics could be budget, authority, time line and so on.

Buyer Return on Investment (ROI) – This refers to what the prospect gets for investing time and trust in a sales organization – any sales organization.  There is always a good ROI whenever a solution costs less and expends less than a prospect would have to expend should that product or service solution not been made available to them in the first place.  When costs are defrayed by working with an ethically motivated sales organization the ROI is always good for both the buyer and seller alike.

Buyer Value – This is often considered the primary reason for a buyer to purchase something. Value is the relative worth, utility, importance, or perceived financial benefit that is assigned by a buyer to the product or service an organization or individual may sell.

Buyer with an Amiable Style – The prospect, customer or new buyer who takes an amiable approach is generally the one who is agreeable, devoted, responsible, warm hearted, considerate, caring, practical, patient, but is also the one that is generally mostly indecisive in everything.  Why?  Simply because this person does not like “rocking the boat” and try to be all things to all people.

Buyer – In most cases, this refers to a professional purchasing person in a business, but can also mean a private consumer. Buyers are not usually major decision-makers by what they buy, when and how they buy it, and how much they pay are prescribed for them by the business they work for. If you are selling a routine predictable product, then you may well be able to restrict your dealings to buyers; if you are selling a new product or service of any significance, buyers will tend to act as influencers as to how they believe that product or service could best be sold.

Buyer’s Needs Proposal Automation Software – Proposal automation software refers to newly created software that automates the creation, delivery and acceptance of a personalized sales proposal that is designed to theoretically best meet a buyer’s needs.

Buyer’s Remorse – Generally the experience of what may be envisaged to be a poorly sold customer, who, for whatever reason, is feeling some form of anxiety after making a buying commitment that can often lead to a back-out from the sale, or a cancellation if the follow-up is not handled properly.

Buyers – The best part here is, that the people who could have conceivably bought from you are now buying from you and your company.  Remember this, when you first make contact with a referral you have never met before, you are still interacting with a potential buyer.  That also goes for the fact than when you are interacting with the largest client your company may be dealing with, you’re still interacting with a buyer.

Buyers Objection – A term often used in sales organizations or sales processes when a prospect challenges or rejects a salesperson’s suggestion, or when the prospect brings up issues that prevent the sale from moving forward.  Alternately it may refer to a prospect’s challenge to or the rejection of a product or service, as a natural part of the sales process.  However, these days, many sales organizations tend to be moving away from the word “objection,” preferring to use a more collaborative term such as “concerns” to describe the same reaction by the prospect.  Regardless of the term used, how a salesperson handles the situation will determine whether a sale will be made.

Buyers Target Market – A specific set of customers or organizations that a salesperson or business organization may deem the most suitable for a certain or pre-defined product or service.

Buying Atmosphere – The manner in which the salesperson sets up the sales presentation in order for the prospect or customer to have a great experience – and in the process work at avoiding any pressure or awkward moments that may come of it. People, in general, like to feel that they’re making a good buying decision, but, in general, most don’t like to feel that they’re “being sold” on a product or service.

Buying Criteria – A buying criteria is generally based on the prospect being supplied with all the information they may need to make a buying decision – naturally encased within a selling format.  It can be written, or unwritten, as needed, and will often answer questions like, “What is it?”, “Why should I buy it?”, “Why is the price so high?”, “Why would I need it?” and so on.

Buying Cycle/Process – This is the process that all potential buyers go through before they decide whether or not to make a purchase.  Although the buying cycle has been sub-divided down to many sub-stages, in order for it to align with many different business models.  Mostly it can be summed of these three lifecycle stages, which include awareness, evaluation and purchase.  Here are the three in more detail:  Awareness – the prospects have either become aware of your product/s or service/s, or that they need to be fulfilled.  Evaluation – they are now aware that your product/s or service/s could fulfill their need/s or want/s, and are trying to determine this is/are the best fit/s.  Purchase – if they are ready to make a purchase – they will.

Buying Factor Pricing – The process used to evaluate the eventual price of a product by taking into account the cost of production, the price it was purchased by the seller at that point, the price of similar competing products, the market situation, and the affordability factor of the buyers at that point and the exclusivity of those goods or services in the available and determined marketplace.

Buying for the Top of the Funnel (TOFU) – This is usually the first stage of the buying process.  The leads generated and/or isolated at this stage bare set aside because they are identified as the individuals or company’s the have a problem within a certain area and are looking for more information – if not a solution – to their problem or challenge.  At this point, TOFU is when marketers are able to create helpful content that will aid those leads in identifying this problem, and providing the appropriate next steps toward a solution that the sales force, or individual salesperson, are able to address.

Buying Hot Button – A tangible and/or emotive reason a prospect considers purchasing a product or service.  The stronger the “hot button” the more likely the sale will be made.

Buying Hot Buttons in Selling – Any tangible and/or emotive cluster of reasons a prospect may consider purchasing a product or service.  Also applies to those areas which, if known, can be used to position solutions to align with a decision maker’s most important criteria for making a purchasing selection.

Buying Minimum Order Size – There are many manufacturers and/or distributors that may require retailers to place orders that meet a minimum value or unit counts. This requirement would be assumed to be the minimum order size.

Buying Motivators – Those areas which, if known by salespeople and their management, can be used to position solutions to align with a decision maker’s most key criteria for selection.

Buying Patterns Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

Buying Process – This is another way of saying “the buying process.” These are the stages a potential buyer goes through, from learning about new product/s or service/s to either become a loyal customer, or to reject the approach.  With this the potential buyer may, or may not, end up purchasing / adopting that/those product/s or service/s.

Buying Proposal – The proposal is based on any initial offer that is made, either verbally or in a written form generally between the selling organization and the customer organization in order to initiate some manner of primary business activity.

Buying Sales Methodology – Refers to the “how” of the art of selling as a skill set.  The majority of sales methodology aligns to the customer buying decision process and the orientation, objectives, analysis, discussion, initiation, evaluation and decision processes and applicable methodologies.

Buying Signal – This refers to a statement or indication from a prospect or customer that suggests s/he is considering making a purchase.  Buying signals cover a wide range of behaviours.  Some of the most common include: when the prospect / customer begins to ask questions after the salesperson has presented; when the prospect / customer is saying yes to questions being asked; when the salesperson hears one or more positive comments pertaining to a certain point or points.  Most of the time, buying signals are subtle; they suggest that the salesperson should attempt a close – or at least a trial close.  Buying signals indicate an attitude of acceptance and invite at least a trial close – because what is happening at that point is simply a form of communication from the prospect indication that they may be ready to buy, either verbally or non-verbally.  And example of this would be when they ask the salesperson, “When can it be delivered?”  Here the salesperson needs to answer the question with a question as a trial close or temperature tester, or alternately ask, “If I can deliver by the ___, will you place the order today?” and then ask one more appropriate  question to close the sale

Buying Signals – Buying signals are anything from an off-handed comment to a noted gesture from a prospect which indicates the prospect considering buying your product or service. The most common buying signal is the question: “How much is it?” Others are questions or comments like: “What colours does it come in?”, “What’s the lead-time?”, “Who else do you supply?”, “Is delivery free?” “Do you use it yourself?”, and surprisingly, “It’s too expensive.”

Buying Signal Trial Close – This is the technique where a salesperson asks a minor buying question to test a prospect’s level of temperament (a temperature tester) towards the purchase.  It’s a technique by which a salesperson tests the prospect’s readiness to buy, traditionally employed in response to a buying signal.  There is also no need to immediately respond to a buying once one becomes obvious.  Simply pause, and ask politely why a certain factor is the question is key.  They may ask, “Does it come in green?” to which the seller may reply, “If I can get you one in green, would you take it?”

Buying Warmth – This is a form of behavioural, non-verbal and other signs that a prospect likes what he or she sees.  In fact, it’s a very positive sign from the sales person’s perspective, but not an invitation to jump straight to the close.

Buying Wheeling and Dealing – The process of writing a profit, which could sometimes be done dishonestly.  Wheeling and Dealing also refers to the normal buy when buying and selling things, or acting as a go-between for two parties.

Buy-out Lease Purchase – A finance purchase agreement in which an item, generally a car, is leased for a certain period of time with an option to purchase at the end of the contract.

Buzz Marketing – Also known as Stealth Marketing. This is a method or style of advertising a certain product where the prospects don’t realise they are being persuaded to buy some form of external persuasion such as existing customers, or well known individuals recommending a product on Internet Chat Forums, without those being sold to realising that the person is paid by the company or actually works for the company or manufacturer selling the product.

Buzzword – Refers to the use of a word or phrase which has become fashionable, popular, sounds technical or important, and is used to impress people.

 

Sales Dictionary

Sales Dictionary entries in C

Go to . . . A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

C2C (Consumer-To-Consumer) – This is a marketing/business model (compared with B2B, B2C, etc) including ‘car-boot’ sales, yard sales, small private ads, and E-Bay, Amazon and other big C2C internet portals, which by the end of the first decade of the 2000s had become a substantial aspect of global economics and human society, and a real threat to the long-term future of some very large corporate industries.

CAC (Customer Acquisition Cost) – This relates to the total Sales and Marketing cost.  To calculate this to your business, follow these steps for a given time period (month, quarter or Year).  Add up the whole program costs, then include the advertising spend, salaries, commissions, bonuses and other overheads.  Now divide this figure by the number of new customers in that time period. – For example if you spend $500,000 on Sales and Marketing in a given month and were able to add 50 new customers that same month, your CAC will be clearly seen for that month.  As a guide, the cost of making a face to face call these days is suggested to be somewhere around $170 to $200.  If a salesperson has a strike rate of 1 in 10 selling to new customers seen and presented to, that client acquisition cost could most likely be around $1,700 to $2,000 for each new client sold.  In a 1 in 8 close rate $1,360 to $1,600.  In a 1 in 6 close rate $1,020 to $1,200.  And in a 1 in 4 close rate $680 to $800 each new client sold.

Cain Store Unit Pricing – This relates to a practice in which mainly retailers and supermarkets expresses price in terms of both the total price of an item and the price per unit of measure (e.g. per ounce). Common in larger grocery stores and chains.

Calculable Measurable SMART Goal – A mnemonic used to describe the components of a well-defined and realistic goal statement.  It stands for a goal needing to be Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, and Time bound.

Calculated Positioning Appeal – A calculated methodology that refers to a business and marketing strategy to “position” a product or service in the minds of consumer, thereby appealing to the prospective buyer segment for which that particular positioning has value, and will  hopefully elicit an valuable buying response.

Calculated Profit Margin Profitability – This can mean the ratio of profitability that measures how much money a company actually keeps in its earnings.  This calculated either as a net income divided by revenues, or net profits divided by sales.

Calculated Risk – This is a risk which has been undertaken after careful consideration has been given to the likely outcome.

Calculated Sale – Relates to a sale where there are multiple decision makers and/or influencers, who often tend to have different requirements and agendas.  Complex sales usually typically take much longer than average to achieve and orchestrate a result. In some cases, this is also referred to as a strategic sale, tactical sale or calculated sale.

Calculated Sales Anticipated Forecasts – These kind of sales anticipated forecasts are future sales predictions based on activities and results from nominated past sales periods. They are predictions made by a sales organization of prospective sales that are in the sales pipeline, their associated revenue vales and the period of time in which they will convert to and order being placed.

Calculated Win Rates – This refers to the ratio of sales that have been won in comparison to the total number of sales that have been created, including those that may have been won and lost. Win rates are usually expressed as a percentage of revenue or a number of unique sales opportunities available. Some organizations include sales made in a ‘non decision’ status in their calculations of win rates. Other organizations consider ‘non decision’ sales as a part of their losses status. Win rates are typically calculated (or reported) by the percentage of revenue of the sales made.

Calculator Close – Whenever the sellers uses calculator to do calculations, it adds credibility.  If the salesperson uses a piece of paper to do the calculations, or worse still just calculates things in their head, there will always be a credibility gap.  Using a calculator eliminates that gap – prospects trust the calculator.

Calendar Close – If they are not ready to close now, agree a future date when you can meet. This at least keeps the sale alive and you return another day. It may be just what you are seeking to take you to the next step in the strategy.  And To ensure appointments are kept, the salesperson should put every appointment they make in front of every prospect in their diary.

Calendars and Sales Force Automation (SFA) – This relates to automating the sales activities within an organization. A comprehensive SFA software solution provides functions such as contact management and account management, workflow and approval processes, sales lead and opportunity tracking capabilities, note and information sharing, quick proposal and presentation generation, product configurators, calendars and to-do lists and reporting capabilities.

Call – A visit or formal meeting with a customer or prospect.

Call after a Pre-Call Plan – This refers to the salesperson’s written description of either the determined objectives for the call, the key questions that will be asked during the call, and/or the strategy that will be taken in order to move the sales process forward in a positive manner.

Call-Back Close – When you are calling back for a second time, never ask, “Did you think it over?” instead come into your call with a new opening line that is capable of getting the prospects attention immediately.  “Last time we met John, there were a few things we went over that I have had a good long think about and I feel that I must have forgotten to share this with you when I last called.  But before I do that, let me briefly summarise what we had been working on.”

Call Centre B2B Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufactuerers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and IT sectors).

Call Centre Script – A term used by sales organizations and call centers to describe the documents that help guide sales professionals and/or telemarketers on key points to say in order to gain and maintain the interest of the party being called.

Call Centre Telesales – This refers to the procedure of selling using the phone and covers both the application of inbound and outbound calls. While outside salespeople may consider they generally and consistently sell over the phone, this term primarily refers to specialised outbound call centers.

Call centre – also called a contact centre.  It is considered to be a department for outgoing and/or incoming (outbound/inbound) telephone calls to and/or from customers.  More recently this has been extended to email communications also.  But not extending to email marketing.  Call centres can be reactive (inbound) or proactive (outbound – covering telemarketing, telesales, and research), or both.  Call centres can be in-house, part of the employed organization, or external – effectively a contractor or an agency. Many of today’s modern in-house or long-term out-sourced call centres are effectively customer service centres or departments, containing staff dedicated to telesales and customer services activities. Other call centre activities and operations can be concerned more with short-term telesales, telemarketing or market research campaigns. Run well, a call centre is a wonderful function, but run poorly, call centres are a nightmare for staff and customers alike. Some call centres are now such vast business units that they warrant being ‘off-shored’ (outsourced to countries with lower costs), which generally equates to corporate own-foot-shooting on a truly huge scale.

Call Interest Script – A term used by sales organizations and call centers to describe the documents that help guide sales professionals and/or telemarketers on key points to say in order to gain and maintain the interest of the party being called.

Call Leave Behind – A sample of a product or a piece of written material about the product or service that a salesperson may leave with a prospect or customer during the call or at the end of a sales call or follow-up call.

Call Pre-Approach – An obvious two word statement used to describe the activities a competent salesperson engages in either prior to making contact with a prospect, and/or after an appointment is made. This could include researching the prospect’s business, assessing if a competitor is currently entrenched, determining the point of entry with the most potential, completing a pre-call plan worksheet, etc.

Call Process Continues – A term that refers to an outcome of a sales call where the next steps have been defined at a high level, and while no commitment not had been made by the prospect in this type of situation, they may however be willing to explore the situation further and agree to another call from the seller.

Call Profile – Researched information regarding leads or determined prospects such as first and last name, best time to call, background information, possible needs, and most importantly, names in common that salespeople can use to create and build rapport.

Call to Action – The-is refers to the process of asking for a commitment, although this may not necessarily be for a commitment to purchase.  Other types of commitment could be for another appointment, a future meeting, to bring in a more senior person, or the promise to explore specific issues with another decision maker within the same organization.

Call to Action Recommendation – The known processes of summarizing to a client the benefits of a product or service, and outlining a call to action to move forward with a decision.

Call/Calling – A formal personal face-to-face visit or telephone call by a salesperson to a prospect or existing customer.  Also referred to a sales call (for any sales visit or phone contact), or cold call (in the case of a first contact without introduction or notice in writing).

Call-back – A return call or a salesperson making repeated on-going phone calls or contacts to attempt to get a prospect to purchase or to find out if a prospect has made a decision regarding purchasing a product or service.

Call-blocks – Denotes a span of time, normally 2 to 4 hours, spent telemarketing to data-mine, prospect, or perform phone demos and follow-ups.

Call-in – The times when a prospect makes contact with a salesperson or the company in first expressing interest in a products or services.

Calls – These are considered to be either a Lead or Prospect contact, and may be conducted in-person or via the phone, at trade shows, or any other way that salespeople are able to make actual attempts to contact a lead or a prospect.

Calls and Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

Call-to-Action – A pre-determined phrase, button, link or other site element that specifically asks a visitor to take some action.  This may include purchasing a product, registering, subscribing or other similar action or activity.

Call-to-Action Lead – This relates to a person or company who shows interest in a product or service, in some way, shape or form.  It may be the result of them filling out a form, subscribing to a blog, or they may have shared their contact information in exchange for a coupon.  Generating leads is a critical is a critical part of a sales prospect’s journey to becoming a customer, and it falls in the second stage of the larger inbound marketing methodology.  Landing pages, forms, offers and calls-to-action are just a few tools to help companies generate more on-line leads.

Cancellation Prevention – A process that is intended to help prevent buyer’s remorse and cancellations.

Cancellations and Monthly Recurring Revenue – This relates to the amount of revenue a subscription-based business receives each month and includes MMR gained by new accounts (net new), MRR gained form up-sells (net positive), MMR lost from down-sells (net negative), and also MRR lost from cancellations (net loss).

Cancelled Debt Write-Off – A term used in accounting, to reduce the book value of an asset, sometimes to as low as zero, or to cancel a debt which has not been, or is unlikely to be, paid.

Candidate Field Day – World-wide this is referred to a situation when a candidate for a sales position “rides-along” with an experienced salesperson in order to learn more about the position he or she is interviewing for.

Candidates for Target Salary – This generally refers to a form of sales compensation within a business, that concerns itself with the mix of salary and incentive that is generally universally considered necessary in making a job appealing to attract a qualified set of candidates for a specific type of sales position.

Cannot Come Back Close – This close infers that they need to buy immediately and you can’t give them any second chances or the ability to place an order at a later date at that price.  You make them an offer, but you have to make it short-term so that they must choose to buy immediately, and they cannot come back tomorrow – because the price will be higher.

Canonical URL – Known as the canonical meta-tag that directs search engines to index the preferred URL, for site content that is available from multiple URLs.

Canonicalization – This is the practice of selecting a preferred URLs, or URLs, for a specific set of content. Many modern web sites allow content to be accessed from a number of URLs, including URLs that may contain session or query information. Canonicalization helps to manage which of those URLs search engines index and credit.

Canvas – A sales word for the activity of prospecting to attain an appointment to see a client.

Canvass – A form of personal cold-calling at a prospect’s office or more commonly these days by telephone (by a salesperson), in an attempt to arrange an appointment, or to present a product, or to gather information.

Canvassing – See Canvass

Canvassing Call – A personal visit made to an organization or a prospects office without having the benefit of making a prior appointment.

Canvassing Calls – A sales method that generally typically refers to the first telephone call made to a prospective customer.  More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as ‘door-knocking’..

Canvassing Hunter – A slang term in sales that refers to a canvasser, salesperson or referrer whose primary job is to find and bring in new business.

Capabilities Folder – A folder that holds a summary of your organization’s products and services, organized to be used as a leave behind during the initial (or an early) sales call. The objective of having a capabilities folder is to provide a handy reference tool to the customer about your organization.  Ideally, capabilities folders should be customized to the customer being called on.

Capability Discipline – Mostly relates to either personal discipline, or discipline within the context of an organization.  As a job role of any kind, discipline in a necessity.  Discipline can also refer more generally to a certain capability or responsibility, such as ‘financial disciplines’, ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.  Discipline can also mean separately ‘control’ of others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling. In the business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people can be affected by a change or proposition, usually accompanying the sale of a product or a service.

Capacity Employment Equity – A system that promotes equal employment opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender, race, ability, etc.

Capital Allowance – This refers to the money spent by a company on a variety of fixed assets such as buildings, vehicles, machinery, which are then deducted from its profits before tax is calculated.

Capital Gains Tax – A form of Tax payable on profits made on the sale of a variety certain types of assets by a company or individual.

Capital Outlay – A calculation of the sums of money which have been spent for the acquisition of business assets, such as land, buildings, vehicles, machinery.

Capitalize – This is an action, or series of actions, a salesperson may take when a situation is favorable to a buying decision, even though the salesperson does not have direct control over the situation. As an example, a weak economy is not under a salesperson’s direct control, may be something a salesperson could capitalize on if the product or service alleviates a condition caused by the economy’s weakness.

Capped-Rate – A capped interest rate, usually on a loan, which cannot rise above the upper set level but is able to be varied beneath this level.

Capture – This is a method or process used in the securing payments from a payment process after a specific authorization.

Car Lease Purchase – A finance purchase agreement in which an item, generally a car, is leased for a certain period of time with an option to purchase at the end of the contract.

Car Lemon – Mostly refers to a defective product which is either of poor quality and/or fails to function as promised. Predominantly used in the automotive industry, and more specifically for a poor-quality second-hand car, or a sub-standard new vehicle.

Car Marque – Primarily refers to a brand name or model of a well-known manufactured product, especially an expensive car.

Car Tyre Kicker – This generally refers to a person who appears to be interested in purchasing an item, especially a secondhand car, but has no intention of buying it.

Card Floor Limit – In retailing, this process refers to the highest amount of money that can be paid for a sale for which a debit or credit card can be used by a customer without authorisation from the customer’s bank.

Career Lock – A commercial situation in which a person feels they may not be able to, or cannot leave their job because they are afraid of losing benefits connected to the job.

Career Sales Advisor – Often is the next career role many senior salespeople aspire to attain or develop into. Business advisors are perceived to be good at what they do and are looked to for counsel. In fact, many are that highly trusted that the customer does not want to make strategic business decisions (at least in regard to the sales organization’s products or services) before talking to the sales professional advisor. The best business advisor sales professionals are sought after for their counsel generally in areas not directly related to their product or service because they are perceived to have higher than usual business acumen.

Caring Person with an Amiable Style – The prospect, customer or new buyer who takes an amiable approach is generally the one who is agreeable, devoted, responsible, warm hearted, considerate, caring, practical, patient, but is also the one that is generally mostly indecisive in everything.  Why?  Simply because this person does not like “rocking the boat” and try to be all things to all people.

Carload – Refers to a shipment of goods which, because of their weight, will qualify for a lower shipping rate. The term ‘Less than carload’ refers to a shipment which is below the given size/weight necessary to qualify for such a rate. Originally used for railway freight car transportation, it also applies to other methods of freight transport, notably shipping containers.  For this reason the similar terms of containerload and ‘less than containerload’ are now in common use.

Carpet Bomb – This is a sneaky electronic process where an advertisement is sent to a large number of people by e-mail or onto their computer screens.

Case Studies and MOFU – The sector that a sales lead enters after identifying a problem or specific challenge for the prospect or customer.  Once established the prospect or customer will be looking to conduct further research to find a solution to the problem.  Typically middle of the funnel offers may include case studies, product brochures, or anything that brings the seller business into the equation as a solution to the problem the lead is looking to solve.

Cash Advance – In sales, this form of compensation generally refers to a cash advance in anticipation of future sales performance or sales written and the employer is waiting out the cooling off period before the commission can be paid.  It is sometimes seen as a way to provide a salesperson with cash compensation without providing them with a guaranteed salary. Draws against are typically recovered against future commission payments the salesperson earns. Some commissions only sales organizations offer “non-recoverable draws, often considered similar to a temporary salary, during the first months of the salesperson’s employment.

Cash Cow – A marketing term that refers to a product or service that is highly profitable, and/or is able to generate significant cash for the selling organization.  It can also be a steady, dependable source of income which provides money for the rest of a business.

Cash Flow – Refers either to cash or other collected revenues being generated over a given period of time.  Also may refer to the level of money projected to be available for other transactions after deducting expenses from income sources.  The cash flow is then referred to the amount of net cash receipts over and above expenses paid over the course of a specified accounting period.

Cash Flow Forecast – This may also be called Cash Flow Projection, and is an estimate of the amounts of cash outgoings and incomings of a company over a specific time period, usually one year.

Cash Flow Transfers – This related to the movement of money into and out of a business, a company or an organisation.

Casting Vote – This is the deciding vote that is usually cast by the presiding officer to resolve a deadlock when there are an equal number of votes on both sides.

Catalogue Direct Marketing – This is when the marketing of products, services, etc., is done directly to strategic individual potential customers by sending them catalogues, leaflets, brochures, etc., by mail (including e-mail), or calling them on the telephone or flushing them out and then calling on them door-to-door.  It is also known to be a form of retailing where a producer/manufacturer, importer, or distributor markets directly to an end consumer without the use of a retailer.

Catalogue Incentives – This relates to any form of compensation or reward made to a salesperson or sales team to influence immediate and future sales results. These incentives typically include compensation elements such as bonuses, commissions, and other non-financial rewards an organization may offer, such as recognition trips, catalog award points, etc.

Catalogue Multi-Channel Retailing – A form of retailing products through more than one channel where channels include online stores, online marketplaces like Amazon, physical stores, physical catalogs, and other similar factors.

Catalyst – A term used in sales organizations which refers to a salesperson or sales manager who stimulates, or is capable of stimulating, positive and creative change, and who causes a process or event to happen through both direct and indirect efforts.

Catch-22 – Here is an expression that properly refers only to a problem whose solution is inherently self-defeating.  In the wrong hands it is used to describe any insoluble or difficult problem.

Categorised Market Sector – An integral part of the market that can be described, categorised and then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics.  These sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, as an example, a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc.

Category Killer – This is a sad term that denotes the large companies that put smaller and less efficient competing companies out of business.

Category Vendors – Refers to an organization or manufacturer that manufactures and/or supplies specific goods or services to businesses in a specified category, or range of categories, within a particular industry group.

Cause Dedicated and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Cause Sales Questions – Perhaps the most important type of questions are sales questions.  These questions are constantly at the root of effective selling, consulting, and coaching. There are generally four types of high-level analysis based questions, and these offer, Clarification, Cause, Implication, Quantify.  Moreover, each having its own role in the discovery process.

Causes and Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Caution Close – The salesperson should also introduce a note of caution to the prospect by explaining the disadvantages of not making a positive decision at the time of the presentation.  “Let me help you avoid any unnecessary expense by doubling the order at the current price before the price rise next month”

Caveat Emptor – Latin for “let the buyer beware.” This is generally used when the buyer takes the risks and is responsible for checking the condition or quality of the item they have purchased.

Celebrity Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Central Buying Office or Organization – This phrase (or title) relates to the main office or individual who makes inventory (and/or other) purchasing decisions for a group or chain of retail outlets.

Central Counterparty – Someone who acts on behalf of both parties in a transaction, so that the buyer and seller do not have to deal with each other directly.

Centre of Attention Style – The buyers who take an expressive approach to the selling process are usually want to be the centre of attention, can sometimes be manipulative, as well as friendly, animated, enthusiastic, excited, spontaneous, gracious, eager, talkative, energized, pleasant, self-promoting, passionate, sociable, independent, commanding and creative.             

CEO Top Dog – This refers to the person who has the highest authority and is in charge of a whole operation, company, business, etc.

Certain Probability – Refers to the likelihood that a given event will occur at some time in the near future. In defining a sales pipeline, historic probability is generally the number that will convey the likelihood that a specific sale will occur in a certain way.  Probability is typically expressed as a percentage between 10% and 100%.

Certain Target Market – A specific set of customers or organizations that a salesperson or business organization may deem the most suitable for a certain or pre-defined product or service.

CGS (Cost of Goods Sold) – This is the difference between GROSS sales and the cost of goods sold (CGS) before operating expenses are taken out to determine net profit.

Chain Of Command – A processing system used in a business, or in the military, in which authority is wielded and delegated from top management down through every level of employee. Subsequently the chain of command instructions flow downwards and accountability flows upwards.

Chain of Shops Profit-centre – A business division or a department or a unit which is charged with the responsible of producing a profit.  This may be a shop unit within a chain of shops, or a branch within a network of dealerships.  Importantly a Profit-centre business unit will use a form of ‘Profit and Loss Account’ as a means of managing and reporting the business based on the fact that a profit centre is involved in selling to customers as an alternative to a Cost-centre, which primarily appears to be responsible for internal services and perhaps also the supply to other departments within the group.

Chain Store – Refers to multiple retail outlets that are under common ownership or management who engage in centralized purchasing and other joint duties, including overall and internal marketing.

Chain Store Mass Market – A retail store or a chain of retail stores that sell goods and services to a broader spectrum of consumers, usually at very competitive prices and price points. The larger chain stores with simple displays and limited customer service are usually the ones that promote this kind of behaviour.

Challenge and MOFU – The sector that a sales lead enters after identifying a problem or specific challenge for the prospect or customer.  Once established the prospect or customer will be looking to conduct further research to find a solution to the problem.  Typically middle of the funnel offers may include case studies, product brochures, or anything that brings the seller business into the equation as a solution to the problem the lead is looking to solve.

Challenge and Solution – A summary of how a salesperson addresses a prospect’s challenge, or problem, or provides an opportunity to the prospect as a viable alternative. It generally includes the product or service the salesperson intends to sell, including the units, dollars involved, method, approach, etc. that is being recommended.

Challenge Issue – This refers to a partially or fully exposed business problem, challenge or concern that has the possibility to drive the need for your product or service to be considered by your prospect or an existing customer. Most business issues tend to reflect areas the customer is challenged by, or the ones that are predominantly on the customer’s mind. By aligning their product or service to these business issues, salespeople are perceived as more consultative and valuable to the customer.

Challenge Close – type A – It dares the prospect to take action. “I understand that why it’s difficult for you to make a decision right now.  I even know why you’re sitting on the fence right now.”  Now shut up and wait for a reply.

Challenge Close – type B – This alternative can be used to reverse a somewhat negative mode to a more positive approach by the prospect. “I am aware you suggested it can’t be done in time.  If we got the parts delivered earlier than we normally would, or got in some extra help assembling things at the warehouse, I’m sure we could produce an acceptable product within the timeframe you want.”

Challenge Cause Close – Whenever the prospect says they want something, the salesperson answers with an ownership based answer with a tag-on question asking why they want it.  “Mark, I understand how well this new innovation can fit into your existing work area, but for my own piece of mind, I would like you to tell me what you hope to achieve buy installing it there?”  The more they talk, the more they sell, close and consolidate the sale in their own eyes.

Challenge of Consultative Selling Ideology – This implies that the salesperson is taking on the responsibility for a full, thorough, and all encompassing professional diagnosis of the challenge before them in order to suggest a solution – with no preconception as to the outcome.        

Challenge Slump – This generally refers to a period of time when a salesperson is having problems or challenges making sales.

Challenged Product Offer – How the product and/or service offer is positioned and presented to the prospect or to the market, (which would normally include features and/or advantages) and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (via alternate segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully.

Challenged Push-Back – A sales slang term for feedback from a customer who may be challenging or rejecting an idea or a recommendation made by the salesperson.

Challenges and a Think Tank – This occurs when a  group or organization which may research and/or advise on issues relating to technology, economy, politics, selling processes and social strategy invites a group of like-minded people together to collectively think-through solutions to a variety of challenges and/or specific problems confronting and industry or selling-based team or organization.

Challenges and Sales – According to sales expert Anthony Parinello the art of sales is based on proactively understanding the needs and problems of others by using the art of honest persuasion to highlight possible solutions to those problems and to encounter others to believe in what the seller says and to invest their money and time in what the seller proposes – mildly paraphrased.

Challenges and Thought Leadership – A (generally academic) term used to project an image of innovation and/or a forward vision associated with that innovation. The best of the sales organizations and salespeople who are mainly perceived to be “thought leaders” are the ones looked to for creative ideas and innovative approaches to today’s known business challenges and problems.

Challenges and Troubleshooting – The art of identifying and solving challenges and/or problems which may arise in a selling situation or the workplace.

Challenges of a Recession Cycle – A sequence of economic activities which are usually typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at other times, through decline. Salespeople who are attuned to a company’s business cycle are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced at the time and know how their products and services can alleviate some of the tougher conditions that may be experienced within the business cycle at any given time.

Challenging Need Customer – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Challenging Proposal/Sales Proposal – This is a proposal that is usually based on a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms, conditions, and warranty arrangements, created by a salesperson or selling organization to a specified prospect. Mostly this can be an immensely challenging part of the process to get things right, in that it must be a concise, yet complete, persuasive and objective, but well specified while purposely orientated to the customer’s applications.  Here an outline proposal is often deemed to be a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesn’t need.

Chamber Of Commerce – Comprises of a group of business owners and managers, who in a town or city form a network to promote other local business including theirs.

Champion – Refers to someone in the organization who becomes your internal coach, or assumes that role, supporting your individual solution. This may also refer to the customer executive who is the primary advocate for the project or solution you are attempting to sell, e.g. Executive Sponsor.

Change Engineering – This refers to the practice of solving financial problems or the creation of financial opportunities in a company, by changing or forcing the change of the way money is borrowed, debts paid, etc.

Change Places Close – This is one of the primary ways a salesperson is able to narrow down, then funnel some of the issues that cause the prospect to hold back on the reasons they won’t buy – and these are also generally the same reasons they won’t share this with you as well.

Change the Negotiator Close – Whenever the sales manager believes that a certain negotiation by one of their salespeople is either dying a natural death or too much is being away, they may choose to change the salesperson.  This would allow the negotiations to get under way with a near to fresh start. Explain that the previous negotiator has been called away.  “Now before we get things under way, are we able to review what has already been agreed to so far?”  The new negotiator then goes over all the decisions and agreements in detail, working on all the exchanges that he or she does not like.

Changed Extension Strategy – A marketing strategy that is designed to stop a product going into decline by making small changes to it, reaching new customers or finding new uses for it.  As an example a drink originally sold as an aid to those recovering from illness is now sold as a sports drink.

Channel Multi-Channel Retailing – A form of retailing products through more than one channel where channels include online stores, online marketplaces like Amazon, physical stores, physical catalogs, and other similar factors.

Channel Of Distribution – This is a means of distributing a product from the manufacturer to the customer/end user via warehouses, wholesalers, retailers, etc.

Channel Partners B2B Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufactuerers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecomms and IT sectors).

Channeled Passion – Those salespeople who are known to have passion are the ones that are said to have boundless enthusiasm for what they do and for helping their customer succeed. When passion, properly channeled, it can be a powerful selling behavior, as the sellers customers can also feel it and are also usually energized by it.

Channels of Distribution – This includes all of the business entities involved in the paperwork and physical movement of goods and services from the producer to the consumer.  The simplest channel would be a manufacturer selling direct to a consumer, but channels may include the use of salespeople, sales reps, brokers, wholesalers, distributors, rack jobbers, trade shows personnel, and/or retail outlets.

Characteristic Feature – A characteristic of a product or service or the distinct part of a product or service that can be described. It may also refer to an aspect of a product or service, eg., colour, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc.  Salespeople often believe features sell products, but it is the benefit of a feature that is more attributable for the sale.  It also refers to a function of a product that can solve for a potential buyer’s need or pain point; usually a distinguishing characteristic that helps boost appeal.

Characteristic Prominence – In any manner of sales compensation design, this factor refers to the level of influence a salesperson has within the sales process.  Most sales processes where the salesperson has an above average or somewhat high prominence, this reflects on a situation where a decision is made where its often due to the salesperson’s experience, understanding, affable characteristics and/or ability to be persuasive.

Characteristics of Segmentation – The division of a market into discrete smaller units that generally have similar characteristics. This in turn allows a selling organization to focus on the unique needs of each segment, and to develop strategies to capitalize on the different opportunities available as the needs of each segment.

Characteristics Template of Ideal Prospects (TIP) – The creation of this template is the easiest part as it is simply a list of the characteristics shared by a company’s best customers.  Once the characteristics are compiled, those listed characteristics are then able to point marketers towards the promising suspects gathered from industry lists, industry sources, industry journals or the yellow pages telephone directory.  There is also your own company or individual ideal or referrals lists that you have not contacted about your products, services or solutions, but who may benefit from what you have to offer.

Charged Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Charity First Mover – An individual, a business, an organization or a charity that obtains an advantage by being the first (first mover) to establish a specific market or by establishing  itself in a specific market by producing a new product or offering a new service, or by being the first to use new technology.

Charity Patron – Relates to a person or persons who purchase goods or services, quite often on a regular basis, from a certain shop or company. It may also refer to a benefactor or sponsor who supports and/or gives money to an individual or any organization, that can be a direct beneficiary such as a charity or non-profit organization.

Charlatan – Intentional deception for the purpose of financial or other gain.

Cheaper Sales Productivity – This is the science and study of being efficient and effective in producing sales results. Also refers to the use of tools and methods to produce more – faster, cheaper, and better.

Cheaper Undercut – A means of selling a product, service, etc., cheaper than the competition.

Cheating – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Check-List Discovery Agreement – This is essence is a preview sheet that the salesperson can discuss with the prospect or customer – something somewhat similar to a short check-list.  How it works is, at the early part of the presentation the salesperson openly shares what is known about the prospects organization.  At this point the salesperson is also able to point out the plan of what he or she would like to cover as a presentation over the time needed for the prospect to make a decision.           

Check the List Close – Here you draw out the buyer’s needs, product features and other elements including service levels, usability and so on and write these down in front of them, and verify that this is what they want, being careful to write down only what you can supply at this point in time.  Remember, this is one of those “buy me now” closes so it is important that the order be taken as soon as possible, and delivery should be affected as soon as possible also.  

Check the Temperature Close – This closing format can be used at any time during any stage of the selling process, or even after you have made a strong selling point.  You can use it after you have answered objections.  It can even be used after the presentation.

Chicken Close – Here the seller should get somebody else to work on the sale for them and often-times they may be recruited to close off the sale for them.  Other times they may be asked to make multiple calls as a back-up to ensure that where the salesperson has taken the selling process to, is not squandered.

Chief Account – Generally refers to a large and complex prospect or customer – one that often has several branches or sites, and generally may require on-going contact and relationships between various departments and functions in the supplier and customer organization. Often major accounts are the responsibility of designated experienced and senior salespeople, which might be formed into a major accounts team. Major account customers often enjoy better discounts and terms than other customers because of purchasing power leveraged by bigger volumes, and the company lower selling costs from economies of scale.

Chief Decision Maker – A person in the organization who has the final power and budgetary authority to agree to a sales proposal. One of the most common mistakes by all manner of salespeople is to attempt to sell to someone other than a genuine decision maker. For anything other than a routine repeating order, the only two people in any organization of any size that are real decision makers, especially for significant sales values/orders are the CEO, Managing Director, President, and the Finance Director or CFO. Everyone else in the organization is generally working within stipulated budgets and supply contracts, and will almost always need to refer major purchasing decisions to one or both of the above people. In very large organizations, functional directors may well be decision-makers for significant sales that relate only to their own function’s activities.

Chief Leading and Passive Indicators – Leading indicators represent those measures that tend to predict or assume a future outcome. Passive indicators are measures that suggest what has happened historically. Most sales organisations tend to focus more on passive indicators due to the relative ease to track that information.

Choice Close – In the right hands this close can be used as a straightforward, uncomplicated and undemanding close that can be extremely effective.  “John, I believe that I have covered all of the points that you wanted to qualify such as the integration of the existing systems into the existing facilities with the modifications you asked for. So what else can I say, except that this product looks perfect for you.  Do you agree?”

Choice of Three Close – The Choice of Three Close is a closing style that synergizes extremely well with the ‘Choice Close,’ however where the ‘Choice Close’ encourages the prospect to chose between two options the Choice of Three Close extends this to three options.  “Well John, since we agree on the overall concept, would you bundle the proposal with the additional warranty support I suggested, or would you just install the product with the modifications you asked, or would you prefer another installation alternative at this stage?

Churn Rate – Comprises of a metric calculator that measures how many customers the seller, salesperson or representative retains at what value.  To calculate the churn rate, the calculator measures the number of customers had lost during a certain time-frame, and then divides that number by the total number of customers allocated to that that the very beginning of the time-frame, and does not include any new sales at that time.  The churn rate is a significant metric primarily for recurring companies.  Regardless of the monthly revenue, if the customer does not stick around long enough to at least break even on the customer acquisition costs, there is trouble in the wind.

Circle Confidential Zone – This refers to an invisible zone outward in all directions approximately a half metre from the salespersons body.  Other zones will extend outwards in larger concentric circles and are usually reserved for social events with lesser degrees of intimacy.  These are generally referred to as individual, sociable and common zones.

Claim of Proof – This generally refers to the validation of a statement or claim that has been made by a salesperson. Typically, the general sales proof that is offered may include testimonials, results of independent tests, and in some obscure cases, is an actual demonstration of the claims being made.

Claim References – This refers to an individual, group or company that is willing to back up certain claims of what your product or service may achieve either under ordinary conditions, extraordinary conditions, or beyond what is generally expected and/or experienced.  References may be recorded by way of personally written testimonials, recorded testimonials and/or visually recorded testimonials.

Claimed Skepticism – A factor that refers to an attitude of doubt on the part of a prospect or customer to a claim a salesperson or the selling organization is making.

Claims Adjuster – This is generally an independent person who investigates insurance claims for an insurance company and evaluates the damage caused and decides whether the claims are valid, and if they are, how much should be paid in settlement to the insured party.

Clarification Questions – The questioning process within the early part of a presentation is possibly the most revered primary prep-selling tool used to explore and understand a prospects or customers situation at the time of the call. Effective questioning is considered to be among the highest level skill of the successful sales professional. Most questions can be described with multiple labels, each with different objectives. Some sample question labels may include: Strategic Questions, Big Picture Questions, High Value Questions, Clarification Questions, Act and Action Questions, etc.

Clarification Sales Questions – Perhaps the most important type of questions are sales questions.  These questions are constantly at the root of effective selling, consulting, and coaching. There are generally four types of high-level analysis based questions, and these offer, Clarification, Cause, Implication, Quantify.  Moreover, each having its own role in the discovery process.

Clear Out Markdown – A reduced selling price on specified selected items adjusted to meet the price of another retailer, clear out, or shopworn, or slow moving, or overstocked, or discontinued merchandise, or to increase customer traffic. This is generally basically, another name for a “sale”.

Clear the Desk Close – There are many closes that favour the salesperson over the prospect, and this is one that is one the buyer will good whenever the seller uses it.  For those people that are busy buyers, this closing style plays to their ego and their workload.  “Malcolm, I quite sure you have a lot of other things that you need to get to, so why not let’s work though this now, and go ahead and get this order taken care of?”

Clear Visualization – This is the ability to present a clear mental picture of the end result so that the prospect or customer can clearly  “see” the benefit or value of the product or solution on offer.

Clearly Defined Sales Process Documented – The accepted way sales are conducted and made by professional salespeople. When done effectively, the sales process is the clearly defined and the acceptable and documented steps an organization takes to satisfy customer requirements are followed to the letter. Typically, the sales process is defined by Phases, Key Activities, Tools, and Observable Outcomes.

Clearly Designed Sales Process – This incorporates a series of steps to bring about a desired end result. In sales, the process refers to the clearly defined steps that an organization or a salesperson takes the time or trouble to initiate and secure certain business processes to satisfy all manner of customer requirements.

C-Level Executive – Denotes an executive in the organization whose title often is preceded by the word “Chief”, e.g. CEO, COO, CIO, CFO, etc.

Client Implemented Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Client Management – This is the process and discipline of working with existing customer accounts in order to build better long-term, and mutually beneficial business relationships.

Client Perception – The notion of how something is seen or regarded by someone, usually by the prospect or customer, irrespective of what is believed or presented by the seller, ie what it really means to the customer after they acquire it.

Client Planning – The process or method used to assess the opportunities within a nominated client account and what is then needed to achieve mutual goals with that customer.

Client Referrals – Obtaining additional profile information about other possible prospects from a current prospect or customer, associate, client, neighbour or family member.

Client Retention – The manner by which science and other practices are used to keep (retain) an existing customer.

Client Retention Rate: This relates to client retention as a percentage.  In other words, how many clients (or what percentage of) is a business, sales team or individual salesperson keeping as repeat customers?

Client – Any lead source or a deemed decision maker who has shown some formal or kind or type of interest in a specific product or service.  It can also relate to a customer, a person, an organization, or a buyer for a product even before the sale is made, or in other words a prospective buyer, customer or client.

Clients and Credibility in Sales – This is the degree that people that matter (the prospects and clients) find it easy (and worthwhile) to believe in the ideologies expressed by the salesperson.  Short term credibility is never the yard-stick that a sale is made on, but what the buyer believes will be able to hold-over into the long term.  On the other hand those that believe that all they need is to have enough credibility to make the appointment, or to get through a single meeting with a prospect are the ones that the prospect will usually deem have no credibility at all.           

Close – See Closing

Close – This is the art of bringing the prospect to a point of decision, and considered by many to be the final stage of the Sales Cycle.  However, the best of the super professional salespeople consider that there is one more step to ensure the sale remains a sale and does not cancel at a later stage.  That is the Button Up.

Close and Sales Cycle Process – The Sales Cycle process generally describes the time and/or the lapse between first contact with the prospect to when the sale is formally made. Sales Cycle times and processes can vary enormously depending on the company, type of business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, and the market and the particular situation applying to the customer at the time of the enquiry. The Sales Cycle time is also referred to as the Sale Gestation Period (ie from conception to birth – enquiry to sale).

Close and Sales Cycle: The beginning to end of your sales process – from “nothing” to close. Starts normally with data-mining, includes the activities and stages associated with taking an opportunity and ends with attempting to get referrals from your client. These are considered to be the set of steps an organization believes are needed to make a sale and the sales cycles can vary considerably across business organizations and the markets they serve.

Close and Sealing-Off Objections – A technique used to pre-prepare the prospect from voicing too many objections and generally brought out to minimise any additional objections.  This process can also be used to prevent an endless stream of objections and may be used to bring the prospect to a point of decision (close)

Close-off on Benefits Close – This close works precisely as its name suggests – simply close off on any benefits.  In fact, any time you give a benefit to a prospect, ask, “Would that be of benefit in your situation?”

Closed and Lost – When a salesperson closes a sale, however the buyer possibly said yes just to get rid of the seller and has not really purchased the product or service they signed for.  Many in the sales industry call this a “fairy sale.” Why a fairy sale? Because, as youngsters, many of us were sent to the bottom of the garden to look for ‘fairies.” And as I recall we never found any fairies.  That’s the same with a “fairy” sale, and no matter how long a salesperson looks for that “fairy sale,” it will never be found.  Also see closing.

Closed and Won – When a salesperson closes a sale in which the buyer purchases a product or service – and keeps it.  Also see closing.

Closed Open Accounts – Accounts that are ready to be re-sold or on-sold and/or accounts that need additional work or attention to a formal sales close or additional work to complete in order to affect delivery.

Closed Opportunities – This basically an umbrella term that includes both closed and won, and closed and lost opportunities, although some people use it to mean only closed and won opportunities.  Also see Closed and Won and see Closed and Lost.

Closed Question – This is a question which generally prompts a yes or no answer from the prospect.  The closed question can also mean a different short answer of just two possible options.  This differs compared to open questions, which typically begin with who, what, where, when, etc., and which tend to invite much longer answers.

Closed Question Close – A closed question is used whenever the salesperson needs to confirm an agreement or statement made by the prospect.  At other times, the salesperson is able to make suggestions to the prospect about certain issues, and the prospect then takes them on board and verbalises ownership of these, the seller can further use the closing format to confirm this fact.

Closed Sale – Today’s “big time” professional sellers will generally avoid using the word “closed” as in “the sale is over” unless they have declared that the sale has been made and is “safe.”  In other words it is unlikely to cancel at a latter time.

Closed/Lost – See Closed and Lost

Closed/Won – See Closed and Won

Close-itis – This usually refers to a common salesperson syndrome, mainly recognizable by an overwhelming desire to do or say something, in fact say anything to a superior, or sales manager, that the prospect (or existing client) does mean to buy something, although it may not be happening at this point in time.  Most superiors and managers will also suggest that the salespersons time could be better spent looking elsewhere for the business.

Closeout Liquidator – An individual, small business or company that purchases end-of line, short-run and closeout products for the purpose of resale.

Closer – In automobile dealerships, a “Closer” is often a senior salesperson experienced in closing difficult situations.  Other industries also rely of the most senior to act as a “Closer” to get on top of difficult to sell to prospects.  The older salesperson is also relied upon to be a “Closer” in real estate to get difficult listing clients and buyers “over the line.” In Real Estate a top sales representative’s take on the earliest form of the word “Closer” as in closing escrow.

Closing – This is a sales term which refers to the process of crafting a sale. Industry experts call this Closing the Sale.  Many say that the term originally came from real estate, where Closing the Sale is the final step of a transaction – yet others will tell you the process of Closing the Sale in much older than modern real estate.  Salespeople are also taught to think of people, but not as strangers, but rather as prospective customers who already want or need what is being sold.  They in turn only need to be “closed” because of the benefit they receive.  “Closing” is also a term distinguished from ordinary selling such as explaining a product’s benefits or justifying an expense. In fact, it’s reserved for a more cunning means of persuasion, and that’s why the most highly trained in the art of Closing a Sale outsell the others “hands down” which are not.

Closing and Sales Process Steps – Those involved in formal sales training will be quick to tell you of the well-understood, generic steps (initiation, qualify, evaluate, develop, propose, contract, win, close) as they are identified for the purpose of selling, from initiation to close. As a process, it is measurable and improvable.

Closing and Sales Related Activities – This refers to those actions that are usually and directly related to closing a sales call at the demonstration stage. This will usually include prospecting, setting appointments, doing product demonstrations, and attempting to close the sale.  Prospecting and setting appointments can sometimes be performed through marketing systems.

Closing and the Sales Preparation – Whenever this is used in the context of the selling process, this is generally the work done by the salesperson to research and plan the sales presentation and/or the formal sales call to a particular prospect or customer. Without exception in professional selling, calls need to be adequately prepared for, and sales that fail to manifest are usually due to under-preparing the presentation, the proposals within the call and the method used to close the sale.

Closing Habits and Schedules – A salespersons regular sales schedules and habits which in turn dictate the amount of demonstrations and sales are ultimately made.

Closing on a Weighted Pipeline – To considered to be a more detailed version of a sales pipeline, in which each opportunity is given a specific value based platform at which stage, this leads to a smoother sales process than usual.  Foe example, potential buyers in the prospecting stage could be assigned a 10% probability of buying, then at the demo stage that percentage could to 60%, closed-won 100%, and so on.  A salesperson could say that, instead of having 10 prospects in their pipeline, they now have 10 opportunities at 50%, or a greater likelihood of closing – with a weighted pipeline value of $50,000.

Closing Process – A firm “No” from the prospective customer is never the end of the sales process and until that buyer/seller has been “closed,” the paperwork signed, and a deposit taken or the full amount paid.  Once a “No” has been offered by the prospect, a real top gun professional salesperson will revisit this situation a countless number of times until the sale is affirmed.  Most say they need to hear at least seven “No’s” before they start to slow up – and then will give it another try.  Also see Closing

Closing Quotient – The overall number of sales made by the sales force are divided by the number of sales presentations over a given period of time.  As an example: if the salesperson completes 10 sales presentations and close 2 sales, the closing ratio for these 10 sales presentations is 20% or a closing ratio of 1 in 5. If 3 sales are made in 10 presentations the percentage is 30% or a closing ratio of 1 in 3.3. If 4 sales are made in 10 presentations the percentage is 40% or a closing ratio of 1 in 2.5.  If 5 sales are made in 10 presentations the percentage is 50% or a closing ratio of 1 in 2. Also see Closing

Closing Ratio – This relates to the percentage of the prospects that a salesperson successfully wins over and closes (sells).  The closing ratios generally used to access individual sellers, their short-term performance, but it can also be used to evaluate the profits made, or to forecast future sales, and so on. Improving a closing ratio usually requires effort on everyone’s part to bring better-qualified leads into the sales funnel that are then worked by the salesperson and the sales support staff.

Closing Rejection – Because the “Fear of Rejection” is one of the biggest impediments to sales success for many of today’s salespeople, many don’t actually ask for the order – despite knowing that they are harming their income and could eventually be out of a job because of that.  Foe this reason, sales recruiters are on a constant search for “closers.”

Closing Sales Time Bandits – Any “non-related sales activities” (NSA’s) that are able to “steal” time away from your “sales related activities” such as prospecting, setting appointments, doing product demonstrations, closing the sale. In fact, hundreds if not thousands, of time bandits exists from obsessively checking emails to searching social sites to going on unqualified appointments.

Closing Style Standing Room Only – This refers to a commonly used sales technique in which a company or individual salesperson gives the impression that many people wish to buy the product or service, encouraging people to purchase it immediately in case it sells out and they don’t get another chance.  This often referred to as a Closing Style.

Closing Styles – PSS (Professional Selling Skills) – PSS places a huge reliance on presentation, overcoming objections and the use of umpteen different closes.  Now largely superseded by more modern processes, but PSS is still in use and being trained. The manipulative style of PSS can leave modern buyers completely cold, but if used as a bare process and it still works.

Closing Techniques – There are literally hundreds of “closing” techniques that to a professional salesperson are simply different ways to ask for the business.  The more that are learned and rehearsed, the more likely the seller is to be above average in their ability to sell well and to keep coming home with more orders that the others they work with.  Because they understand that no matter how skillfully they have applied the closing techniques they are able to use, the customer still has the option to answer with a “No.”

Closing The Sale – This relates to the point at which the salesperson asks for a order to purchase the product or service and sells the prospect.  See Closing

Closing the Sale and NSA’s – This generally relates to any actions that are not directly related to “sales-related-activities” (and usually may exclude prospecting, setting appointments, demonstrations, closing the sale etc). NSA examples may include “surfing the web,” and including “obsessive email/voicemail checking.”

Closing the Sale Stage – This refers to the separate stages of the sales process by representing each step in the sales process.  It’s the salespersons responsibility for moving opportunities from one stage to the next stage.  Different companies define their sales stages differently, but each one has behind it a set a set of requirements that need to be completed, in order for the opportunity to move from one stage to the next.  Names for sales stages are usually things like, “Prospecting,” “Qualifying Leads,” “Demonstration,” “Presenting a Proposal,” and “Closing the Sale.”

Closing Tool Kit – A term used by salespeople often to describe the various tools they use to make a sale.  It can be processed as a Tool Kit, Sales Tool Kit, Selling Tool Kit, Presentation Tool Kit, Selling Process Tool Kit, Closing Tool Kit, Objection Tool Kit, etc..

Closing Win Rate – This is the rate at which a salesperson or sales organization “wins” new business, “wins” back old customers, or “wins” more sales than originally budgeted for.  Often, this is expressed as a percentage of the overall proposals submitted vs. the percentage of sales closed.

Clothing Knock-Off – This term is generally used for an unauthorised copy of a product – usually designer clothing.

Clothing Knock-off Products – The term mostly used to describe imitations of a product design or concept. This imitated product (often imported) is manufactured and sold at a lower price than the original, often ‘knocking off’ the original product from retail shelves.

Clothing Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Cloud Computing – A form of computing that relies on using resources delivered as a service over the Internet, and in the process allowing instant access to applications or software programs that are loaded somewhere besides the computer from which they are being accessed.

Cloud Computing On-demand: This term means, “when needed” or “when required,” and is associated with cloud computing, where the user has immediate access to data stored in remote locations and can retrieve resources up and down almost immediately, as desired.

Cloud-based Sales Applications – This refers to a type of hosted software which is designed specifically to help the user complete sales tasks.

CMA – This is a written price comparison of a property when compared to others for sale at the time or were recently sold.

CMS (Content Management System) – A software programme that provides solutions to make it possible to create, edit, maintain, publish, and display content on the Internet from a single interface or administration tool. In the context of online retailing, a CMS may be used to manage a stores product catalogue.

Coach – This relates to a person who guides, helps, and teaches in order to enable another salesperson’s success in the sales field. In a sales organizations, the practice of coaching is considered the most important characteristic of modern effective management. It is the coach’s responsibility to create the necessary environment for the results to flourish in many areas of the company, and to also tap the energy of each individual contributor to maximize talent and performance of each.

Coach and Encourager – This is one of a sales coach’s most important skills, and should always be used to highlight and anchor positive performance. The best coaches are genuine and absolute masters in the use of this skill with their sales teams and support staff.

Coach and Sponsor – Mostly refers to someone in the organisation who is an internal coach, supporting solutions. This may also refer to the customer executive who is the primary advocate for the project or solution the sponsor is attempting to sell.

Coach Post-Call Debrief – The process led by a manager, supervisor, mentor or coach (or by a salesperson independently) in order to assess the outcome of a prospect or customer visit. This is also a time for the overseer to provide feedback on the things that went well during a call, and the areas where there are opportunities for improvement.

Coach Pre-Call Briefing – The process usually led by a manager or coach and purposely involving a salesperson in order to strategize for a call, define certain desired objectives, prepare for those must answer questions, and build positive momentum for those necessary discussions with the prospect and/or existing customer.

Coachee – The person being coached by either another salesperson or sales manager.

Coaching and Reflective Listening – The process usually used by a coach or another in a similar position to gain full understanding of a situation before taking action. It is through the process of asking questions and listening, in order to gain understanding by the coach and because of this insight is gained by the coachee.

Code Encryption – The ability to convert data into a code form which cannot (and should not) be easily understood by people who have no authorisation to view it.

Coercion – Relates to the times a salesperson may appear to force someone, by some method or other, to do something or abstain from doing something against their will.

COGS (Cost Of Goods Sold) – This is the cost of providing a service or manufacturing a product, including the cost of labour, materials and overheads.  But for sales compensation purposes, this refers to the calculation of total sales generated by the sales-force divided by the total compensation costs incurred by the sales force. Most of the time, this is expressed as a percentage.

COLA (Cost Of Living Allowance) – Simply described as a salary supplement which a company pays to employees because of an increase in the cost of living.

Cold Call – A visit or sales call made to someone in an organization without having the benefit of making an appointment beforehand.

Coldness – An attitude that is expressed by a customer when they perceive no need, or because they are satisfied with their product or service.

Collaboration Selling – Considered to be a very modern and sophisticated selling style in which seller truly collaborates with the buyer and buying organization to help the prospect or existing customer buy. A logical extension to ‘strategic’ or ‘open plan’ selling.

Collaborative Key Account Review – A powerful business tactic for the development key accounts, business reviews that represent the formal methodology where executives of the selling organization formally meet with executives of the customer organization to present what has been accomplished between their two companies during the previous 12-month period. When done well, this method is a collaborative two-way dialog where the customer is also involved in setting and agreeing to mutual goals for the business relationship.

Collaborative Positioning – Normally referred to as the second stage of the sales call, typically after the opening or introduction in the Seven Steps of the Sale, but also vital to modern selling methods when used with collaborative or facilitative selling. A crucial selling skill, yet rarely well demonstrated. The correct timing and use of the key different types of questions are central to the processes of gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and empathy. This manner of predetermined questioning also requires that the salesperson has good listening, interpretation and empathic capabilities.

Collapse – This is when the individual, company or organization not having enough finances or assets available to pay all the debts.

Collateral in a Research Dossier – This may typically represent a collection of a salesperson’s notes, articles and collateral that is gathered during the planning phase of the sales process. Having a prospect’s or customer’s unique research dossier with on a call, the salesperson communicates to the prospect or customer that they have done their homework properly and have their best interests at heart.

Collateral Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Collective Product Portfolio – Defines the combined total of all products and services, either individually or by set’s a company may offer to its customers as a package.

Colombo (Sale) Close – The classic ‘Columbo’ line was, “Just one more Thing.” And he was brilliant at delivering this one line.  He would go towards the door, turn (and every so often when he did this he would also slap his head) and say, “Just one more thing,” look them in the eye and add, “I almost forgot,” and then mumble things that seemed incoherent at the time, were understood by the guilty party at the time, but left the audience in suspense almost to the very end.  He became famous because he seemed to know what he was doing, but the rest of us had to wait until the end to understand where he was coming from.

Colour Feature – A characteristic of a product or service or the distinct part of a product or service that can be described. It may also refer to an aspect of a product or service, eg., colour, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc.  Salespeople often believe features sell products, but it is the benefit of a feature that is more attributable for the sale.  It also refers to a function of a product that can solve for a potential buyer’s need or pain point; usually a distinguishing characteristic that helps boost appeal.

Colour Universal Product Code (UPC) – Relates to a classification for coding data onto products by a series of thick and thin vertical lines, also known as Bar Codes. It allows retailers to record the pertinent data such as the model number, size, color, etc. when an item is sold, and to store or transmit the data to a computerized data system to monitoring unit sales, inventory levels, and other factors.

Combined Package Deal – Relates to either a set of products or several products which are generally offered for sale and must be bought in a combined package.  It can also relate to products that are bought in a combination which may involve either a finance package or a payment plan option in order to qualify for a package price.

Combined Product Portfolio – Defines the combined total of all products and services, either individually or by set’s a company may offer to its customers as a package.

Combined Sales Bundle – The combination of products or services the salesperson needs to properly submit a sale or service to customers. Apart from the bundled goods or services on offer, this will usually include contract, payment arrangement, artwork and/or job specifications.

Combining Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) – The combination of all or the total costs involved in purchasing a product or service, which may include installation fees, procurement costs, delivery and warehousing costs, training costs, and other factors needed to make the new product operational. Additionally, ongoing costs of maintenance, service, etc. can factor into the TCO.

Comedy Close – One of the easiest adjunct style closes is this one.  Here the seller needs to get them amused by telling them a joke or by making witty remarks.  Once this has been achieved, and generally more than once, the seller can either go for a relaxed kind of close using another closing technique, or simply try and weave the close into a joke.

Comfort Zone – Considered to be a somewhat derogatory term that can be used to refer to that area which a salesperson is more than competent and capable in – but in many cases will under perform because to that individual (an others looking from the outside in) the work usually seems easy for them.  There are times when it is hard for salespeople to veer from their comfort zones, due to the level of past success they may have had there.  Either way, most sales managers and mentors suggest that sellers who stay in their comfort zone are rarely challenged to perform at their best.

Coming Event – An upcoming event that is expected to occur created to drive the rationale for a customer making a decision for your product or service.

Coming Event Close – The fear of loss is one of our strongest fears in life.  Another twist here is that if someone tells another that they cannot have something, chances are that person will want it – now.  “I’m not sure if we have any more of your size available.  But I can put you on our order waiting list to secure your order.  Would you want me to do that for you?”

Comma Separated Values (CSV) – Referred to a file type that generally stores data values. CSV files are often used to transfer product feeds.

Commanding Expressive Style – The buyers who take an expressive approach to the selling process are usually want to be the centre of attention, can sometimes be manipulative, as well as friendly, animated, enthusiastic, excited, spontaneous, gracious, eager, talkative, energized, pleasant, self-promoting, passionate, sociable, independent, commanding and creative.             

Comments About Questions – These are primarily thought provoking questions that are generally used at the end of an opening statement.  These types of questions will get the prospect thinking about what the salesperson has said, and encourages the prospect to make a comment and/or ask more questions.  Questions of this nature are not only those that would encourage the prospect to share their ideas, beliefs, opinions, and views on a subject, and once shared it allows the salesperson to take the situation into any direction of interest to the prospect and in turn can generate more thought provoking questions.             

Commerce Fulfillment – When used in ecommerce, fulfillment is the process of completing an order or consolidating the sale. The term may also be applied to third-party companies that inventory products and ship orders on behalf of an online store.

Commercial Barter Trading – To barter is to enter into a process of exchanging one item or commodity for another. Bartering usually involves going back and forth or “haggling” to reach mutual agreement.  However, over the past few decades there have been a number of commercial barter companies that encourage the exchange of goods between members where the organization takes a cash fee for acting as the middle-man in the commercial barter exchange process.

Commercial Flighting – Considered to be a cost effective method of advertising. This happens when a commercial is scheduled to appear on TV, usually when viewing figures are high (flight). There are periods in between the flights when the commercial does not appear on TV (hiatus). During the TV hiatus the product being advertised will often appear in newspapers or magazines, so the public is continually aware of it.

Commercial Market – The commercial activity of buying and selling goods and services but not restricted to the buying and selling goods and services. Also referred to as the customers who buy goods and services.

Commercial Paper – This is an unsecured and usually unregistered short-term agreement in which organizations can borrow money from investors who cannot take the assets from the organization if the loan is not repaid.

Commercial Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Commercial Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Commercial Products Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Commission – In all manner of sales compensation, this refers to a type of payment or revenue sharing resulting from achieving a sale or attaining a given sales level. Commissions are typically expressed as a percentage of the selling price for the product being sold.

Commission – The payment made as a salespersons compensation for closing a sale. Usually based on a percentage of the gross sale or profit margin of the sale. Many sales organizations will provide a salary plus commission.  Others will pay a draw against future commissions that may be earned (similar to getting a weekly draw and then having to pay it back off the commissions earned).  Many others will pay their salespeople a commission only amount (without other facilities to draw on), however, in cases such as this the percentage of the amount sold is usually higher.  Many professional supersellers carry a commission only position as a badge of honour, as they consider their selling ability as a day by day proposition.  And many will proudly say they are in commissions sales, because if they don’t sell, they don’t eat.

Commission Agent Quarterly Payout – A sales, agent or seller commission compensation payment term that is typically used to describe the frequency by which an incentive payment is made.

Commission Based Direct Selling Style – This is an interesting selling style and although it is considered to be relatively easy selling, it can be one of the hardest to master.  For that reason, those in direct selling are usually paid on commission only and are usually among the highest paid in the selling industry.  This selling style is best suited to relatively simple sales environments where the prospect is more likely to give a simple yes or a simple no decision in a relatively short time.  Most direct selling is based on the need to solve single pressing problems, and mostly in a short-term setting, without the need to dig down too deeply.       

Commission Draw Against – In sales, this form of compensation generally refers to a cash advance in anticipation of future sales performance or sales written and the employer is waiting out the cooling off period before the commission can be paid.  It is sometimes seen as a way to provide a salesperson with cash compensation without providing them with a guaranteed salary. Draws against are typically recovered against future commission payments the salesperson earns. Some commissions only sales organizations offer “non-recoverable draws, often considered similar to a temporary salary, during the first months of the salesperson’s employment.

Commission in Finance – In finance, a commission is a payment based on percentage of a transaction value, according to the local interpretation of value (e.g., based on total revenue, or gross profit, etc).

Commission in Sales – In sales a commission is a form of compensation that refers to a type of payment or revenue sharing consequence resulting from achieving a considered sale or attaining a given sales level.  Commissions are typically expressed as a percentage of the selling price for the product(s) or service(s) sold.

Commission Incentives – This relates to any form of compensation or reward made to a salesperson or sales team to influence immediate and future sales results. These incentives typically include compensation elements such as bonuses, commissions, and other non-financial rewards an organization may offer, such as recognition trips, catalog award points, etc.

Commission Loan Draw – Generally a “loan” against future commissions earned. Usually set up as a debit/credit system where any commissions you earn must first be used/applied to “repay” the draw.  Other arrangements can be made.  Sometimes the company may ask for a part of future commissions to be applied against the draw

Commission Mix – In sales and selling compensation, mix refers to the various elements of the compensation plan, often expressed as percentages of the targeted total compensation or commission to be earned.

Commission Only Performance-Related Pay – A performance-related payment scheme set up in the workplace in which the employees get paid according to how well they perform in their job – especially in highly paid and commission selling.

Commission Plan Document – In sales compensation plans, the formal document that outlines the objectives and elements of a selling organization’s compensation strategy is generally referred to as a plan document.  This document communicates the strategy of the company, and the rewards – both financial and non-financial – that will generally be paid when goals are met. This document also describes targets and compensable events and key details about compensation and administration of the payments.

Commission Real Estate – The fees agreed to between the vendor and the seller for selling the property – and payable by the seller, to the real estate company.

Commission Salesperson Zeroed Out Draw – This only occurs when a salesperson sells enough on a commission basis to earn enough to equal the previous paid draw (pre-payments) against commissions earned to make the draw balance equal to zero.

Commission Threshold – When used within a sales concept for the means of compensation, this refers to the minimum level of sales to be achieved before a commission or an incentive is paid to the salesperson.

Commission Windfall – In sales, this refers to a time when a salesperson receives significant additional compensation (commissions) due to actions taken by the company or a large or unexpected purchase by a prospect or customer that favorably impact sales results. This may happen because additional commissions might accrue as a result of some form of territory realignment, or a major purchase is made by someone that was neither solicited, nor expected.

Commissions and Sales Target – When considered within a sales context this is generally the issued (or ideally agreed) minimum level of sales performance for a salesperson or a team or department over a given period of time. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, and future positions etc., may all be dependent on the nominated sales staff meeting sales targets. Targets are established at the beginning of a fiscal trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular reviews throughout the year. Also see forecasting.

Commitment and Call to Action – The-is refers to the process of asking for a commitment, although this may not necessarily be for a commitment to purchase.  Other types of commitment could be for another appointment, a future meeting, to bring in a more senior person, or the promise to explore specific issues with another decision maker within the same organization.

Commitment Close – Here the salesperson gets the prospect to physically make the effort to do something brings them closer to the sale.  “Would you mind emailing that to me, please?” “If you need further proof, why don’t you phone Harry yourself?  Here’s the number”

Commitment GEM – Acronym for Going the Extra Mile. Often referred to when a sales or service provider does extra things to communicate commitment, genuine caring and the honest desire to help the customer.

Commitment to a Sales Catalyst – In sales organizations, this term refers to a salesperson or sales manager who is capable of stimulating positive and creative change, and who is one who causes a process or event to happen through both direct and indirect efforts.

Commitment to a Sales Close – This refers to the point in the selling process at which the salesperson asks for a commitment to purchase the product or service being evaluated.

Committed Proactive Selling – This refers to those salespeople that tend to take action without being asked to, or take action before it is absolutely necessary.  These actions are considered to be proactive.  In most cases, proactive salespeople are the ones that commit to anticipating the key issues and suggest a possible solution or suggestion to what they consider to be blatantly obvious.

Commoditisisers Distribution – Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditisisers mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electricals, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the internet.

Commodity Exchange – The process of the exchanging one item or commodity for another item or commodity. Bartering usually involves going back and forth or “haggling” to reach mutual agreement.

Commodity Products – This relates to a product or a service that is not differentiated. In other words, all competing products will bear the same or similar characteristics. Today, many of the products a company may sell have somewhat become commodity-like, requiring some form of differentiation in other areas, such as financing, service, or personal relationships. In these, and many of the other commodity-like situations, purchase decisions are often made primarily on the basis of price.

Common Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Common Confidential Zone – This refers to an invisible zone outward in all directions approximately a half metre from the salespersons body.  Other zones will extend outwards in larger concentric circles and are usually reserved for social events with lesser degrees of intimacy.  These are generally referred to as individual, socialble and common zones.

Common Rapport – These are usually the things a salesperson or selling group has in common with a prospect.  Most salespeople usually refer only to what matters most to build genuine relationships like names in common joint and/or mutual benefits of doing business with each other and whatever else it may take to get things humming along with as little interruption as possible.

Common Sales Report/Reporting – A commonly used business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of salespeople too. A sales report can be required daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often may include the need to provide sales forecasts.

Common Sense and Territory Design – This is the process applied that primarily sales managers engage in to allocate territories in order to ensure potential exists, and to balance the opportunities among their sales team members. This is mostly done build a sense of equal opportunity within the sales force.

Common Sense Business – This is generally a term used to describe a sales professional who has strong understanding of business fundamentals, and/or business common sense, and the drivers that motivate a customer to make business decisions.

Common Solutions Selling – This is a common description for a more customer-orientated selling method that is dependent on identifying prospect wants and needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a formal package or a specified solution. This term is based on the premise that prospects don’t buy products or features or benefits – but instead buy solutions to their organizational challenges and problems.  Some say that it’s a similar approach to what is loosely known as ‘needs-creation’ selling. Solutions selling remains relevant in modern selling and its methods can usefully be included in an open plan selling style.

Common Zone – The next zone beyond the sociable zone.

Communicating on Pain Points – A prospects pain point, or need, is the most key thing for a salesperson to identify in the selling process.  Without knowing and fully understanding a prospect’s pain points, most salespeople won’t be able to possibly offer vital and/or necessary consumer benefits to help resolve those pain points in order to sell effectively.

Communication and Misunderstanding – An attitude communicated by a prospect or customer about something that is generally believed to be true, when in effect, it is not true. The salesperson’s objective, therefore, is to simply clear up the misunderstanding.

Communication and Smarketing – This term is usually used to refer to the practice of aligning a variety of Sales and Marketing efforts.  In a perfect world, marketing would pass off lots of fully qualified leads to the sales team, who would then subsequently work every one of those leads enough times to close them anywhere from 50% to 100% of the time.  This isn’t always how it works, simply because it’s a key for Marketing and Sales to align their efforts to impact the bottom line the best they can through coordination through communication.

Communication Based on Pain Ladders – Alleviating pain is considered one of the more successful selling methodologies. Although many may consider this to be old-fashioned style selling, the pain ladder here refers to a formal leveled listing of the pain that has been affected and communicated by each of a salesperson’s key contacts in selling to a specific account. In fact, the pain ladder here reflects the pain levels of the key players involved in the selling process. By understanding the “pain” at each level within the organization, and the effect it would have upon the prospects being presented to, a sales professional is able to strategize on the solution that most alleviates the pain that is being felt.

Communication Based Pipeline Activities – This primarily relates to a sales pipeline, including appropriate planning, scheduling and integrating customer development activities together with data on the necessary manner and formulation of communication and other related activities.

Communication Mirroring – This relates to the gestures, body movements, and mannerisms by which a person communicates their outlook or frame of mind. Paying attention to and reading body language can provide valuable insight in the selling process.

Communications Styles – These can be the varying styles that a prospect or customer might project during a sales call. Aligning to each communications style can help bring commonality to the sales conversation.

Community Leaders and Network of Influence – These are the systems people in authority including, decision makers, directors, community leaders, councilors, influencers and to a lesser extent, consumers try to influence productivity within a target organization.  Most people in this grouping are able to temporarily act at a level below, but will almost never accept a role a level above.  Once the group is underway, most of those in some form of leadership will abandon the post and return to their normal role within the community.

Companion Close – Here a friend tags along to make sure the prospect doesn’t get ripped off. The friend is often opinionated and usually a pain in your ass. But when you get them on your side and they start agree with you, makes the sale turn your way.  Customer trust their friends, and if the friend like you – you sell.

Company – A person, business or organisation, etc., that specifically pays for the services of the workers and others it employs.

Company (Request for Proposal) Software – Software that enables an organization to create a library or repository of information containing the best content that can be used for responding to Requests for Proposals (RFPs). The software now allows the prospect or customer to quickly search or browse for the best answers to the questions in a RFP and to easily respond to the RFP using that content.

Company Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Company Business Cycle – This refers to a sequence of economic activities typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at times, periods of financial decline. Salespeople who are attuned to a company’s business cycle are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced and know how their products and services can alleviate some of the conditions being experienced in the business cycle.

Company Business Partners – Realise this one thing. The people, small businesses, companies and organizations that have bought from a salesperson, but have not only just bought, they have become to depend on you.  They are now your business partners, and they will now depend more on you, and your company’s resources to grow and prosper.

Company Buyers – The best part here is, that the people who could have conceivably bought from you are now buying from you and your company.  Remember this, when you first make contact with a referral you have never met before, you are still interacting with a potential buyer.  That also goes for the fact than when you are interacting with the largest client your company may be dealing with, you’re still interacting with a buyer.

Company Complex Sales Model – Mainly associated with the normal sale of products, services and solutions to companies, organizations and corporates which may require multiple group discussions and long time frames.

Company Culture Marketing – This refers to the act of promoting a company, or its products, and services in the effort to attract a primary influence to a company (normally pertains to customers) and is perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising.  However, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through to market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions. It’s the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it.

Company Disposal Strategy – A structured plan by an investor to dispose of a personal or business investment, such as shares in a company, to make a profit, or a business owner or group to dispose of their company, by selling the business, floating it on the stock market, ceasing to trade, handing it over to another family member, etc.

Company End-User Selling – This is simply the selling undertaken by the salesperson of a product or service directly to the individual, company or corporation.         

Company Focus Consumers – These are generally considered to be a part of the largest and technically lowest level of the company’s focus point as they are the easiest to sell to as they are the ones that actually use the products or services being more aggressively marketed to other harder to sell to sectors.            

Company Forward Integration – This is usually a well used business strategy where a company takes control of its distributors for the sole purpose of guaranteeing the distribution of the controlling company’s products.

Company Generalist – Often referred to a person who has a broad general knowledge at a high level, and/or may posses many of the skills required to adequately undertake the role.

Company Inner circle – These two words typically refer to the most senior executives/personnel  responsible for running a company.

Company Inside Information – Information about a company which is known only by the owners, management and/or employees, and generally not the general public. The use of Inside Information for the buying and selling of shares is mostly illegal.

Company Inside Track – A known and/or considered advantageous position in a company or organisation. To know about something before others get to hear about it.

Company Internal Equity – A modern concept where within a company or organisation, ensures the pay each employee receives is determined fairly by the type of job they do.

Company Lead – This relates to a person or company who shows interest in a product or service, in some way, shape or form.  It may be the result of them filling out a form, subscribing to a blog, or they may have shared their contact information in exchange for a coupon.  Generating leads is a critical is a critical part of a sales prospect’s journey to becoming a customer, and it falls in the second stage of the larger inbound marketing methodology.  Landing pages, forms, offers and calls-to-action are just a few tools to help companies generate more on-line leads.

Company Letter Of Indemnity – A document in which an individual, company, etc., guarantees to protect either a purchaser or another from costs, liability, etc., as a result of certain actions which may be carried out.

Company Lifeboat – This is an emergency business loan offered to an individual, or company, or bank which is considered to be in financial trouble.

Company Liquidator – An individual, small business or company that purchases end-of line, short-run and closeout products for the purpose of resale.

Company Marketing – The technical process followed by individuals, companies and organizations to satisfy the needs, wants, and demands of their customers through the application and promotion of products and services that satisfy those customer requirements.

Company Marketing Mix – A set of marketing tools embraced and applied by a company to sell its products and/or services to a target market.

Company Mission Statement – A brief statement which encaptulates and then sets out the activities and objectives of a company or organisation.

Company Net Promoter Score – This relates to the customer satisfaction metric that measures, on a scale of 0-10, the degree to which other people would recommend your company to others.  The NPS is derived from a simple survey designed to help determine how loyal customers are to a business.  Regularly determining a company’s NPS allows you to identify ways to improve your products and services so that you can increase the loyalty of your customers.  Learn more about how to use NPS surveys for marketing here.

Company Potential – A term used openly in sales to evaluate a salesperson’s assessment, either in dollars, or units and/or relationship, of doing business with a particular area, region, company, group or individual customer.

Company Primary Influences – These generally relate to the overall direct and indirect primary influences on any company, in business at any point in time, and may include Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Sales Personnel, Distributors, Agents, Banks, Lenders, Vendors, Other Institutions, Stock-holders, etc.

Company Product Portfolio – Defines the combined total of all products and services, either individually or by set’s a company may offer to its customers as a package.

Company Prospects – These are the individuals or companies a salesperson has contacted, or have contacted the sales company, and who represent a future potential to be future buyers of a product, service or solution.

Company Protected Territory – A sales area that is deemed to be protected against other representatives from the same company from calling on any existing leads that another salesperson or company associate is able to call on.

Company References – This refers to an individual, group or company that is willing to back up certain claims of what your product or service may achieve either under ordinary conditions, extraordinary conditions, or beyond what is generally expected and/or experienced.  References may be recorded by way of personally written testimonials, recorded testimonials and/or visually recorded testimonials.

Company Rejected – What needs to remembered here by the salesperson is that prospects are not rejecting the salesperson or the company they work for, the prospect is simply rejecting the offer.  Another factor here is that the salesperson should never back off or under the pressure at the first, second, or third, fourth or fifth or even the sixth no.  In fact, much of the university research suggests that the salesperson should be prepared for at least seven no’s.  Anything less spells a timid salesperson not willing to understand the distance they need to go in a sales call to get the order.

Company Retailers – Companies, businesses and/or individuals that generally sell goods from a physical location, either a shop or warehouse, but now more increasingly over the internet, sell products and/or services directly to end consumers and collect sales tax, or goods and services tax (when and where applicable) on those transactions. Some direct sales companies and other organizations might also fit in this category. Since retailers buy at wholesale or in other ways, and sell at retail, is what makes them “retailers”.

Company RFP (Request for Proposal) – An acronym  (RFPs) Request for Proposal is/are often used by prospects or customers to assess who will respond to, and/or evaluate solutions being posed either by the manufacturer, distributor, company, agent or salesperson in regards to a certain venture or market shift/movement

Company Sales Cycle in Brief – The sales cycle in short represents the average amount of time it may take from getting a suspect interested enough to become a prospect and the appropriate time cycle needed to progress them to become a client/customer.  That time cycle varies from industry to industry and company to company.  Over time a time frame formula will emerge to suit the individual business associated with sales.

Company Sponsor – A company, group or individual who may help, most usually in a financial way, a team, an event, a sports meeting or concert, etc., in return for publicity or to advertise their own company or product in some way or another.

Company Strategic Plan – This is usually the approach the individual, team or company will use to market and sell products, services and solutions to a buyer market whether it be to the end consumer, direct sales, retailers, wholesales, distributors or the internet.

Company Suspects – This refers to those individuals, company’s or organizations that are suspected potential clients but have not been contacted by the salesperson or organization for an exploratory appointment.  These suspects are usually compiled into lists based on territories, business size and revenue ranking and potential status.

Company Synergy – The working together of two or more individuals, groups, businesses companies, etc., to produce a greater result than working individually.

Company Tactical Sales Plan – If worked methodically and to its best effect, this tactical sales plan will help you to achieve the hardest to get sales and revenue goals, a good inroad into the market place, fast-tracked production and deployment processes, together with a containment of costs.  It’s also important to understand that things will not work as well if any part of the tactical sales plan, that is core to success , is compromised.

Company Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Company Target Performance – In sales organizations, this may be the term used to describe one or more attainable performance goals around which that business considers and/or may prepare one or more compensation plans.

Company Template of Ideal Prospects (TIP) – The creation of this template is the easiest part as it is simply a list of the characteristics shared by a company’s best customers.  Once the characteristics are compiled, those listed characteristics are then able to point marketers towards the promising suspects gathered from industry lists, industry sources, industry journals or the yellow pages telephone directory.  There is also your own company or individual ideal or referrals lists that you have not contacted about your products, services or solutions, but who may benefit from what you have to offer.

Company Top Dog – This refers to the person who has the highest authority and is in charge of a whole operation, company, business, etc.

Company Type Sales Cycle – The beginning to end of your sales process – from “nothing” to close. Starts normally with data-mining, includes the activities and stages associated with taking an opportunity and ends with attempting to get referrals from your client. These are considered to be the set of steps an organization believes are needed to make a sale and the sales cycles can vary considerably across business organizations and the markets they serve.

Company Type Sales Cycle Process – The Sales Cycle process generally describes the time and/or the lapse between first contact with the prospect to when the sale is formally made. Sales Cycle times and processes can vary enormously depending on the company, type of business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, and the market and the particular situation applying to the customer at the time of the enquiry. The Sales Cycle time is also referred to as the Sale Gestation Period (ie from conception to birth – enquiry to sale).

Company Value Mission Statement – Explains an organization’s purpose for being. Mission statements typically communicate what are the organizations values. Superior salespeople take the trouble to learn what their customer’s mission statements are, and align their services to how they can advance the organization’s mission.

Company Vision Statement – Explains an organization’s, company’s or individuals vision for it’s future. Vision statements generally share details of the future through a defined vision. Most staff get involved in their company’s vision mission statement.

Company War Room – This is an old slang term generally used in sales organizations to describe a specific location, typically the Headquarters, or at the Headquarters where the majority of opportunities are tracked and pricing and strategy decisions are made – often without consultation with the sales force.

Company White Paper – Refers to a document, typically of around 5-10 pages in length, that describes an organization’s point of view in areas that may be of interest to the prospect/customer. It might include an organization’s outlook on a specific issue, results of research, or guidance on a given topic.

Company Working Capital – Also known as Net Current Assets Capital. This refers to the amount of funds which are made available to an individual, an enterprise or a company for its everyday running costs, such as wages, overheads, rent, etc.

Company X-Inefficiency – This occurs when a small business or larger company is not using its employees, machinery, resources, etc., effectively.  The reason for this is often because of lack of competition.

Comparing Gap Analysis – Enables a company to assess the notable gap between its actual performance and its potential performance, by openly comparing what skills, products, etc. are available as to what is required to improve performance, output, etc.

Compelling Need Close – Here the salesperson points out to the prospect that he or she fails to take advantage of your offer they will suffer irretrievable loss because of an impending occurrence.  “This special price is only available until the 15th.” “When they’re gone, they’re gone – no rainchecks.”

Compensated Target Performance – In sales organizations, this may be the term used to describe one or more attainable performance goals around which that business considers and/or may prepare one or more compensation plans.

Compensation Administration – A form of methodology used by a sales organization to ensure proper payout of a salesperson’s commissions.  This includes the process followed for arbitrating conflicts that may rise, together with a company’s rules of engagement for revenue recognition is applied.

Compensation and Overachievement Pay – In the sales field this is the phrase used to denote any manner of compensation.  It is also a term used to refer to pay what has been awarded over and above any of the expected achievement levels.

Compensation and Target Salary – This generally refers to a form of sales compensation within a business, that concerns itself with the mix of salary and incentive that is generally universally considered necessary in making a job appealing to attract a qualified set of candidates for a specific type of sales position.

Compensation Mix – In sales and selling compensation, mix refers to the various elements of the compensation plan, often expressed as percentages of the targeted total compensation or commission to be earned.

Compensation Plan Document – In sales compensation plans, the formal document that outlines the objectives and elements of a selling organization’s compensation strategy is generally referred to as a plan document.  This document communicates the strategy of the company, and the rewards – both financial and non-financial – that will generally be paid when goals are met. This document also describes targets and compensable events and key details about compensation and administration of the payments.

Compensation Principles – This is the principles used by many selling organizations to drive the design of a specific compensation strategy, including commissions and incentives for individual salespeople and the sales force.

Compensation Sales Threshold – When used within a sales concept for the means of compensation, this refers to the minimum level of sales to be achieved before a commission or an incentive is paid to the salesperson.

Competing Market Sector – Competing businesses which may produce or possibly buy similar goods and/or services, and the customers to which certain goods and services are marketed.

Competing Product Pricing – The process used to evaluate the eventual price of a product by taking into account the cost of production, the price it was purchased by the seller at that point, the price of similar competing products, the market situation, and the affordability factor of the buyers at that point and the exclusivity of those goods or services in the available and determined marketplace.

Competition and Area of Focus – A salespersons pre-determined “area of focus,” is an area from which they allowed to obtain sales. Most sales territories are organized by post codes, zip codes or geographical boundaries.. Many sales territories are also “protected,” meaning that those companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and disallow another salesperson to sell in that pre-determined sales territory.

Competition and Sales Territory – Refers to a sales person’s “area of focus” from which they are to obtain sales. Most territories are organized by post codes (zip codes) or geographical boundaries. Many territories are also “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and usually disallow another salesperson to sell in another team member’s territory.

Competition Loss Review – Refers to a process a sales manager and/or sales team can use to review the reasons why the (your) organization was not selected in a specific sale. This process can often provide insight on the competition and on areas that might need to be changed in a future, similar situation.

Competition Plan – The set of steps outlining how the solution agreed to by the prospect or customer will be implemented. Implementation plans need to include What, Who, and By When elements.

Competition within a Product Life Cycle – This refers to the generally and stages that a product or service passes through from invention, development and to maturity through constant market decline until it becomes obsolete – usually because it has been superseded by other more competitive replacement offerings, and to a lesser degree the product or service had fully saturated that target market – everyone who wants it has purchased it.  From a marketing standpoint there are four stages in a product’s lifecycle.  These include Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. Understanding where a product is in its lifecycle can help the selling organization better define its sales strategy and the time it may take in selling the product or service in the designated market.

Competitive Advantage – This is a position a business gains over its competitors, either in sales or other areas such as service and after sales service and follow-up.  This may also include those areas deemed to have preferential value to a customer versus a similar competitive product.

Competitive Market Analysis (CMA) – See CMA

Competitive Market Economy – A situation in which businesses may operate in a free market, i.e., when they are in competition with each other and are not under government control.

Competitive Market Research – This is often referred to the process of gathering and analysing information about customers, competitors, etc., in order to make decisions and solve problems connected with selling products or services.

Competitive Niche Market – Relates to a unique segment of the market a selling organization is physically targeting or is targeted towards. This unique segment, if worked at or served well, can provide areas of distinctive competitive value.

Competitive Presence Territory Business Plan – This is usually a hands-on, tactical process where each salesperson examines the performance of his/her territory over usually the previous 12-month period – or perhaps a shorter term such as a half-year, quarter or month. A Territory Business Plans will identify the strengths, weaknesses, competitive presence, opportunities for growth, and action plans for the upcoming period.

Competitive Pricing – This promotes a pricing strategy where a retailer will purposely sets prices to compare more than favorably with, and usually lower than, the prices that are charged by its competitors.

Competitive Value Proposition – Also known as “Value drop” for short.  In other words, a key benefit for purchasing a product or dealing with a company intending to make the purchase more attractive to a potential buyer/s by markedly differentiating itself from its competitors.  This may also refer to a presentation by a salesperson, or a sales organizations broad statement of the value of an offer.  But to many, the value is seen as a situational proposition by many.  On the other hand, in sales, a key way to be perceived as adding value is by demonstrating how the product or service may increase potential revenues, assist profits, or reduce costs.

Competitor – Considered to be a business rival, who is usually one who manufactures or imports and sells similar goods and/or services to the ones that your company produces or imports and sells.

Competitor Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Competitor Analysis – This can also be called a Competitive Analysis. It is most prominent when a  company’s marketing strategy, that involves assessing and tracking of the performance of its competitors in order to determine their overall strengths and weaknesses, in order to gain advantages whenever and as often as possible.

Competitor Lockout – The best way to describe this concept approach within the selling arena is that many of the professional salespeople would avoid using it.  Having said that, it’s an interesting idea.  At times there are products or services that may be exclusive to a company, or hard to get at a certain time of the year for whatever reason.  At times like this the seller may be in a position to offer the prospect a product that no-one else is able to at that time.  This is made more powerful if the salesperson is able to confirm the exclusivity in writing from the an executive of the company.  Because no-one else can provide that product or service at the time, it is considered to be and is aptly named a “lockout.”  It’s a simple process.  Highlight what you have that no-one else can provide and you effectively “lockout” every other supplier the day you make the call.

Competitor Product – A name, term, or symbol used to identify the products and/or services of the selling organization and as a means to differentiate them from those of competitors.  It can also be the result of a manufacturing process or another form natural processes (such as food) which can be offered for sale to the general public, usually via direct sales through self-branded products or through other retailers.

Competitor Product Side-Selling – This is a form of the art of selling an additional or “complimentary product’ to a prospect who is already using a competitors product for a lead product or preferred primary product.

Competitor Targeted Opportunities – A process that is mainly used in sales organizations where mainly the gaining more sales is a function of taking away business from one or more business streams of those considered to be competitors.  Here the ratio used is usually a percentage to measure of the number of targeted opportunities sold when compared to the number of opportunities pursued.

Competitor/Competition Uniqueness – This usually relates to a function, feature or benefit (and in some cases all three) that is/are peculiar to a product or service or supplier.  It may also be that no other competitor can offer it. Uniqueness is usually a much overlooked aspect of selling. The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and services, and because of that inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price differences.  On the other hand, the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which will dramatically reduces competitive pressures.

Complaints Ombudsman – A government official who is engaged to investigate complaints from the general public about companies, government officials, the media, etc.

Completion of Goals and Directors – These are the assigned individuals who are held accountable for the responsible and timely completion of goals, plans, targets, objectives and expected work-loads of the nominated team leader        

Complex Multiple Sale – Relates to a sale where there are multiple decision makers and/or influencers, who often tend to have different requirements and agendas.  Complex sales usually typically take much longer than average to achieve and orchestrate a result. In some cases, this is also referred to as a strategic sale, tactical sale or calculated sale.

Complex Needs Analysis – This is the process of formally evaluating a customer’s wants, needs and any other requirements. Here the methodology followed can be light where one person provides the majority of insight or it can be quite complex, where significant research, survey work, and multiple evaluation methods are or need to be used. Needs Analysis is one of the most key competencies of strong salespeople, as their ability to surface, frame, and get at the essence of the customer’s problems, requirements, or issues sets the stage to build momentum for the sale.

Complex Sale – An attempted sale where there are multiple decision makers and influencers, who often have different requirements, applications and agendas. These types of complex sales typically take much longer than an average sale to organize before they are closed.

Complex Sales Model – Mainly associated with the normal sale of products, services and solutions to companies, organizations and corporates which may require multiple group discussions and long time frames.

Complex Selling Discipline – Mostly relates to either personal discipline, or discipline within the context of an organization.  As a job role of any kind, discipline in a necessity.  Discipline can also refer more generally to a certain capability or responsibility, such as ‘financial disciplines’, ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.  Discipline can also mean separately ‘control’ of others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling. In the business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people can be affected by a change or proposition, usually accompanying the sale of a product or a service.

Complex Selling Rationale – When working with accounts, the ‘rationale” refers to the process of establishing a believable business process for the company’s products or services. The use of this term is more directed to complex selling situations, rather than to any of the shorter term business decisions available.

Compliment Close – Be nice to them and tell them how wonderful they are.  “Wow, you really seem to know what you are doing.  The way I see it is that you know your stuff.  So what do you think of this model and is it the one you would buy next”

Complimentary Product Side-Selling – This is a form of the art of selling an additional or “complimentary product’ to a prospect who is already using a competitors product for a lead product or preferred primary product.

Complimentary Selling System – This refers to the divisions of a selling organization that when, looked at as a group, comprise of complementary components to define how the organization sells on an overall level.  They are also aware that when the selling system is functioning well, the sales organization is said to be highly productive and effective in achieving results that constantly exceed expectations and/or break sales records.

Component Just-In-Time (JIT) – A term often used to denote the availability of goods and services when needed by the buyer or as to be able to be provided by the supplier. Organizations who operate using just-in-time principles are typically very analytical in their ability to predict needs, in order to not overstock, yet ensure sufficient product exists in inventory to produce or deliver on customer requirements.  Alternately it may be a manufacturing system in which materials and components are delivered immediately before they are required, in order to increase efficiency, reduce waste and minimise storage costs.

Compound Interest – A form of interest that is calculated on not only the initial loan entered into, but also on the accumulated interest that keeps compounding over the time of the loan.

Compromise Close – If there’s a possibility of a sale to be made, and the prospect is happy to keep hearing other alternatives from the seller, this will obviously put the salesperson in an advantageous position.  There will only a few obstacles now stand in the way – and generally the main obstacle is the price

Compromise Factor – In sales negotiation, the process of yielding on a negotiating point is usually primarily a request or a specific term or condition. Concessions can be typically used by either party in a negotiation to enable making forward progress.

Computer Presentation/Sales Presentation – This is generally referred to as the process by which a salesperson explains/presents the product or service to the prospect (be it a single contact or a group), and will ideally include an explanation of the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are pertinent/relevant to the needs of the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but will more usually involve the use of visuals, common bullet-points, text slides and images on a computer display, tablet or projected onto a screen.  They can incorporate a video and/or physical demonstration of the product(s) or service(s).

Computer Widget – A small program which is run by some designated computers. It can also be a small device, switch, gadget, etc., whose name is not known.

Computerised Market Segmentation – The mechanical or computerized process of identifying and dividing consumers into groups according to their purchasing behaviour.

Computerised Universal Product Code (UPC) – Relates to a classification for coding data onto products by a series of thick and thin vertical lines, also known as Bar Codes. It allows retailers to record the pertinent data such as the model number, size, color, etc. when an item is sold, and to store or transmit the data to a computerized data system to monitoring unit sales, inventory levels, and other factors.

Con – Intentional deception for the purpose of financial or other gain.

Concealment and Smoke and Mirrors – An intentional deception for the purpose of disguising, concealing, or inflating something for personal or financial benefit.

Concealment or Smoke-Screen – Well used business term that properly represents a statement a prospect or customer makes that purposely conceals what the prospect actually plans to do or what their real intentions about a certain thing may be.

Concept – Referred to as a thought or notion that relates to an idea for a new product, an advertising campaign, or new marketing idea etc.

Concept Sales Threshold – When used within a sales concept for the means of compensation, this refers to the minimum level of sales to be achieved before a commission or an incentive is paid to the salesperson.

Concerns – These are the issues a prospect or customer brings up when a salesperson recommends ideas or options for a prospect of customer to purchase on the day.

Concerns and Objections – A term often used in sales organizations or sales processes when a prospect challenges or rejects a salesperson’s suggestion, or when the prospect brings up issues that prevent the sale from moving forward.  Alternately it may refer to a prospect’s challenge to or the rejection of a product or service, as a natural part of the sales process.  However, these days, many sales organizations tend to be moving away from the word “objection,” preferring to use a more collaborative term such as “concerns” to describe the same reaction by the prospect.  Regardless of the term used, how a salesperson handles the situation will determine whether a sale will be made.

Concession and Split-the-Difference – In the majority of sales negotiation, this is the point where the selling organization and the prospect or customer need to make a concession midpoint between both positions.

Concession Close – This close is giving your customer something to sign today.  By giving something you get something more.  “If I drop the price by $300, will you buy today?”

Concession Term – In sales negotiation, the process of yielding on a negotiating point is usually primarily a request or a specific term or condition. Concessions can be typically used by either party in a negotiation to enable making forward progress.

Concession Variable – This is an aspect of the sale or negotiation that can be adjusted and/or adapted in order to find the middle ground to better meet the needs of the seller and/or the buyer by way of concession. Here the typical variables may be price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up service, breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty, and so on. Variables may be real or perceived, and often the perceived ones are the most significant in any negotiation that may take place

Concession – A concession is used in the context of negotiating anything during the selling process.  When it refers to an aspect of the sale which has a real or perceived value that may be given away, or conceded to, more often by seller or at the other times by the buyer. One of the fundamental principles of sales negotiating is never to give away a concession without getting something back in return – even getting a small increase in commitment by the other party is better than nothing.

Concise Proposal/Sales Proposal – This is a proposal that is usually based on a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms, conditions, and warranty arrangements, created by a salesperson or selling organization to a specified prospect. Mostly this can be an immensely challenging part of the process to get things right, in that it must be a concise, yet complete, persuasive and objective, but well specified while purposely orientated to the customer’s applications.  Here an outline proposal is often deemed to be a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesn’t need.

Conditional Close – If the prospect raises an objection, the seller can close by adding a “subject to…” This is a great closing style because you sell based on conditions.  “I think we can do this for you, subject to you getting approved.”

Conditional Contract – A written contract which has been signed by the seller and the buyer but has one or more conditions which need to be met before the sale can be made, and that’s usually within a specified time period. For example, “subject to the solicitor’s approval of the title.”

Conditional Fixed Term Contract – This refers to a contract of employment which ends on a specific date, or on completion of a task or project that ends on a specific date.  Fixed term employees have the rights to the same pay, conditions and benefits as full-time employees.

Conditional Market Control – A condition in which the quantity and/or price of goods or services or a set of circumstances is/are influenced by buyers or sellers.

Conditional Sale – Generally refers to any kind of purchasing arrangement, usually where the buyer pays off the purchase in installments but does not become the legal owner of the goods until the full purchase price has been paid in full.

Conditions and Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Conditions and Terms of Credit or Sale The conditions or requirements within a sales contract, purchase order, or agreement, may include such shipping costs, minimums, payment options, or extension of credit.

Conditions Negotiation – Negotiation can have multiple meanings depending on the individual or the application. For some, it is the process of exploring known positions and alternatives to reach outcomes that gain the acceptance of all or some of the parties in negotiation with the presenter.  However, in many forms of selling, many believe that negotiatory process only begins when the known selling skills are exhausted and impasse is reached. Therefore, it is considered that negotiation focuses on overcoming the impasse, and working through the differences to eventually reach agreement on any negotiated financial terms, conditions, volumes and deliverable processes.

Conditions of a Recession Cycle – A sequence of economic activities which are usually typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at other times, through decline. Salespeople who are attuned to a company’s business cycle are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced at the time and know how their products and services can alleviate some of the tougher conditions that may be experienced within the business cycle at any given time.

Conditions of Satisfaction – Represents those criteria that the customer will use to determine whether or not to do business with a sales organization.  The criteria the prospect is looking for might include a combination of quality, reliability, service support, delivery, price, timing, risk, financing, warranties, and other limitations, to name a few.

Conditions Proposal/Sales Proposal – This is a proposal that is usually based on a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms, conditions, and warranty arrangements, created by a salesperson or selling organization to a specified prospect. Mostly this can be an immensely challenging part of the process to get things right, in that it must be a concise, yet complete, persuasive and objective, but well specified while purposely orientated to the customer’s applications.  Here an outline proposal is often deemed to be a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesn’t need.

Conducted Sales Process Documented – The accepted way sales are conducted and made by professional salespeople. When done effectively, the sales process is the clearly defined and the acceptable and documented steps an organization takes to satisfy customer requirements are followed to the letter. Typically, the sales process is defined by Phases, Key Activities, Tools, and Observable Outcomes.

Confidential Zone – This refers to an invisible zone outward in all directions approximately a half metre from the salespersons body.  Other zones will extend outwards in larger concentric circles and are usually reserved for social events with lesser degrees of intimacy.  These are generally referred to as individual, socialble and common zones.

Confidentiality Agreements – These are agreements between two parties that affirm that the information exchanged during a relationship is maintained within the confines of that agreement, and not shared beyond that agreement.

Configurators Sales Force Automation (SFA) – This relates to automating the sales activities within an organization. A comprehensive SFA software solution provides functions such as contact management and account management, workflow and approval processes, sales lead and opportunity tracking capabilities, note and information sharing, quick proposal and presentation generation, product configurators, calendars and to-do lists and reporting capabilities.

Confirmation of a Lockout – The best way to describe this concept approach within the selling arena is that many of the professional salespeople would avoid using it.  Having said that, it’s an interesting idea.  At times there are products or services that may be exclusive to a company, or hard to get at a certain time of the year for whatever reason.  At times like this the seller may be in a position to offer the prospect a product that no-one else is able to at that time.  This is made more powerful if the salesperson is able to confirm the exclusivity in writing from the an executive of the company.  Because no-one else can provide that product or service at the time, it is considered to be and is aptly named a “lockout.”  It’s a simple process.  Highlight what you have that no-one else can provide and you effectively “lockout” every other supplier the day you make the call.

Conflict Unemployment – Unemployment of those individuals/people/persons who are temporarily between jobs, or changing careers, or changing location, etc.

Confusion and Misunderstanding – An attitude communicated by a prospect or customer about something that is generally believed to be true, when in effect, it is not true. The salesperson’s objective, therefore, is to simply clear up the misunderstanding.

Connect – This is the process of winning over, attracting, and highly involving the end consumer (or customer).  In many of the more consultative roles, it can also mean the process of being secured to perform a pre-defined task or service.

Consequences – Consequences are those things that happen if an action or condition continues unabated, or is not alleviated. The better professional salespeople focus on asking consequence questions as a vital part of their sales process. These questions are powerful because they help the salesperson and the prospect/customer explore the long and short-term effects of addressing or not addressing their business issues, or of not being savvy enough to capitalize on the opportunities before them.

Consequences of Opportunism – This refers to the practice of exploiting and/or taking advantage of any of the opportunities which present themselves, with no regard for other people or any of the eventual consequences that may eventuate because of this.

Considerable Risk of Venture Capital – This is the money that is invested into a new business venture which is expected to make good profits in the near future, but which also involves considerable risk to the venture capital group.

Considerate Person with an Amiable Style – The prospect, customer or new buyer who takes an amiable approach is generally the one who is agreeable, devoted, responsible, warm hearted, considerate, caring, practical, patient, but is also the one that is generally mostly indecisive in everything.  Why?  Simply because this person does not like “rocking the boat” and try to be all things to all people.

Consideration Close – A great closing style to use whenever the prospect (or existing customer) asks for a consideration at a vital part of the selling process, whether it’s about price, delivery or additional features, the salesperson should respond by asking, “If I can do that for you today, will you sign the order?” This is a vital closing question – because if you agree without asking for a close at this point, then the prospect (or existing customer) has been given an open door to continue asking for more concessions.

Considered Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Considered Growth Cycle – A considered and recorded sequence of economic activities typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at times, decline. Salespeople who are attuned to company business cycles (either individually or corporately) are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced by their prospects, and then capitalise how their products and services can alleviate some of the conditions being experienced in the business cycle.

Considered Targeted Opportunities – A process that is mainly used in sales organizations where mainly the gaining more sales is a function of taking away business from one or more business streams of those considered to be competitors.  Here the ratio used is usually a percentage to measure of the number of targeted opportunities sold when compared to the number of opportunities pursued.

Considered Weighted Proposition – Also known as “Value drop” for short.  In other words, a key benefit for purchasing a product or dealing with a company intending to make the purchase more attractive to a potential buyer/s by markedly differentiating itself from its competitors.  This may also refer to a presentation by a salesperson, or a sales organizations broad statement of the value of an offer.  But to many, the value is seen as a situational proposition by many.  On the other hand, in sales, a key way to be perceived as adding value is by demonstrating how the product or service may increase potential revenues, assist profits, or reduce costs.

Considered Well-being – Over the years, this has developed into a significant term/s for the consideration of marketers concerning personal health and happiness in the workplace, with implications for performance, quality, organizational effectiveness and profitability. The idea of well-being, and specifically the promotion and strategic improvement of personal well-being in the workplace, is a major extension of many of the earlier principles and issues of individual stress levels and the need for viable stress management.

Consignment – Items that are stocked in a retail outlet, normally by the manufacturer, wholesaler or distributor, which are not paid for by the retailer until after the items are sold. The retailer may return or the supplier may claim back any unsold merchandise, and usually at any time. Legal ownership of items is not taken by the retailer until the item is sold, even though they maintain physical custody of the items.

Consistency Intangible – Whenever this is used in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the product or service offering that has a value but is difficult to see or quantify (for instance, peace-of-mind, reliability, consistency). See tangible.

Consistent Rainmaker – A well known but now lesser used sales slang term only given to the most impressive, prodigious, consistent, high-producing salesperson or salespeople in any selling organization.

Consistent Referrals – This is mostly customer’s direction or recommendation from one party to another party, either internally or externally, that may benefit from your product or service. Securing a good number of consistent referrals is always a proven tactic of consumer minded successful salespeople.  It may also be a recommendation or personal introduction or a suggestion made by someone, mostly, but not necessarily a buyer, which then enables the seller to approach the new perspective buyer or decision-maker direct.

Consortium – Usually a group of businesses, investors or financial institutions that choose to work together on a joint venture beneficial to all in a pre-determined way.

Consortium Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Contradiction Close – When using this closing style whenever the prospects express doubt, either about the product or their readiness to buy the product, the seller should try and make this appear to be a relatively weak or easily challenged statement.  “So John and Mary, why do you feel you are not ready to buy today?” No matter what they say, simply ask, “Is that all?” And wait for a reply.  When they do reply, pause for a while and let them disagree, something a contradicting will always almost certainly do.  If they do not challenge your doubt, then smoothly continue with a summary of everything discussed so far.

Constraints Open Plan Selling – This usually refers to a modern form of selling, which is generally dependent on the salesperson understanding and interpreting the prospect’s organizational and personal needs, issues, processes, constraints and strategic aims, which generally extends the selling discussion far beyond the obvious product application; (in a way, it’s rather like combining selling with genuinely beneficial, free, expert consultancy). Here the seller also identifies strategic business aims of the sales prospect or customer organization, and develops a proposition that enables the aims to be affected.

Consultant – An expert who is generally paid by a company or individual, to give advice on developing certain plans and achieving goals.

Consultant – Selling – A salesperson who is generally paid by a company or individual, to perform certain pre-defined duties, make sales calls, presentations, make sales and keep in touch with the company clients on a daily basis.

Consultation Selling – A sales process developed by various sales motivators through the 1980s, and is practiced widely today.  Initially consultative selling was a move towards more collaboration with, and involvement from, the buyer in the selling process. This technique is strongly based on a questioning process designed to reveal useful information that can assist in more sales and higher volume sales.  Also see Consultative selling        

Consumed Continuously Commodity Sales – This refers to the sale of something that is typically bought in bulk and consumed continuously.  And refers to products such as solvents, oils and gasses, a number of paper goods that fit into the commodities sector.

Consumer Credit – This can be a Loan, or Loans given to consumers by financial institutions for household or personal use.

Consumer Footfall – The measure, tally or the extent of the numbers of people who visit a business or shop or another retail, leisure, or entertainment venue during any given period of time. Footfall is a crucial factor in modern retailing methods, and also in all forms of promotion and advertising which focuses on the physical presence – on foot – of prospects and consumers at a particular location.

Consumer Goods Distribution – Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditised mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electricals, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the internet.

Consumer Market Research – This is often referred to the process of gathering and analysing information about customers, competitors, etc., in order to make decisions and solve problems connected with selling products or services.

Consumer Market Sector – Competing businesses which may produce or possibly buy similar goods and/or services, and the customers to which certain goods and services are marketed.

Consumer Market Test – The testing of a product or service in several capital cities, states and pre-determined areas of the country to see if customers will like it and want to buy it.

Consumer Marketing – The technical process followed by individuals, companies and organizations to satisfy the needs, wants, and demands of their customers through the application and promotion of products and services that satisfy those customer requirements.

Consumer Marketing Myopia – This occurs when a business is being shortsighted regarding the needs of its customers, and is only focusing on its products or short range goals and in the process is missing marketing opportunities.

Consumer Marketing – This refers to the act of promoting a company, or its products, and services in the effort to attract a primary influence to a company (normally pertains to customers) and is perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising.  However, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through to market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions. It’s the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it.

Consumer Negotiation/Negotiating – Negotiation and Negotiating are terms that depict the trading of all manner of concessions that may include price reductions, primarily between supplier and customer, in an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and customer alike. Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years, although generally it’s down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of correspondence or other documentation. Ideally, from the seller’s point of view, negotiation must only commence when the sale has been agreed in principle, and conditionally upon satisfactory negotiation. However most sales people fall into the trap set by most buyers (whether intentionally or otherwise) of starting to negotiate before the selling process have even been formally commenced.

Consumer Objection/Overcoming Objections – Technically (in the role of sales) an objection is a point of resistance that is raised by a prospect, and primarily, usually price, such as, “It’s too expensive,” but can be brought up at anything at any stage of the selling process.

Consumer Panel – A group of pre-selected individuals, usually a cross-section of a population, whose purchasing habits are monitored by an specialist organization, in order to provide feedback on products, services, etc., which are used.

Consumer Positioning Appeal – A calculated methodology that refers to a business and marketing strategy to “position” a product or service in the minds of consumer, thereby appealing to the prospective buyer segment for which that particular positioning has value, and will  hopefully elicit an valuable buying response.

Consumer Potential – A term used openly in sales to evaluate a salesperson’s assessment, either in dollars, or units and/or relationship, of doing business with a particular area, region, company, group or individual customer.

Consumer Price – The price which the general public is willing to pay for goods purchased and services received.

Consumer Price Index – CPI – This is generally a measure of inflation which involves regularly monitoring of the change in price for everyday goods and services purchased by householders in certain demographic areas.  The areas may then be combined to provide an average figure for a larger demographical area, city, state or nation.

Consumer Product Portfolio – Defines the combined total of all products and services, either individually or by set’s a company may offer to its customers as a package.

Consumer Product Purchase Cycle – This refers to the time frame used to measure a market based consumer or customer’s ordering habits.  As a marketing cycle example: “Our product purchase cycle for our customers in one year is 4.5 orders.”

Consumer Protection – Laws (which may change from time to time) designed to protect consumers against unsafe or defective products, deceptive marketing practices, dishonest business people, and so on.

Consumer Purchasing Sales Promotion – Paid marketing activities which seek to improve and accelerate the rate of consumer purchasing for a specific product or service.

Consumer Qualification – This refers to the process of determining whether a potential buyer has obvious and certain characteristics that qualify him or her as a lead.  These characteristics could be budget, authority, time-line, and so on.

Consumer Strategic Plan – This is usually the approach the individual, team or company will use to market and sell products, services and solutions to a buyer market whether it be to the end consumer, direct sales, retailers, wholesales, distributors or the internet.

Consumer – In the selling context, the word consumer typically refers to a private or personal customer or user, as distinct from a business or organizational, or trade customer. This term is used in the following acronyms – B2C; meaning ‘business-to-consumer’, describing the type of relationship between a business and a private ‘domestic’ customer. Retail is a consumer business.

Consumers – These are generally considered to be a part of the largest and technically lowest level of the company’s focus point as they are the easiest to sell to as they are the ones that actually use the products or services being more aggressively marketed to other harder to sell to sectors.            

Consumers and Network of Influence – These are the systems people in authority including, decision makers, directors, community leaders, councilors, influencers and to a lesser extent, consumers try to influence productivity within a target organization.  Most people in this grouping are able to temporarily act at a level below, but will almost never accept a role a level above.  Once the group is underway, most of those in some form of leadership will abandon the post and return to their normal role within the community.

Contact – The very first contact with a lead source or prospect, can be conducted over the phone or in person. The goal of any first contact is to set an appointment, or to ‘sit down’ with your prospect and present a sales case, that will hopefully lead to an order.

Contact Centre – See Call Centre

Contact Cold Calling – The old fashioned way of making contacts with possible prospects (via the phone or in person) to attempt to set an appointment, conduct a phone or in person sales presentation, and ultimately close a sale.

Contact Management and Sales Force Automation (SFA) – This relates to automating the sales activities within an organization. A comprehensive SFA software solution provides functions such as contact management and account management, workflow and approval processes, sales lead and opportunity tracking capabilities, note and information sharing, quick proposal and presentation generation, product configurators, calendars and to-do lists and reporting capabilities.

Contact Management System – A kind of technology used to track customer contact information, activity, and history.

Contact Networking – The process of developing and maintaining alliances both externally and internally within a group or a wide variety of contacts that may be able to provide or retrieve additional information, insight, help, and access to others.  Also refers to an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on a number of referrals and introductions that help build a larger data base – either via a face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc.

Contact Pre-Approach – An obvious two word statement used to describe the activities a competent salesperson engages in either prior to making contact with a prospect, and/or after an appointment is made. This could include researching the prospect’s business, assessing if a competitor is currently entrenched, determining the point of entry with the most potential, completing a pre-call plan worksheet, etc.

Contact Sales Calls – These are calls made by phone or in-person or through contacts to flush out prospects, or to set an appointment, or to conduct a sales presentation or a sales conversation over the phone .

Contact Telesales Selling – The process of selling by telephone contact alone, which is normally a sales function in its own right by utilising specially trained telesales personnel.  This kind of selling flourishes typically where low order values prevent the use of expensive field-based sales people, when used to sell a recognized product or service that will allow the viability of selling by telephone to succeed.

Contact Usability – Refers to the relative ease of either navigating, reading, or otherwise interacting with a website or web application.

Contacted Prospects – These are the individuals or companies a salesperson has contacted, or have contacted the sales company, and who represent a future potential to be future buyers of a product, service or solution.

Containerload – Refers to a shipment of goods which, because of their size and weight, will qualify for a lower shipping rate. The term ‘Less than containerload’ refers to a shipment which is below the given size/weight necessary to qualify for such a rate. Originally used for railway freight car transportation, it also applies to other methods of freight transport, notably smaller containers.  For this reason the similar terms of carload and ‘less than carload’ are now in common use.

Content Management System (CMS) – A software programme that provides solutions to make it possible to create, edit, maintain, publish, and display content on the Internet from a single interface or administration tool. In the context of online retailing, a CMS may be used to manage a stores product catalogue.

Content Marketing – The purpose here is to attract and retain customers by consistently creating and keeping relevant and valuable content with the intention of changing or improving consumer behavior. It is an ongoing process that is best integrated into an overall marketing strategy, as it focuses on owning media, not renting it.

Content Split Testing – Primarily used in online marketing, where a testing model that has marketers simultaneously test two variables, often referred to and labeled A and B, in order to discover which variation either in web page content or ad content or design content and layout produces the best possible result.

Continuous Improvement – A term made popular as a part of modern quality initiatives, and refers to the process of constantly looking for incremental improvements in work efforts, processes, and end results. It is said that sales professionals who are continuously improving their abilities add significant value to their customers and their selling organizations alike.

Contraband – These are goods prohibited by law from being exported or imported. The only way that these goods can be moved around is by an illegal process referred to as Smuggling.  The perpetrators are called Smugglers.

Contract and Sales Process Steps – Those involved in formal sales training will be quick to tell you of the well-understood, generic steps (initiation, qualify, evaluate, develop, propose, contract, win, close) as they are identified for the purpose of selling, from initiation to close. As a process, it is measurable and improvable.

Contract Feather-Bedding – This is a term that is often used within industry to describe the unhealthy practice of hiring more workers than is necessary on a project to carry out a specific job.  This happens more times that is usually wanted in industry often because of a contract agreed to with a union.

Contract Of Employment – A specific contract between an employer and an employee which specifies terms and conditions of employment, including hours to be worked, duties to perform, etc., in return for a salary, paid benefits, paid holiday, allowances, etc., from the employer.

Contract Of Purchase – This is a legal document which states the terms and conditions, including price, of the sale of an item.

Contract Terms of Credit or Sale The conditions or requirements within a sales contract, purchase order, or agreement, may include such shipping costs, minimums, payment options, or extension of credit.

Contract Worker – A person who is hired by a company (casual or permanent – but not as an employee), and often hired through an employment agency, for a specific period of time to work on a particular project.

Contractor – This could refer to an individual or company or another entity, who agrees to provide goods and/or services to another individual or company or another entity under the terms specified in the contract.

Control and Discipline – Mostly relates to either personal discipline, or discipline within the context of an organization.  As a job role of any kind, discipline in a necessity.  Discipline can also refer more generally to a certain capability or responsibility, such as ‘financial disciplines’, ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.  Discipline can also mean separately ‘control’ of others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling. In the business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people can be affected by a change or proposition, usually accompanying the sale of a product or a service.

Controlled Forward Integration – This is usually a well used business strategy where a company takes control of its distributors for the sole purpose of guaranteeing the distribution of the controlling company’s products.

Controlling Employee Ownership – An unusual business model and constitutional framework in which staff hold significant or majority shares of a company.  For this reason they are able to ensure higher levels of loyalty and commitment, and fairness in the way that business performance relates to employee reward.

Controversial Reference Pricing – A widely used and usually a highly controversial marketing, advertising, or promotional tactic, where a selling company advertises a product (or less commonly a service), at what may be deemed a (usually heavily) discounted price compared to a (typically unfeasibly high) previous selling price, and commonly described by the seller as the ‘usual’ or ‘normal’ price (the ‘reference price’).

Convene – A method used to gather together individual for an official or formal meeting.

Convenience or C-Store – A retailer (who may or may not also sell petroleum products) that is often located along major arterials, and open long hours, while carrying a limited amount of high-turnover items such as deli and snack foods, beverages, and household foods and necessities.

Conventional Ice Breaker Statement – This refers to the first sentence or two (usually prepared and rehearsed) a salesperson could say to a prospect at the first meeting for a specific product, services or solutions presentation.  This could also be used on a following-on or follow-up call by a relational representative or salesperson.  Mostly it is used to settle down the atmosphere and to create a thought-provoking introduction a vitally important idea, new concept or innovative way of doing something previously thought of as conventional.  Similar to the concept of using attention grabbing statements but with a more direct focus.

Conversational Sales Calls – These are calls made by phone or in-person or through contacts to flush out prospects, or to set an appointment, or to conduct a sales presentation or a sales conversation over the phone .

Conversational Why-Why-Why – The word ‘why’ is considered to be one of the most powerful words used in the art of selling. By learning the “why” of something, salespeople often learn the reasons the prospects try and cover their needs or behaviors. By asking three ‘why’s’ in the course of a question specific conversation, the salesperson is usually able to find the real want or need a prospect / customer may have. Asking a series of different ‘whys’ while questioning normally requires the salesperson maintaining a neutral, curious tone, so as not to be perceived as overtly challenging a prospects or customers statement.

Conversion – This can be (and usually is) the methodology used to convert a customer to use one product or supplier to another product or supplier.

Conversion – A marketing term that that is mainly used by sales departments to describe the activity of a certain salesperson or division.  In other words, it’s the act of converting a prospect to a client or customer.  However, most times management would want a closer look at how many suspects we communicated with, and how many of those converted to prospects, and then how many of those bought based on the presentations made.  The same process would apply to existing customers.  Why?  Because overhead costs, presentation costs, overall operating costs, etc, all contribute to the acquisition of a sale cost, and if that cost is higher than the profits made, then it is not acceptable to the company management.  See Also conversion ratio.

Conversion Path – Refers to the “events” on a company’s website that help those companies capture leads.  In its most basic form, it will consist of a form of call0to-action (typically a button that describes an offer) that leads to a page with a lead capture form, which in turn redirects to a thank-you page where a content offer resides.  In exchange for their contact information, a website visitor obtains a content offer to better help them through the buying process.

Conversion Rate – This relates to the percentage of people who completed a desired action on a single web page, such as filling out a form.  Pages with high conversion rates perform well, while pages with low conversion rates perform poorly.

Conversion Rate Social Proof – This is the real world evidence that a salespersons solution for a certain individual or business challenge works.  This evidence may take the part of a testimonial or other similar kinds of proof, however, the best proof is still the amount of sales made at the lowest conversion rate.  And the more sales made, the better the social.

Conversion Ratio – Used in the majority of sales organizations where increasing the  sales numbers is mainly a function of taking away business from the competition, this ratio is usually a measure of the number of targeted opportunities secured (sales made) verses the number of opportunities pursued (contacts made).  Both are vital to a sales organization, but the numbers of most interest are the contacts made that convert to a sale.  In fact, the closer the two numbers are together the better the result.  As an example, say 50 new prospects were presented over a month, and that resulted in 10 sales, that is a conversion rate of 20% and would probably be a half of what management would expect – they would most likely want a ratio of 40% for their profitability.  However, if 30 sales were made off 50 presentation, as this would be a conversion rate of 60%.  When figure like this are written it’s high profit (party) time.

Conversion Sales Funnel – Refers to a slang term used in sales to describe how, at the top of the funnel, all the opportunities that are available, and then, as the sales cycle unfolds, how those same opportunities progress downward through the funnel to the ultimate sale.  In turn this describes the pattern, plan or actual achievement of conversion of prospects into sales and customers, through the pre-enquiry and then through the sales cycle.  These also includes the conversion ratio at each stage of the sales cycle, which has been incorporated into a funneling effect.  Moreover, prospects are said to be fed into the top of the funnel, and converted sales drop out at the bottom. The extent of conversion success (ie the tightness of each ratio) reflects the quality of prospects fed into the top, and the sales skill at each conversion stage. The Sales Funnel is a long term and very powerful sales planning and sales management tool. Diagrams of typical basic Sales Funnel appear throughout the internet on free resources sections. Also referred to as the Sales Pipeline.

Converting a Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Converting on Objections Close – In most selling situations, an objection can be a very strong buying signal, yet so many salespeople are not aware of the fact or miss the opportunity to close. If the prospect raises an objection and it seems to be the only objection that may be preventing the order from being placed, the seller can use this to gain a commitment to buy.  “John, you have told me that you are interested in our products but the discount terms are unacceptable. Is this the only concern you have and if we were able to work out a compromise would you place the order with me today?

Conviction – A point of view, or a level of conviction of the truth held by a group. In sales, beliefs help shape reality. A salesperson’s beliefs can be contagious and often flow to the customer in a sales conversation – if they don’t, they should – because in many cases it’s that conviction, coupled with enthusiasm that sells more than any other factor in the selling process.  As a salesperson, how would you rate your conviction?

Convictions – Based around strong, unshakeable beliefs.  These are the motivators that keep driving a professional salesperson from one call to the next, and one day to the next.  Without conviction and passion there is no driven salesperson, just a slothenly shell of one.         

Cookie – This is a very small file, that is usually saved on a user’s computer or mobile device for the purpose of storing information related to the user’s interaction with a particular site.

Cooling-Off Period – Relates to a given period of time after the exchange of contracts, purchasing agreements, etc., during which the purchaser can change their mind and cancel the contract.  Most times they will usually get any deposit paid reimbursed.

Cooperative – Refers to an organisation or business which is owned and run by its employees, customers and/or tenants, who all share the profits.

Cooperative Advertising – This occurs whenever a manufacturer shares advertising costs with another body such as a wholesaler or distributor or retailer, or the wholesaler or distributor shares the advertising costs, with a retailer.

Cooperative Marketing – Also known as Cooperative Advertising.  It’s when two separate companies work together to promote and sell each others products.  A manufacturer or distributor who supports a retailer will also often pay for a retailers advertising on the lines they provide.

Coordination and Smarketing – This term is usually used to refer to the practice of aligning a variety of Sales and Marketing efforts.  In a perfect world, marketing would pass off lots of fully qualified leads to the sales team, who would then subsequently work every one of those leads enough times to close them anywhere from 50% to 100% of the time.  This isn’t always how it works, simply because it’s a key for Marketing and Sales to align their efforts to impact the bottom line the best they can through coordination through communication.

Copy Machine – An electronic machine or a piece of mainframe or portable equipment which makes paper copies of documents either in monotone or in full colour.

Copyright – Refers to an exclusive legal right to make copies, publish, broadcast or sell a piece of work, such as an article, a book, film, music, picture, etc.  The copyright period extends for 50 years after the authors death.  At that point anyone can rewrite part of the content of that book and then register for copyright under their name.

Copyright Intangible Asset – A company’s assets which generally do not physically exist, such as their brand name, trademarks, copyrights, etc.

Corporate Account – Generally refers to a large and complex prospect or customer – one that often has several branches or sites, and generally may require on-going contact and relationships between various departments and functions in the supplier and customer organization. Often major accounts are the responsibility of designated experienced and senior salespeople, which might be formed into a major accounts team. Major account customers often enjoy better discounts and terms than other customers because of purchasing power leveraged by bigger volumes, and the company lower selling costs from economies of scale.

Corporate Advertising – This is Advertising that promotes a company’s corporate image, rather than just marketing the products or services it produces.

Corporal Close – The prospect is encouraged to physically make an effort to do something that brings them closer to buying from the salesperson. This possibly could be anything from completing paperwork off-line, making calls to third parties or asking others to contact you. “When can you get Mike to call me?”

Corporate Complex Sales Model – Mainly associated with the normal sale of products, services and solutions to companies, organizations and corporates which may require multiple group discussions and long time frames.

Corporate Customer – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Corporate Hospitality – Any form of entertainment provided by companies in order to develop good relationships with employees, customers, other businesses, etc.

Corporate Ladder – This is an order of rank, or position, etc., within a company allowing to progress from junior to senior, which can then be ‘climbed’ further by all company employees.

Corporate Metrics – Theses are the procedures, actions and/or measurements used in a sales organization to track progress and to assess individual, organizational or corporate momentum applied towards securing a sale.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – In all company structures there is an obligation of a company to adhere to all legal guidelines in order to meet the needs of its employees, its shareholders and customers, and to also be concerned about related social and environmental issues that may be affected by what it does.

Corporate Strategic Plan – This is usually the approach the individual, team or company will use to market and sell products, services and solutions to a buyer market whether it be to the end consumer, direct sales, retailers, wholesales, distributors or the internet.

Corporate X-Inefficiency – This occurs when a small business or larger company is not using its employees, machinery, resources, etc., effectively.  The reason for this is often because of lack of competition.

Corporation – Refers to a large company (or a group of companies) which is/are legally authorised to act as a single entity, separate from its owners, with all of its liabilities for damages, debts, etc., limited to its assets so that its shareholders and owners are fully protected from personal claims.  It can also mean that it operates as a distinct legal entity and business structure, wherein the business is separate from its shareholders.

Corporation Buyers – The best part here is, that the people who could have conceivably bought from you are now buying from you and your company.  Remember this, when you first make contact with a referral you have never met before, you are still interacting with a potential buyer.  That also goes for the fact than when you are interacting with the largest client your company may be dealing with, you’re still interacting with a buyer.

Corporation End-User Selling – This is simply the selling undertaken by the salesperson of a product or service directly to the individual, company or corporation.          

Correspondence Course – A study course using written correspondence, books, etc., which are sent to you by post or via the internet from approved learning institutions.

Corruption – Occurs when there is a lack of honesty or integrity with an individual, business, corporation or government body. This includes what is considered to be illegal behaviour, such as bribery, by people in positions of authority, contacts, department heads, politicians, and so on.

Cost Benefit Analysis – This is the method a customer or sales organization will follows to assess the viability of a recommendation, generally by examining the total amount of money, time, and resources used relative to the value being received.

Cost Centres and Profit-centres – A business division or a department or a unit which is charged with the responsible of producing a profit.  This may be a shop unit within a chain of shops, or a branch within a network of dealerships.  Importantly a Profit-centre business unit will use a form of ‘Profit and Loss Account’ as a means of managing and reporting the business based on the fact that a profit centre is involved in selling to customers as an alternative to a Cost-centre, which primarily appears to be responsible for internal services and perhaps also the supply to other departments within the group.

Cost Control – A form of management process which ensures that departments within a company or organisation do not exceed their budget.

Cost Cutting – Generally referred to when actively reducing an individual’s, department, or company’s expenditure.

Cost Effective – The act of producing a product, or offering a service, etc., in the most economical way to the benefit of the company and the customer alike.

Cost Effective Flighting – Considered to be a cost effective method of advertising. This happens when a commercial is scheduled to appear on TV, usually when viewing figures are high (flight). There are periods in between the flights when the commercial does not appear on TV (hiatus). During the TV hiatus the product being advertised will often appear in newspapers or magazines, so the public is continually aware of it.

Cost Effective Long Tail – The Long Tail is Chris Anderson’s idea that markets and marketplaces, especially online, are moving away from mainstream, broad-appeal products and toward niche products. In ecommerce, most new retailers may now find it easier and more cost effective to focus on niche products.

Cost Effective Long Tail – The Long Tail is Chris Anderson’s idea that markets and marketplaces, especially online, are moving away from mainstream, broad-appeal products and toward niche products. In ecommerce, most new retailers may now find it easier and more cost effective to focus on niche products.

Cost Effective Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

Cost Leader – This is a company which has a competitive advantage over others by producing goods or offering services at a lower cost base than its competitors.

Cost Letter Of Indemnity – A document in which an individual, company, etc., guarantees to protect either a purchaser or another from costs, liability, etc., as a result of certain actions which may be carried out.

Cost of Buying Nothing Close – This close clearly establishes that the advertised (or ticketed) price is a cost to the prospect that is really not as high as the one that appears on the price tag.  In other words, whatever the ticketed price is, it’s either a wise investment, or a bargain at the price being asked.  “AS I stand alongside you and look at you in the mirror, I can really see how this suit really does make you look both professional and smart.  Can you see that too?”

Cost of Customer Retention – This simply means keeping existing customers and not losing them to competitors. Today’s cost conscious companies realise that it’s far more expensive to find new customers than to keep existing ones, and therefore put a sufficient amount of time and investment into looking after and growing existing buyers and/or business accounts.  Alternatively, those without this cost overview could find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity.  This is likened to a hole in the bucket, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.

Cost of Goods Sold – This will generally appear on an income statement, and relates to the cost of purchasing raw materials and manufacturing the finished goods.  It can also mean the amount paid for wholesale merchandise sold during a given accounting period, and including delivery costs. This is based on the equation that the Beginning Inventory plus Wholesale Purchases, minus Ending Inventory, for the whole of the time frame in question.

Cost of Goods Sold (CGS) – This is the difference between GROSS sales and the cost of goods sold (CGS) before operating expenses are taken out to determine net profit.

Cost Of Living – This relates to the standard cost of basic necessities which people need to live, such as food, housing, clothes and transport costs.

Cost Of Living Allowance (COLA) – Simply described as a salary supplement which a company pays to employees because of an increase in the cost of living.

Cost of Ownership Close – To get the message home here, and so that the salesperson is able to see the extremes in this kind of selling, I have staged a number of scenarios where the price could be as much as 50% lower than the others on offer.  I understand that this is not the case too often, but does occur when a new player is entering the market.

Cost of Production and Pricing – The process used to evaluate the eventual price of a product by taking into account the cost of production, the price it was purchased by the seller at that point, the price of similar competing products, the market situation, and the affordability factor of the buyers at that point and the exclusivity of those goods or services in the available and determined marketplace.

Cost of Production Overhead – This process is called a direct overhead when a portion of the overheads, e.g. lighting, rent, etc., or other costs directly associated with the production of goods and services are factored into the price of goods early in the equation.

Cost Of Sales – This is the cost of providing a service or manufacturing a product, including the cost of labour, materials and overheads.  But for sales compensation purposes, this refers to the calculation of total sales generated by the sales-force divided by the total compensation costs incurred by the sales force. Most of the time, this is expressed as a percentage.

Cost Overrun – This is the amount by which the actual cost of a project, etc., that exceeds the original budget.

Cost Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Cost Price Markup – The amount added to the cost price of a product or service to determine its selling price and the cost price of goods to cover overhead and profit.  The amount a producer, retailer, etc., puts on the price of the goods or services they are selling in order to make a profit. To raise the price of an item for sale.  Moreover, this is the money that a selling company adds to the cost of a product or service in order to produce a required level of profit. Strictly speaking, percentage mark-up refers to the difference between cost and selling price as a factor of the cost, not of the selling price. So a product costing $1 and selling for $2 has been given a mark-up of 100%; (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). It can also relate to the amount or percentage that a product is “marked up” from DELIVERED COST, to create a wholesale or retail price.

Cost Related Profit Margin Basics – This relates to the difference between what a retailer pays for a product and what the retailer’s customer pays for the same product.  The margin calculations may solely only the cost of the goods sold or may take into account other factors such as overheads and other variable costs.

Cost Tangible – Whenever it is used in a selling context, this describes, or is, an acute aspect of the product or service on offer that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost, value and so on.  As an example, any physical feature of the product, spare parts, delivery, or installation, or a regular service visit, or a warranty agreement, and so on.

Cost-centre – This refers to a part of a business or organisation (such as a marketing department, or quality assurance department), which is a cost to the overall operations but does not produce external customer revenues or profit through trading.

Costs Incurred Pro-Forma – This refers to the process of preparing a hypothetical income statement for customers, generally based on a given set of assumptions. As an example, a sales professional may need to prepare a pro-forma of revenues anticipated based on the result of a solution being accepted, and when compared to the costs being incurred.

Costs Open Plan Selling Strategies – This proposition is strongly linked to the achievement of strategic business aims – typically and including improvements in costs, revenues, margins, overheads, profit, quality, efficiency, time-saving and competitive strengths areas. There is a strong reliance on seller having excellent strategic understanding of prospect organization and aims, market sector situation and trends, and access to strategic decision-makers and influencers.

Cost Value Proposition – Also known as “Value drop” for short.  In other words, a key benefit for purchasing a product or dealing with a company intending to make the purchase more attractive to a potential buyer/s by markedly differentiating itself from its competitors.  This may also refer to a presentation by a salesperson, or a sales organizations broad statement of the value of an offer.  But to many, the value is seen as a situational proposition by many.  On the other hand, in sales, a key way to be perceived as adding value is by demonstrating how the product or service may increase potential revenues, assist profits, or reduce costs.

Cottage Industry – This is a small business where the production of goods or services are based in the home rather than in a factory or on business premises.

Councilors and Network of Influence – These are the systems people in authority including, decision makers, directors, community leaders, councilors, influencers and to a lesser extent, consumers try to influence productivity within a target organization.  Most people in this grouping are able to temporarily act at a level below, but will almost never accept a role a level above.  Once the group is underway, most of those in some form of leadership will abandon the post and return to their normal role within the community.

Counter Inside Sales – This term refers to those sales professionals who typically work over the phone, or behind the counter in a retail or warehouse based establishment.

Counterbid – This refers to the process of making a higher offer than someone else in a bid to buy something.

Counterfeit – Intentional deception for the purpose of financial or other gain.

Counterfeit Goods – This term, unlike the “Grey Market/Gray Market” does not refer to counterfeit goods. The term usually alludes to the older expression ‘black market’, and is used (or analysed) most commonly from the standpoint of manufacturers, who generally regard grey/gray markets as threatening to their marketing distribution and pricing strategies.

Counterpart – This relates to a person or position which has a corresponding function in a different organization, country, and so on. The corresponding function naturally is also a counterpart.  This can also refer to a copy of a legal document.

Countersign – The process of adding a second or further signature, where required, to a document or cheque, in order to make it valid.

Country Field Day – In country areas this refers to an event help in a rural selling close to a country town where farm machinery, and other goods and services are showcased to the local and extended communities.  These field days are usually accompanied with circus type rides, games, stalls and food halls to help pay for the event.

Country Market Test – The testing of a product or service in several capital cities, states and pre-determined areas of the country to see if customers will like it and want to buy it.

Coupon Code – Usually consists of a combination of series of numbers and/or letters that an online shopper may enter at checkout to get a discount or other special offer. Discount codes may also be called coupon codes.

Coupon Lead – This relates to a person or company who shows interest in a product or service, in some way, shape or form.  It may be the result of them filling out a form, subscribing to a blog, or they may have shared their contact information in exchange for a coupon.  Generating leads is a critical is a critical part of a sales prospect’s journey to becoming a customer, and it falls in the second stage of the larger inbound marketing methodology.  Landing pages, forms, offers and calls-to-action are just a few tools to help companies generate more on-line leads.

Coupon Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Courier – Usually a salaried or self-employed person who carries and delivers messages, documents, packages, etc., more often between companies. It may also refer to a person employed by a travel company as a tourist guide.

Court Writ – This refers to a written order issued by a court of law that orders someone to do, or not do, something.

Courtship Close – It’s a close where the salesperson woos the prospect somewhat like someone who was wooing a person of the opposite sex or a mate. With this close, the salesperson should pay attention to the one being wooed by giving them sincere compliments.  “You know, it’s really a wonderful thing that good you look in that coat. It really suits you”

Covenant – This is a commitment to carry out a written promise, that sometimes can be a part of a contract, to perform, or not to perform, a particular action.

Coverage – This generally refers to the percentage of customers, people, or markets reached by any kind of sales channel or marketing process. In more complex selling situations, coverage is typically carried out to determining who will be responsible for calling on the primary targets or key personnel in that organization.

Coverage and Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

Covert Need – This is the need behind the need.  Often used as “hot button” to encourage the prospect to consider buying a product or service.

Cowboy – Generally referred to a dishonest and often unqualified business person – especially one who overcharges for bad quality work.  It may also refer to bad drivers, mainly those in trucks who seem to believe they are above the law when it comes to following road rules. This is not to be confused with the cowboy of top-shelf publications.

CPI (Consumer Price Index) – This is generally a measure of inflation which involves regularly monitoring of the change in price for everyday goods and services purchased by householders in certain demographic areas.  The areas may then be combined to provide an average figure for a larger demographical area, city, state or nation.

Cradle to Grave Close – Whenever the salesperson  applies the close the way it has been designed to be used), the prospect will usually have a sense of regret about the items being upgraded, but will also be aware it is inevitable that there must be an update on that item sooner, rather than later – especially if the prospect runs a business, where productivity is extremely dependant on technological advancement these days, and updates are a vital part of this. “When have you budgeted to update this section of the factory?” “How much have you planned to spend on this upgrade?”

Created Proposal Automation Software – Proposal automation software refers to newly created software that automates the creation, delivery and acceptance of a personalized sales proposal that is designed to theoretically best meet a buyer’s needs.

Creative Director – A person who usually works in the advertising agency or the entertainment industry and is responsible for planning and managing the creative aspects of an advertising or promotional campaign.

Creative Expressive Style – The buyers who take an expressive approach to the selling process are usually want to be the centre of attention, can sometimes be manipulative, as well as friendly, animated, enthusiastic, excited, spontaneous, gracious, eager, talkative, energized, pleasant, self-promoting, passionate, sociable, independent, commanding and creative.             

Creative Ideas Thought Leadership – A (generally academic) term used to project an image of innovation and/or a forward vision associated with that innovation. The best of the sales organizations and salespeople who are mainly perceived to be “thought leaders” are the ones looked to for creative ideas and innovative approaches to today’s known business challenges and problems.

Creative Pre-call Notes – These are the notes taken by a salesperson during any pre-call research that will or can be used to prepare an effective opening attention grabbing statement, and to create the necessary strategy for the call.

Creative Sales Catalyst – In sales organizations, this term refers to a salesperson or sales manager who is capable of stimulating positive and creative change, and who is one who causes a process or event to happen through both direct and indirect efforts.

Creativity – This relates to being able to “think out of the box” in order to resolve a customer problem or challenge.  It may also relate to those who are able to generate unique ideas to address a customer condition or problem. Most good salespeople are also creative, original and imaginative whenever they need to develop solutions.

Credibility – Without credibility a sale can never be made.  It is also a critical quality in building commitment in a sale.

Credibility and Relational Selling – A common selling methodology where the customer highly values the relationship with the salesperson or the sales organization they are doing business with. In relational selling, the salesperson’s credibility, trust, likeableness, and dependability become key factors in the immediate and on-going decision making process.

Credibility in Sales – This is the degree that people that matter (the prospects and clients) find it easy (and worthwhile) to believe in the ideologies expressed by the salesperson.  Short term credibility is never the yard-stick that a sale is made on, but what the buyer believes will be able to hold-over into the long term.  On the other hand those that believe that all they need is to have enough credibility to make the appointment, or to get through a single meeting with a prospect are the ones that the prospect will usually deem have no credibility at all.           

Credit – The ability to pay for goods and services at a later time or date.  It can also be termed as an arrangement in which an item for sale is received by the purchaser and is then paid for at a later date.  Similar to that of a loan from the supplier.  It can also relate to the positive balance in a bank account or an amount entered in a company’s accounts which has been paid by a debtor.

Credit Analysis – This is the process of analysing a personal or company’s financial records and assessing their ability to repay a loan as arranged.

Credit Card Floor Limit – In retailing, this process refers to the highest amount of money that can be paid for a sale for which a debit or credit card can be used by a customer without authorisation from the customer’s bank.

Credit History – Refers to a  record of an individual’s or company’s debt repayment, and is used by lenders to asses a borrowers ability to repay a loan, mortgage, etc.

Credit Rationing – This occurs when a bank or money lender limits the amount of funds available to all its borrowers, or when interest rates are very high.

Credit Terms of a Sale The conditions or requirements within a sales contract, purchase order, or agreement, may include such shipping costs, minimums, payment options, or extension of credit.

Credit Terms of Credit or Sale The conditions or requirements within a sales contract, purchase order, or agreement, may include such shipping costs, minimums, payment options, or extension of credit.

Creditor – This is a person, business, or corporation, to whom money is owned.

Creditor Involuntary Liquidation – A situation when a company is forced into bankruptcy by its creditors, so that its debts can be paid.

Crisis Management – These are the actions taken by a company to deal with an unexpected event which threatens to harm the organization.  This could be the loss of a major customer, bad publicity, and so on.

Criteria and Market Sector – An integral part of the market that can be described, categorised and then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics.  These sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, as an example, a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc.

Criteria Based Qualified Lead Prospects – Those in sales that experience varied levels of contact with those that are happy to pursue information from a sales division within a business or larger organization, and if and when they fit into some predefined criteria that suggests they are a viable prospect, they will be worked by that business or organization.

Criteria Based Target Account – A specific account a salesperson or the sales organization has pre-selected to focus their effort and resources on. In the majority of cases, salespeople will select Target Accounts based on establishing criteria that suggest these accounts are more likely to represent a viable opportunity or the potential to purchase and utelise a specific product or service of immediate or future value to them.

Criteria Conditions of Satisfaction – Represents those criteria that the customer will use to determine whether or not to do business with a sales organization.  The criteria the prospect is looking for might include a combination of quality, reliability, service support, delivery, price, timing, risk, financing, warranties, and other limitations, to name a few.

Criterion – This is a principal or standard by which other things or people may be compared, or on which a decision may be based.

Critical and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Critical Mass – This is generally the minimum amount of customers, resources, etc., needed to maintain or start a business venture, etc.  The point at which changes will  occur is when a company is able to continue in business (stand on its own two feet) and make a profit without any outside help.

Critical Questions – Whenever a salesperson asking well thought through qualifying and forward thinking questions before, during and after the presentation process.

Critical Skills Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Critical Success Factor – This generally refers to the characteristics that figure in or are most essential to accomplishing something worthwhile.

CRM (Customer Relationship Management) – This is an acronym for Customer Relationship Management – This is a term that is used to describe the process applied internally to effectively manage customer relationships and is often used to refer to the use of technology employed to track and maintain essential information about the customer and the variety of activities that need to be initiated with a customer across all of the functional areas of the selling organization.

CRMSt (Customer Relationship Management Strategy)  – A purpose built business strategy designed to create outcomes that optimize its profitability, revenue and customer satisfaction by organizing specific processes around customer segments, and fostering customer-satisfying behavior while implementing other more advanced customer-centric processes.  CRMS technologies should enable a greater customer insight, increased customer access, more-effective interactions, and integration throughout all customer channels and back-office functions.

Cronyism – This is a favoured term in business and politics, where those in power show favouritism to friends and associates by giving them jobs or employment appointments with no regard to their qualifications or abilities.

Cropping – A term primarily used when a product is still being sold, although it is no longer being invested in, or prior to the product being withdrawn from the market.

Cross Merchandising – A term applied in all forms of retailing, and retail selling.  It is the practice of putting related products together on display in order to encourage customers to purchase in a batch or several items as they buy product by product as they see the need for each.

Cross Shipping – An implementation strategy where the retailer does not actually carry any inventory of the drop shipped product in the initial stages, but instead passes on the shipping address to either the manufacturer, or a distributor that actually ships the purchased items directly to the customer.

Cross-Selling – This is a methodology in selling where the customer want or need lends itself to a possible want or need for another product or service.

Cross-Selling in Sales – When a salesperson has more than one type of product to offer to consumers that could be beneficial to them, and is successfully sell a consumer more than one item, either at the time of purchase, or to be ordered for delivery at a later date.  In cases like this, a salesperson is adept enough to identify a need the customer has, and fulfills that need by recommending an additional product.  (Note: cross-selling differs from up-selling).  Also see Up-Selling

Crowd Funding – This is a more recently established method of funding and underpinning a project or business venture which has became increasingly popular and visible in the 21st century.  It works where the users or other interested people are involved as investors at project inception, and therefore agree and commit to support a development of one sort or another.  A good example of crowdfunding is the raising of capital and support from a local community for the construction of nearby wind turbines, which generally otherwise encounter local hostility instead of support. The concept of crowd funding provides a clear illustration of the benefit of involving people as stakeholders, rather than positioning people as ‘reluctant customers’ or obstacles to be confronted and overcome.

Crowded Room Close – Here the salesperson simply says, “One of the reasons I wanted to wrap this up today for you is that we only have five of these items left in stock.  Now John, if I am able to get these to you and have our engineers install them for you, do I have your order?”

Crown Jewel – This always relates to the most valuable and profitable asset of a company or a business.

Crucial Footfall – The measure, tally or the extent of the numbers of people who visit a business or shop or another retail, leisure, or entertainment venue during any given period of time. Footfall is a crucial factor in modern retailing methods, and also in all forms of promotion and advertising which focuses on the physical presence – on foot – of prospects and consumers at a particular location.

Crucial Gestation Period – A sale gestation period typically refers to the time taken from an enquiry to sale, or the Sales Cycle.  Awareness and monitoring of the Sale Gestation Period within a Sales Cycle times are crucial factors in sales planning, forecasting and management, for individuals sales teams and for sales organizations.

Crucial Mind-Set – The frame of mind of a salesperson or a sales manager may be in at a specific time in the selling process. Attitude is considered to be extremely key in the world of sales, as it drives compelling behavior. A salesperson’s ability to assess the attitude of the customer is equally key in the selling process, and being able to align with or address a wide range of customer attitudes is essential in effective selling

Crucial Players – The (key) men and women situated inside an account who are essential to the selling organization for the seller’s gaining a positive decision.

Crucial Sales Plan – Refers to a written document that ideally should incorporate related key goals and strategies that a salesperson should review regularly in the presence of a sales manager.  For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Crucial Selling Skill Questioning – Normally referred to as the second stage of the sales call, typically after the opening or introduction in the Seven Steps of the Sale, but also vital to modern selling methods when used with collaborative of fascilitave selling. A crucial selling skill, yet rarely well demonstrated. The correct timing and use of the key different types of questions are central to the processes of gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and empathy. This manner of predetermined questioning also requires that the salesperson has good listening, interpretation and empathic capabilities.

Crucial Selling Skills – This is one of the most important and/or considered to be the key selling skill.  In selling, without the salesperson being able to exhibit listening skills the process of sales questioning becomes pointless. The two work hand in glove and are both essential skills to be mastered by the salesperson.

CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) – In all company structures there is an obligation of a company to adhere to all legal guidelines in order to meet the needs of its employees, its shareholders and customers, and to also be concerned about related social and environmental issues that may be affected by what it does.

C-Store or Convenience Store – A retailer (who may or may not also sell petroleum products) that is often located along major arterials, and open long hours, while carrying a limited amount of high-turnover items such as deli and snack foods, beverages, and household foods and necessities.

C-Suite – These are the Chief Officers or most senior executives within a business or organisation.

CSV – Comma Separated Values – Referred to a file type that generally stores data values. CSV files are often used to transfer product feeds.

Cue – Generally this is a signal, often given by a customer via a word or action that suggests an opportunity for a product or service.’

Cultivating in the Hunter/Farmer Model – In today’s modern selling there are clearly defined roles for salespeople. These days two differing roles have emerged and are termed as either “hunter” salespeople, or “farmer” salespeople.  The “hunter” is the one that that generates new customers or new business or is able to support and upgrade existing clients whereas, on the other hand, the “farmer” is the one that works cultivating and farming existing accounts that do not need to be upgraded.  The reason for the differential between the two is that all businesses need a healthy mix of market share among their clients, and the “hunter” and “farmer” concept proves to be an ideal mix.  Many sales companies expect their salespeople to perform both roles in a given territory.

Current Account – Known as a bank account which can be used to make deposits, withdrawals, cash cheques, pay bill, etc.

Current Assets – An accounting term for a company’s cash or assets which can be readily converted into cash (usually within one year), including it’s portfolio of shares, inventory, etc.

Current Client Referrals – Obtaining additional profile information about other possible prospects from a current prospect or customer, associate, client, neighbour or family member.

Current Customer – Refers to an existing customer who has ordered in the past 12 to 18 months depending on your product or service cycle.

Current Customer Upselling – Here the sales department contacts the current customer base and works at selling them additional products or services (either current product “add-ons” or entirely new products or services.)

Current Customer Referrals – This is the process of acquiring referrals of other possible prospects from your current customer base. T time to do this is usually while making a current customer call.  That way their defences are down, and if they have been well looked after and are happy with the product or service, they will usually happily comply

Current Liability – In most businesses, a current liability or is generally a debt which must be paid within one year from the time of the initial transaction.

Current Market Analysis (CMA) – See CMA

Current or Competitive Market Analysis (CMA) – This is a written price comparison of your property compared to others for sale or were recently sold.

Current Price Market-To-Market – This is the process of valuing a security, share, etc., on a daily basis to assess its current price, rather than its acquisition price or book value.

Custom Close – Those in the life insurance industry, and other allied industries, use this close well.  They sympathise with hurt they are feeling after they have brought up possible future hurt, the seller is then able provide a way through – without the prospects becoming defensive or throwing up smokescreens.

Custom-Fit Close – By the end of a sales presentation, the seller will have hopefully learned a lot about the prospect, and in turn, by then, you would have become aware of at least one or two benefits that are really important to them.  With this close, the seller applies that information in a way that gets them keen to buy from you. Basically the seller frames the decision in a way that makes the prospect keen to acquire what he or she said they badly want.  “John, as I understand it, you’re looking for a way that will protect your family and keep them safe should anything happen to you. Is that right?” “Then what I can offer you I believe is perfect for you.”

Customer – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC) – This relates to the total Sales and Marketing cost.  To calculate this to your business, follow these steps for a given time period (month, quarter or Year).  Add up the whole program costs, then include the advertising spend, salaries, commissions, bonuses and other overheads.  Now divide this figure by the number of new customers in that time period. – For example if you spend $500,000 on Sales and Marketing in a given month and were able to add 50 new customers that same month, your CAC will be clearly seen for that month.  As a guide, the cost of making a face to face call these days is suggested to be somewhere around $170 to $200.  If a salesperson has a strike rate of 1 in 10 selling to new customers seen and presented to, that client acquisition cost could most likely be around $1,700 to $2,000 for each new client sold.  In a 1 in 8 close rate $1,360 to $1,600.  In a 1 in 6 close rate $1,020 to $1,200.  And in a 1 in 4 close rate $680 to $800 each new client sold.

Customer and a Discovery Agreement – This is essence is a preview sheet that the salesperson can discuss with the prospect or customer – something somewhat similar to a short check-list.  How it works is, at the early part of the presentation the salesperson openly shares what is known about the prospects organization.  At this point the salesperson is also able to point out the plan of what he or she would like to cover as a presentation over the time needed for the prospect to make a decision.           

Customer Based Pro-Forma – This refers to the process of preparing a hypothetical income statement for customers, generally based on a given set of assumptions. As an example, a sales professional may need to prepare a pro-forma of revenues anticipated based on the result of a solution being accepted, and when compared to the costs being incurred.

Customer Based Research/Research Call – This is the act of gathering information about a given market or a prospect or even an existing customer, that will help the salesperson with an invaluable ability to progress the sales process forward somewhat or enable a sales a more viable sales approach to be affected. Often seen as a job for telemarketing personnel in many company’s, but is actually far more useful and affective when carried out by salespeople personally, especially where large prospects or clients are being worked on. In fact the larger organizations should be the primary target of modern salespeople, given the need to recover very high costs of doing business.

Customer Benefits Sale – This is a common way of establishing a considered or agreed value experienced by the customer as a result of the purchase of a product or service.  Salespeople who focus on communicating benefits and aligning those benefits to a customer’s business objectives, increase the likelihood of completing a sale.

Customer Care Close – After the salesperson conducts a sales presentation that does not result in a sale being made, the salesperson can then call the prospect and explain that it’s a normal follow-up process by the company to call to check the quality and customer orientation of the call.

Customer Centric – A very good description for an organization that is especially attentive to their customer input and the customer involvement in planning and executing their strategies..

Customer Development Pipeline Activities – This primarily relates to a sales pipeline, including appropriate planning, scheduling and integrating customer development activities together with data on the necessary manner and formulation of communication and other related activities.

Customer Directed Referral – This is mostly customer’s direction or recommendation from one party to another party, either internally or externally, that may benefit from your product or service. Securing a good number of consistent referrals is always a proven tactic of consumer minded successful salespeople.  It may also be a recommendation or personal introduction or a suggestion made by someone, mostly, but not necessarily a buyer, which then enables the seller to approach the new perspective buyer or decision-maker direct.

Customer Distributor – Notably an individual or company or a wholesaler that buys products, mostly from manufacturers, and then resells them to other wholesalers, agents, retail outlets or direct to customers.

Customer Executive – Mostly refers to someone in the organisation who is an internal coach, supporting solutions. This may also refer to the customer executive who is the primary advocate for the project or solution the sponsor is attempting to sell.

Customer Eyes – This is a common term used in sales that refers to the outlook a salesperson may need to take to advance the sales process. By seeing everything “through the customer’s eyes”, a sales professional gains perspective on how to position solutions that may help to improve the prospects business.

Customer Fit – The word Fit in marketing and business situations refers to the degree which a product, service, solution, organization matches customer requirements. It is useful to consider Fit in 5 dimensions: Product Fit, Technical Fit, Solution Fit, Financial Fit, and Business Fit. Salespeople who organize their thinking around this Fit scenario and are able to align their solution to as many of these dimensions as possible elevate the probability of them effectively preparing then making the sale.

Customer Ideal – Refers to an individual or company, etc., who purchases goods and/or services from other individuals, companies, stores, etc.

Customer Internal Coach – Two words that typically refer to someone in the organization who is your internal coach, supporting your solution. This may also refer to the customer executive who is the primary advocate for the project or solution you are attempting to sell, e.g. Executive Sponsor.

Customer Key Account Review – A powerful business tactic for the development key accounts, business reviews that represent the formal methodology where executives of the selling organization formally meet with executives of the customer organization to present what has been accomplished between their two companies during the previous 12-month period. When done well, this method is a collaborative two-way dialog where the customer is also involved in setting and agreeing to mutual goals for the business relationship.

Customer Lead – This relates to a person or company who shows interest in a product or service, in some way, shape or form.  It may be the result of them filling out a form, subscribing to a blog, or they may have shared their contact information in exchange for a coupon.  Generating leads is a critical is a critical part of a sales prospect’s journey to becoming a customer, and it falls in the second stage of the larger inbound marketing methodology.  Landing pages, forms, offers and calls-to-action are just a few tools to help companies generate more on-line leads.

Customer Lead Generation – Salespeople and marketing types both refer to the word ‘lead’ a lot, but they don’t always agree on what it means.  Lead generation is a critical part of the sales process and is generally agreed to that it is the first step in the sales cycle.  So a shortage of leads can often affect the entire sakes process.  It also relates to researching the ‘most probable customers’ in a personal or company sales territory.  Lead generation is also often referred to as ‘prospecting,’ although technically prospecting has a different definition.

Customer Logistics – The management of products and related services, or other resources as they travel between a point of origin and a destination. In ecommerce, and other forms of internet transactions, logistics might describe the process of transporting inventory to a merchant or the act of shipping orders to customers.

Customer Loyalty – This generally is a way of evaluating the loyalty of your existing customers when a customer prefers to buy a particular brand or type of product, and who prefers a particular shop, or who stays with the same company year after year.

Customer Management – This is the process and discipline of working with existing customer accounts in order to build better long-term, and mutually beneficial business relationships.

Customer Market Forces – Refers to those market influences, such as the availability of raw materials for the production of goods, or customer numbers, which can affect supply, demand and prices of products and services.

Customer Market Research – This is often referred to the process of gathering and analysing information about customers, competitors, etc., in order to make decisions and solve problems connected with selling products or services.

Customer Market Sector – Competing businesses which may produce or possibly buy similar goods and/or services, and the customers to which certain goods and services are marketed.

Customer Marketing – The technical process followed by individuals, companies and organizations to satisfy the needs, wants, and demands of their customers through the application and promotion of products and services that satisfy those customer requirements.

Customer Marketing Myopia – This occurs when a business is being shortsighted regarding the needs of its customers, and is only focusing on its products or short range goals and in the process is missing marketing opportunities.

Customer Marketing – This refers to the act of promoting a company, or its products, and services in the effort to attract a primary influence to a company (normally pertains to customers) and is perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising.  However, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through to market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions. It’s the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it.

Customer Markets B2B Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufactuerers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecomms and IT sectors).

Customer Multiple-Unit Pricing – Relates to a policy concept where a retailer, wholesaler, distributor or producer offers discounts to customers who buy in quantity. Often called a tiered or quantity-based pricing schedule.

Customer Needs Opportunity – A situation, or a need, or a condition, or a circumstance where the salesperson has the potential to meet a customers business needs.  Though every company has different processes for defining what criteria could suggest what is another’s opportunity to buy – in essence, it’s a basic sales description used when a qualified lead is being worked by a salesperson, or someone else in sales.

Customer Net Promoter Score – This relates to the customer satisfaction metric that measures, on a scale of 0-10, the degree to which other people would recommend your company to others.  The NPS is derived from a simple survey designed to help determine how loyal customers are to a business.  Regularly determining a company’s NPS allows you to identify ways to improve your products and services so that you can increase the loyalty of your customers.  Learn more about how to use NPS surveys for marketing here.

Customer Opportunity Planning – This relates to the methodology applied within the discipline of Account Management in order to assess, select, and plan for securing an opportunity with a customer.’

Customer Paid Profit Margin Basics – This relates to the difference between what a retailer pays for a product and what the retailer’s customer pays for the same product.  The margin calculations may solely only the cost of the goods sold or may take into account other factors such as overheads and other variable costs.

Customer Perception – The notion of how something is seen or regarded by someone, usually by the prospect or customer, irrespective of what is believed or presented by the seller, ie what it really means to the customer after they acquire it.

Customer Pipeline Selling – Refers to the step-by-step process where salespeople progressively go through a known selling process style, or formula, in order to convert a prospect into a customer.  Whenever this occurs, the sales pipeline is often divided into stages for each step in the sales process, where the salesperson is responsible for moving opportunities through each of the stages.  It can also refer to the many facets of a visual presentation within the sales process, where every opportunity is arranged based on the sales stage the salesperson has led the prospect into.

Customer Planning – The process or method used to assess the opportunities within a nominated client account and what is then needed to achieve mutual goals with that customer.

Customer Potential – A term used openly in sales to evaluate a salesperson’s assessment, either in dollars, or units and/or relationship, of doing business with a particular area, region, company, group or individual customer.

Customer Pre-Call Briefing – The process usually led by a manager or coach and purposely involving a salesperson in order to strategize for a call, define certain desired objectives, prepare for those must answer questions, and build positive momentum for those necessary discussions with the prospect and/or existing customer.

Customer Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Customer Product Portfolio – Defines the combined total of all products and services, either individually or by set’s a company may offer to its customers as a package.

Customer Profile – This either a paper or electronic document that outlines the critical information about a particular customer. These may include key contacts, roles, organization charts, etc. that describe the customer in detail. This is even more valuable is salespeople maintain detailed profiles of their customers and contacts, often via a contact or customer relationship management technology application.

Customer Push-Back – A sales slang term for feedback from a customer who may be challenging or rejecting an idea or a recommendation made by the salesperson.

Customer Qualitative Metrics – In computer, web and online marketing, qualitative metrics seek to measure the quality of a customer interaction, and in many cases may be considered to be subjective in nature. As an example, a retail website business may implement a new product review campaign before it is considered to added to inventory, allowing the retailer to compare all reviews written before and after the campaign.  The retailer then only needs to award each review a qualitative score, and then use the relative scored to decide if the campaign was successful and whether the goods can be added in-house.

Customer Referral Appreciation Gesture – A-This is when a salesperson acknowledges their appreciation for receiving a referral from a prospect or current customer by sending a thank you note or small present or by simply calling them and saying thank you.  It is also a good idea to keep the referrer informed of what may have transpired as this will invariably encourage more referrals to be passed on.

Customer Referrals – Obtaining additional profile information about other possible prospects from a current prospect or customer, associate, client, neighbour or family member.

Customer Relations – This details the relationship a company has with its customers and the way it deals with them, and even allocates a department in that company which is responsible for dealing with its customers, including complaints, etc.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) – This is an acronym for Customer Relationship Management – This is a term that is used to describe the process applied internally to effectively manage customer relationships and is often used to refer to the use of technology employed to track and maintain essential information about the customer and the variety of activities that need to be initiated with a customer across all of the functional areas of the selling organization.

Customer Relationship Management Strategy (CRMS) – A purpose built business strategy designed to create outcomes that optimize its profitability, revenue and customer satisfaction by organizing specific processes around customer segments, and fostering customer-satisfying behavior while implementing other more advanced customer-centric processes.  CRMS technologies should enable a greater customer insight, increased customer access, more-effective interactions, and integration throughout all customer channels and back-office functions.

Customer Requirements Sales Process – This incorporates a series of steps to bring about a desired end result. In sales, the process refers to the clearly defined steps that an organization or a salesperson takes the time or trouble to initiate and secure certain business processes to satisfy all manner of customer requirements.

Customer Retention – The manner by which science and other practices are used to keep (retain) an existing customer.

Customer Retention Costs – This simply means keeping existing customers and not losing them to competitors. Today’s cost conscious companies realise that it’s far more expensive to find new customers than to keep existing ones, and therefore put a sufficient amount of time and investment into looking after and growing existing buyers and/or business accounts.  Alternatively, those without this cost overview could find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity.  This is likened to a hole in the bucket, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.

Customer Retention Rate: This relates to client retention as a percentage.  In other words, how many clients (or what percentage of) is a business, sales team or individual salesperson keeping as repeat customers?

Customer RFP (Request for Proposal) – An acronym  (RFPs) Request for Proposal is/are often used by prospects or customers to assess who will respond to, and/or evaluate solutions being posed either by the manufacturer, distributor, company, agent or salesperson in regards to a certain venture or market shift/movement

Customer RFP (Request for Proposal) Software – Software that enables an organization to create a library or repository of information containing the best content that can be used for responding to Requests for Proposals (RFPs). The software now allows a seller (and not the prospect or customer) to quickly search or browse for the best answers to the questions in a RFP and to easily respond to the RFP using that content.

Customer Sales Cycle in Brief – The sales cycle in short represents the average amount of time it may take from getting a suspect interested enough to become a prospect and the appropriate time cycle needed to progress them to become a client/customer.  That time cycle varies from industry to industry and company to company.  Over time a time frame formula will emerge to suit the individual business associated with sales.

Customer Sales Funnel – Refers to a slang term used in sales to describe how, at the top of the funnel, all the opportunities that are available, and then, as the sales cycle unfolds, how those same opportunities progress downward through the funnel to the ultimate sale.  In turn this describes the pattern, plan or actual achievement of conversion of prospects into sales and customers, through the pre-enquiry and then through the sales cycle.  These also includes the conversion ratio at each stage of the sales cycle, which has been incorporated into a funneling effect.  Moreover, prospects are said to be fed into the top of the funnel, and converted sales drop out at the bottom. The extent of conversion success (ie the tightness of each ratio) reflects the quality of prospects fed into the top, and the sales skill at each conversion stage. The Sales Funnel is a long term and very powerful sales planning and sales management tool. Diagrams of typical basic Sales Funnel appear throughout the internet on free resources sections. Also referred to as the Sales Pipeline.

Customer Sales Preparation – Whenever this is used in the context of the selling process, this is generally the work done by the salesperson to research and plan the sales presentation and/or the formal sales call to a particular prospect or customer. Without exception in professional selling, calls need to be adequately prepared for, and sales that fail to manifest are usually due to under-preparing the presentation, the proposals within the call and the method used to close the sale.

Customer Service – This denotes the attitude, service level, policies, and other intangible activities put forth toward prospects and customers by a business (including front line employees) in conjunction with the basic goods and services it sells.

Customer Service Discipline – Mostly relates to either personal discipline, or discipline within the context of an organization.  As a job role of any kind, discipline in a necessity.  Discipline can also refer more generally to a certain capability or responsibility, such as ‘financial disciplines’, ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.  Discipline can also mean separately ‘control’ of others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling. In the business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people can be affected by a change or proposition, usually accompanying the sale of a product or a service.

Customer Service Function – When used in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, for example; sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc. Understanding the work functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations.

Customer Skepticism – A factor that refers to an attitude of doubt on the part of a prospect or customer to a claim a salesperson or the selling organization is making.

Customer Spend – The level of expenditure a customer is making in any given area.

Customer Split-the-Difference – In the majority of sales negotiation, this is the point where the selling organization and the prospect or customer need to make a concession midpoint between both positions.

Customer Template of Ideal Prospects (TIP) – The creation of this template is the easiest part as it is simply a list of the characteristics shared by a company’s best customers.  Once the characteristics are compiled, those listed characteristics are then able to point marketers towards the promising suspects gathered from industry lists, industry sources, industry journals or the yellow pages telephone directory.  There is also your own company or individual ideal or referrals lists that you have not contacted about your products, services or solutions, but who may benefit from what you have to offer.

Customer Testimonial – This refers to either a verbal or written expression of the value an existing customer has received by having used or purchased a specific product, service, or overall business solution.  Asking for and using testimonials is also a powerful selling tactic, as it provides a third party’s affirmation of the claims a salesperson or a company is making. Testimonials are particularly useful when a prospect or existing customer being presented to is skeptical about your product or service, and the salesperson needs to offer more proof before a decision is made.

Customer Value – Refers to the perceived value that is typically expressed in financial terms, of a customer, for a given period of time. This term is often used to describe the impact of a former customer now lost to the opposition.

Customer Visualization – This is the ability to present a clear mental picture of the end result so that the prospect or customer can clearly  “see” the benefit or value of the product or solution on offer.

Customer White Paper – Refers to a document, typically of around 5-10 pages in length, that describes an organization’s point of view in areas that may be of interest to the prospect/customer. It might include an organization’s outlook on a specific issue, results of research, or guidance on a given topic.

Customer with an Amiable Style – The prospect, customer or new buyer who takes an amiable approach is generally the one who is agreeable, devoted, responsible, warm hearted, considerate, caring, practical, patient, but is also the one that is generally mostly indecisive in everything.  Why?  Simply because this person does not like “rocking the boat” and try to be all things to all people.

Customer – Any lead source or a deemed decision maker who has shown some formal or kind or type of interest in a specific product or service.  It can also relate to a customer, a person, an organization, or a buyer for a product even before the sale is made, or in other words a prospective buyer, customer or client.

Customer – Typically meaning the purchaser, organization, or consumer after the sale had been made. Prior to the sale is individual is usually referred to as a prospect.

Customer-oriented Solutions Selling – This is a common description for a more customer-orientated selling method that is dependent on identifying prospect wants and needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a formal package or a specified solution. This term is based on the premise that prospects don’t buy products or features or benefits – but instead buy solutions to their organizational challenges and problems.  Some say that it’s a similar approach to what is loosely known as ‘needs-creation’ selling. Solutions selling remains relevant in modern selling and its methods can usefully be included in an open plan selling style.

Customers as Primary Influences – These generally relate to the overall direct and indirect primary influences on any company, in business at any point in time, and may include Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Sales Personnel, Distributors, Agents, Banks, Lenders, Vendors, Other Institutions, Stock-holders, etc.

Customers in the Hunter/Farmer Model – In today’s modern selling there are clearly defined roles for salespeople. These days two differing roles have emerged and are termed as either “hunter” salespeople, or “farmer” salespeople.  The “hunter” is the one that that generates new customers or new business or is able to support and upgrade existing clients whereas, on the other hand, the “farmer” is the one that works cultivating and farming existing accounts that do not need to be upgraded.  The reason for the differential between the two is that all businesses need a healthy mix of market share among their clients, and the “hunter” and “farmer” concept proves to be an ideal mix.  Many sales companies expect their salespeople to perform both roles in a given territory.

Customers Needs Analysis – This is the process of formally evaluating a customer’s wants, needs and any other requirements. Here the methodology followed can be light where one person provides the majority of insight or it can be quite complex, where significant research, survey work, and multiple evaluation methods are or need to be used. Needs Analysis is one of the most key competencies of strong salespeople, as their ability to surface, frame, and get at the essence of the customer’s problems, requirements, or issues sets the stage to build momentum for the sale.

Customers Point of Pain – This is generally a well used slang term used in sales to describe the areas where the prospect or customer is most being challenged or the areas where the prospect or customer can most benefit from using a salespersons solution.  Finding the customer’s Point of Pain is a powerful selling tactic as most research in on this subject concludes that a prospect or customer is more likely be willing to act decisively when there is a definite need to alleviate a problem. While relieving “pain” is considered more powerful than promoting “gain,” both play a focused, yet powerful role in driving the needs an organization has to address in order to remain affective.

Customers Save Face – A slang term used to denote a conscious strategy a sales professional may use to make the best of a situation brought about by a poor decision or action taken by the prospect or customer. This is typically done to maintain or retain self-esteem and to build on the relationship being developed with the prospective customer.

Customers Use SaaS – Software as a Service (SaaS) is a software distribution model from which applications are hosted by a vendor or service provider and made available to the customers over a network, typically and mainly the Internet.

Customized Advantages – This is commonly considered to be the way products, services or solutions will be tailored, or modified, or customized, or otherwise changed to fit the precise wants or needs of an individual buyer, a small business, a company or an organization, or the ways your solution on offer may be superior to what a competitor has to offer as an alternative to yours.

Customs Duty – A tax or levy which must be paid on imported, and sometimes exported, goods, to raise a country’s revenue and to protect domestic industries from much cheaper foreign competition.

Cutover – This is the point in time when a company or organisation, etc., replaces an old program or system with a new one.

Cut-Throat – When ruthless and intense competition is being applied for all of the wrong reasons.  It can also refer to an unprincipled, ruthless person.

Cycle Based Product Purchase Cycle – This refers to the time frame used to measure a market based consumer or customer’s ordering habits.  As a marketing cycle example: “Our product purchase cycle for our customers in one year is 4.5 orders.”

Cycle Gestation Period – A sale gestation period typically refers to the time taken from an enquiry to sale, or the Sales Cycle.  Awareness and monitoring of the Sale Gestation Period within a Sales Cycle times are crucial factors in sales planning, forecasting and management, for individuals sales teams and for sales organizations.

Cycle No-Go – This is a generally referred to slang term that denotes the point at which the customer and/or the selling organization will make the decision to move forward within a certain point or generally defined points of the sales cycle. In an organization’s selling cycle, there may be multiple GO and/or No-Go points.

Cycle of Sale Incentive Program – A sales incentive program developed and applied from a known existing Cycle Of Sales process. This is the kind of incentive program that has been designed to motivate and encourage positive sales results within a small sales team, to larger group of sales teams.

Cycle Of Selling – Every product or service has a cycle where things become obsolete, stop working or simply don’t look good any more, or just “don’t stack up” in the current environment.  Knowing these cycles provides individual sellers and sales organizations a distinct sales advantage.

Cycle Sales Effectiveness – This is the ability for a sales organizations to “win over” the prospect at each stage of the customer’s cycle, thereby winning the business and improving sales results.  It is also the term used to cover the broad range of activities a sales organization uses in order to improve the productivity and the results of its sales teams. Sometimes the words “Sales Excellence” are used as synonyms to further explain sales effectiveness.

Cycle Sales Effectiveness Process – Refers to a variety of systems, activities, processes and information that support and promote knowledge-based sales interactions with clients and prospects. The responsibility of this kind of limited sales enablement  is typically co-owned by the sales organization and a variety of other parts of the organization, including marketing, product development, human resources and others.

Cycle Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

 

Sales Dictionary

Sales Dictionary entries in D

Go to . . . A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

Daily Cost Close – This is a simple close. Reduce the cost to a daily amount if your customer is financing and the payment is over their budget.  “You wanted your payment to be around $200 a month, but the best I can do is $220 month. Can you do that?”

Daily Sales Report/Reporting – A commonly used business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of salespeople too. A sales report can be required daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often may include the need to provide sales forecasts.

Damage Limitation – The process of trying to limit or curtail the amount of damage or loss that may have been caused by a particular situation or event.

Danger Red Flag – Slang term used to describe conditions that may present danger to or within the selling organization. This is generally used to highlight those areas the sales professional needs to be alert to, or must solve, in order to move the sale forward.

Dashboard – This is a term used by sales managers and sales software companies to refer to the primary performance numbers that are being tracked for the sales-force either individually or collectively.  See Data Entry

Data Base Networking – The process of developing and maintaining alliances both externally and internally within a group or a wide variety of contacts that may be able to provide or retrieve additional information, insight, help, and access to others.  Also refers to an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on a number of referrals and introductions that help build a larger data base – either via a face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc.

Data Based Pipeline Activities – This primarily relates to a sales pipeline, including appropriate planning, scheduling and integrating customer development activities together with data on the necessary manner and formulation of communication and other related activities.

Data Encryption – The ability to convert data into a code form which cannot (and should not) be easily understood by people who have no authorisation to view it.

Data Entry – The process under which the obtaining, recording and maintaining of information that can be retrieved and used at a later time or date.  In Sales, this will usually mean inputting potential buyers’ information into a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) filing system or tool to track activity, correspondence, and progress forward on open opportunities.

Data Extrapolation – An estimated determination of what will happen in the future by extending (extrapolating) of any known information or data. The verb ‘extrapolate’ is common and means using mathematics or other logical processes to extend a proven trend or set of data. ‘What if’ scenarios and business modeling generally involves some manner of extrapolation. It’s also a way of predicting something by assuming that a certain historical pattern will continue into the future.

Data Processing – See Data Entry

Data-Base Management (DBM) – This is a system used by business houses to gather, integrate, store and use data effectively for assistance in the management of a specific division in the company, or the whole of the company.

Data-mining – A form of researching through data to find leads or ‘most probable customers’ in any given territory.  The data retrieved will usually include first and last name, title, gender, availability, and names in common.  More advanced CRM files will not only detail product but will be able to flush out what future products and services they may need and approximately when.

DBM (Data-Base Management) – This is a system used by business houses to gather, integrate, store and use data effectively for assistance in the management of a specific division in the company, or the whole of the company.

De Facto – A Latin word meaning – Existing in reality or fact, with or without legal right.

Dead – A modern business term used to describe the growth of a business from mergers or takeovers, rather than from the increase in productivity or activity of the company’s own business.

Deadbeat – An individual or company who tries to avoid paying their debts.

Deadline Close – In the right hands, a deadline can create tension through the scarcity of time or product that can conjure up real or imagined consequences of not reaching the deadline.  And by hurrying people up, can reduce the time they take for reflection or consideration – especially if they are aware of the consequences of what may happen if the deadline is not met. “The new product will be released next month and we have limited stock available.  We began taking orders yesterday and at the rate people are ordering we look like we will sell out before the end of the week.  Will you be pre-ordering too?”

Deadlock – Whenever this term is used in sales, it refers to the point at which both parties are deadlocked in some way, and are not able to move forward unless the parties enter into more mutually substantive negotiation.

Deal Investment – Money or capital that is primarily invested in a business or in an account with a financial institution in order to make a profit or earn interest.

Deal – Classified as a common business jargon (parlance) for the sale or purchase (agreement or arrangement) of a specific property or business block. It may also be used for product purchases, but to a lesser extent.  It is also a somewhat colloquial term so avoid using it in serious company as you can sound flippant and/or unprofessional.

Dealerships Profit-centre – A business division or a department or a unit which is charged with the responsible of producing a profit.  This may be a shop unit within a chain of shops, or a branch within a network of dealerships.  Importantly a Profit-centre business unit will use a form of ‘Profit and Loss Account’ as a means of managing and reporting the business based on the fact that a profit centre is involved in selling to customers as an alternative to a Cost-centre, which primarily appears to be responsible for internal services and perhaps also the supply to other departments within the group.

Deal-flow – This refers to the number of potential deals/buyers the salesperson has in their ‘pipe-line.’

Dealing with Buyers – The best part here is, that the people who could have conceivably bought from you are now buying from you and your company.  Remember this, when you first make contact with a referral you have never met before, you are still interacting with a potential buyer.  That also goes for the fact than when you are interacting with the largest client your company may be dealing with, you’re still interacting with a buyer.

Dear Money – Generally used when money is tight or difficult to borrow, and if a loan is secured in those times it would be paid back at a very high rate of interest.

Debit Card Floor Limit – In retailing, this process refers to the highest amount of money that can be paid for a sale for which a debit or credit card can be used by a customer without authorisation from the customer’s bank.

Debrief Observation Call – A sales call that generally involves a salesperson and a manager where the manager’s role is purposely minimal, and the manager’s primary objective is to observe the skills of the salesperson, the reaction of the customer in order to provide quality feedback during the post-call and debrief session.

Debriefing – A meeting, interview, group meeting or group interview in which a person or group of people report about a task or mission just completed or attempted.

Debt – A sum of money owed to another person or organisation, such as a loan, mortgage, etc., which is required to be paid back, usually with interest.

Debt Lien – This occurs whenever an agreement is made for the legal right to take and keep another persons property until a debt has been paid by the property owner.

Debt Write-Off – A term used in accounting, to reduce the book value of an asset, sometimes to as low as zero, or to cancel a debt which has not been, or is unlikely to be, paid.

Debtor Involuntary Liquidation – A situation when a company is forced into bankruptcy by its creditors, so that its debts can be paid.

Deceit – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Deception – Intentional deception for the purpose of financial or other gain.

Deception and Smoke and Mirrors – An intentional deception for the purpose of disguising, concealing, or inflating something for personal or financial benefit.

Decide the Option Close This is a close that provides the prospect with an option to allow them to feel like they’re the ones that are making the decision here.  When asked effectively, no matter which they say they prefer, they will usually commit either one way of the other.  “If you had a personal preference here, would you prefer the green model over the blue model – or would your choice be the other way around?”

Decision and Sales Methodology – Refers to the “how” of the art of selling as a skill set.  The majority of sales methodology aligns to the customer buying decision process and the orientation, objectives, analysis, discussion, initiation, evaluation and decision processes and applicable methodologies.

Decision and Sealing-Off Objections – A technique used to pre-prepare the prospect from voicing too many objections and generally brought out to minimise any additional objections.  This process can also be used to prevent an endless stream of objections and may be used to bring the prospect to a point of decision (close)

Decision Drivers – Those areas which, if known or made aware of by the prospect to the salesperson, that can then be used to position solutions to align with a decision maker’s most important criteria, or for the selection of products or services allied to what is currently being discussed or about to be bought.

Decision Influencer – An individual who (in the prospect organization) has some sway over how a decision is made, but is usually not the direct decision maker.  This person is also not the one who has the power to influence and persuade a decision-maker.  In the main, influencers will be generally be decision-makers for relatively low value sales, and there is usually more than one influencer in any prospect organization relevant to a particular sale – large organizations will have definitely have several influencers. It is therefore important to sell to influencers as well as decision-makers within the same organization. Selling to large organizations almost certainly demands that the sales person does this. The role and power of influencers in any organization largely depends on the culture and politics of the organization, and particularly the management style of the two main decision-makers.

Decision Maker – The person who, or role that, makes the final decision of a sale.  The person most responsible for deciding the outcome of a salesperson’s or selling organization’s proposal.  It could also mean a prospect or a the name on a lead who is capable and authorized to make a decision to purchase a Sales Person’s products or services.  Also see Final Decision Maker.

Decision Maker Prospect – Any lead source or a deemed decision maker who has shown some formal or kind or type of interest in a specific product or service.  It can also relate to a customer, a person, an organization, or a buyer for a product even before the sale is made, or in other words a prospective buyer, customer or client.

Decision Makers and Network of Influence – These are the systems people in authority including, decision makers, directors, community leaders, councilors, influencers and to a lesser extent, consumers try to influence productivity within a target organization.  Most people in this grouping are able to temporarily act at a level below, but will almost never accept a role a level above.  Once the group is underway, most of those in some form of leadership will abandon the post and return to their normal role within the community.

Decision Recommendation – The known processes of summarizing to a client the benefits of a product or service, and outlining a call to action to move forward with a decision.

Decision Stall – A condition that exists when a prospect avoids making a decision and, in essence, puts the entire sales process on hold. Stalls often happen due to hidden issues the prospect faces and is unwilling to share them with the salesperson.

Decision to Save Face – A slang term used to denote a conscious strategy a sales professional may use to make the best of a situation brought about by a poor decision or action taken by the prospect or customer. This is typically done to maintain or retain self-esteem and to build on the relationship being developed with the prospective customer.

Decision Win Rates – This refers to the ratio of sales that have been won in comparison to the total number of sales that have been created, including those that may have been won and lost. Win rates are usually expressed as a percentage of revenue or a number of unique sales opportunities available. Some organizations include sales made in a ‘non decision’ status in their calculations of win rates. Other organizations consider ‘non decision’ sales as a part of their losses status. Win rates are typically calculated (or reported) by the percentage of revenue of the sales made.

Decisive Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Decline and Recession Cycle – A sequence of economic activities which are usually typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at other times, through decline. Salespeople who are attuned to a company’s business cycle are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced at the time and know how their products and services can alleviate some of the tougher conditions that may be experienced within the business cycle at any given time.

Decline of a Product Life Cycle – This refers to the generally and stages that a product or service passes through from invention, development and to maturity through constant market decline until it becomes obsolete – usually because it has been superseded by other more competitive replacement offerings, and to a lesser degree the product or service had fully saturated that target market – everyone who wants it has purchased it.  From a marketing standpoint there are four stages in a product’s lifecycle.  These include Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. Understanding where a product is in its lifecycle can help the selling organization better define its sales strategy and the time it may take in selling the product or service in the designated market.

Dedicated and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Dedicated Sales Channel – eBay – Generally referred to as an online auction and shopping website, and is best known for its consumer-to-consumer sales. Many online merchants also use the eBay site as a dedicated sales channel.

Deemed Credibility in Sales – This is the degree that people that matter (the prospects and clients) find it easy (and worthwhile) to believe in the ideologies expressed by the salesperson.  Short term credibility is never the yard-stick that a sale is made on, but what the buyer believes will be able to hold-over into the long term.  On the other hand those that believe that all they need is to have enough credibility to make the appointment, or to get through a single meeting with a prospect are the ones that the prospect will usually deem have no credibility at all.           

Deemed Market Segment – A deemed group or subgroup within a larger market in which people share certain characteristics and require to be sold similar products or services.

Deemed Pipeline Evaluation – An pre-determined line of potential sales candidates, prospects and targeted individuals or company’s who are deemed to more than likely purchase a certain product or service within a pre-prescribed amount of time.

Deemed Protected Territory – A sales area that is deemed to be protected against other representatives from the same company from calling on any existing leads that another salesperson or company associate is able to call on.

Deep Throat – An interesting term to be used in business, and the term deep throat usually refers to an anonymous source of top secret information. First used in this sense in the reporting of the US Watergate scandal.

Defect Tolerance – A process that enables any system, especially one in computing, to continue to operate effectively even though a component in the system may have failed.

Defective Market – A market where buyers do not have access to enough information about prices and products, and where buyers or sellers singularly can have an influence over the quantity and price of goods sold.

Definable Niche or Target Market – Distinct and definable segments of generally a larger market segment that a business may seek to attract and satisfy individuals or groups with targeted goods and/or services directly or indirectly suitable for the niche market.

Defined Market Segment – Relates to a sub-sector or market niche, which is basically a grouping that’s more narrowly defined and smaller than what is generally known as a sector.  A segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors.

Defined No-Go – This is a generally referred to slang term that denotes the point at which the customer and/or the selling organization will make the decision to move forward within a certain point or generally defined points of the sales cycle. In an organization’s selling cycle, there may be multiple GO and/or No-Go points.

Defined Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Defined Product Life Cycle – This refers to the generally and stages that a product or service passes through from invention, development and to maturity through constant market decline until it becomes obsolete – usually because it has been superseded by other more competitive replacement offerings, and to a lesser degree the product or service had fully saturated that target market – everyone who wants it has purchased it.  From a marketing standpoint there are four stages in a product’s lifecycle.  These include Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. Understanding where a product is in its lifecycle can help the selling organization better define its sales strategy and the time it may take in selling the product or service in the designated market.

Defined Role Hunter/Farmer Model – In today’s modern selling there are clearly defined roles for salespeople. These days two differing roles have emerged and are termed as either “hunter” salespeople, or “farmer” salespeople.  The “hunter” is the one that that generates new customers or new business or is able to support and upgrade existing clients whereas, on the other hand, the “farmer” is the one that works cultivating and farming existing accounts that do not need to be upgraded.  The reason for the differential between the two is that all businesses need a healthy mix of market share among their clients, and the “hunter” and “farmer” concept proves to be an ideal mix.  Many sales companies expect their salespeople to perform both roles in a given territory.

Defined Sales Pipeline Probability – Refers to the likelihood that a given event will occur at some time in the near future. In defining a sales pipeline, historic probability is generally the number that will convey the likelihood that a specific sale will occur in a certain way.  Probability is typically expressed as a percentage between 10% and 100%.

Defined Sales Process Documented – The accepted way sales are conducted and made by professional salespeople. When done effectively, the sales process is the clearly defined and the acceptable and documented steps an organization takes to satisfy customer requirements are followed to the letter. Typically, the sales process is defined by Phases, Key Activities, Tools, and Observable Outcomes.

Defined Sector Targeting – The term targeting has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of the word target. As a marketing term, it is very relevant for salespeople and managers to focus on the prospects at which the selling effort is aimed, namely ‘target markets’, or ‘target sectors’ by ‘positioning’ a product or service or proposition welcomed by the targeted user. Targeting provides a potential to develop and refine local markets and aim efforts at the sectors or prospect groups which will produce the greatest results. Sales generally are made more easily from existing or previous customers, rather than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is completely unknown. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximises its chances of engaging with the most responsive and profitable sectors of a defined market.

Defined Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Defined Target Market – A specific set of customers or organizations that a salesperson or business organization may deem the most suitable for a certain or pre-defined product or service.

Defined Territory Management Protected Territory – Whenever the salesperson is properly “working” a geographically defined sales area it can also be referred to as a “protected territory,” whenever the salesperson is the only person allowed to sell in this defined area. The goal of any company is to maximize sales results from this territory while minimizing the inefficiencies relating to travel or missing potential prospects.

Definite SMART Goal – A mnemonic used to describe the components of a well-defined and realistic goal statement.  It stands for a goal needing to be Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, and Time bound.

Definition Of Selling (simple) – Persuading someone (a prospect) to purchase something from a salesperson that has something of value to sell.

Definitive Sales Plan – Refers to a written document that ideally should incorporate related key goals and strategies that a salesperson should review regularly in the presence of a sales manager.  For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Defrayed Cost Return on Investment (ROI) – This refers to what the prospect gets for investing time and trust in a sales organization – any sales organization.  There is always a good ROI whenever a solution costs less and expends less than a prospect would have to expend should that product or service solution not been made available to them in the first place.  When costs are defrayed by working with an ethically motivated sales organization the ROI is always good for both the buyer and seller alike.

Degree of Credibility in Sales – This is the degree that people that matter (the prospects and clients) find it easy (and worthwhile) to believe in the ideologies expressed by the salesperson.  Short term credibility is never the yard-stick that a sale is made on, but what the buyer believes will be able to hold-over into the long term.  On the other hand those that believe that all they need is to have enough credibility to make the appointment, or to get through a single meeting with a prospect are the ones that the prospect will usually deem have no credibility at all.           

Degrees of Intimacy Confidential Zone – This refers to an invisible zone outward in all directions approximately a half metre from the salespersons body.  Other zones will extend outwards in larger concentric circles and are usually reserved for social events with lesser degrees of intimacy.  These are generally referred to as individual, socialble and common zones.

Delegation – The assignment of short or long term responsibility or task, usually by a manager to a subordinate. However, when used separately, a delegation refers to a deputation, being a group of people appointed or responsible for representing a nation or corporation or other organization to attend task or negotiations, etc.

Deliberate Sale – Relates to a sale where there are multiple decision makers and/or influencers, who often tend to have different requirements and agendas.  Complex sales usually typically take much longer than average to achieve and orchestrate a result. In some cases, this is also referred to as a strategic sale, tactical sale or calculated sale.

Deliverable(s) – This is usually an aspect of a proposal that the provider commits to do or supply, the goods or services are usually and preferably clearly measurable.

Delivered Cost Markup – The amount added to the cost price of a product or service to determine its selling price and the cost price of goods to cover overhead and profit.  The amount a producer, retailer, etc., puts on the price of the goods or services they are selling in order to make a profit. To raise the price of an item for sale.  Moreover, this is the money that a selling company adds to the cost of a product or service in order to produce a required level of profit. Strictly speaking, percentage mark-up refers to the difference between cost and selling price as a factor of the cost, not of the selling price. So a product costing $1 and selling for $2 has been given a mark-up of 100%; (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). It can also relate to the amount or percentage that a product is “marked up” from DELIVERED COST, to create a wholesale or retail price.

Delivery and Costs in Retail Pricing – This is the price a retail store may place or consider placing an additional levy on a product or service to sell to the ultimate consumer. Typically, in many industries, this price is approximately 50% on to double the price paid for the item, including or not including and known or additional delivery costs.  All add-on costs are fully dependant on retailer policy.

Delivery and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) – The combination of all or the total costs involved in purchasing a product or service, which may include installation fees, procurement costs, delivery and warehousing costs, training costs, and other factors needed to make the new product operational. Additionally, ongoing costs of maintenance, service, etc. can factor into the TCO.

Delivery Conditions of Satisfaction – Represents those criteria that the customer will use to determine whether or not to do business with a sales organization.  The criteria the prospect is looking for might include a combination of quality, reliability, service support, delivery, price, timing, risk, financing, warranties, and other limitations, to name a few.

Delivery Ex Stock – These are any goods which are available for immediate delivery because the supplier has them in stock or is overstocked.

Delivery Ex Works – These are any goods which may be delivered to the purchaser at the plant or place where they are manufactured. The purchaser then pays for transporting and insuring the goods from that point.

Delivery Footprint – The exact and appropriate steps an order must transgress through from acquisition to delivery.

Delivery Function – When used in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, for example; sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc. Understanding the work functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations.

Delivery Just-In-Time (JIT) – A term often used to denote the availability of goods and services when needed by the buyer or as to be able to be provided by the supplier. Organizations who operate using just-in-time principles are typically very analytical in their ability to predict needs, in order to not overstock, yet ensure sufficient product exists in inventory to produce or deliver on customer requirements.  Alternately it may be a manufacturing system in which materials and components are delivered immediately before they are required, in order to increase efficiency, reduce waste and minimise storage costs.

Delivery Lead-Time – This refers to the time between placing an order and the time a delivery is made, installation performed or even the commencement of a product or service time-line execution.

Delivery Lead-Time – This refers to the time between placing an order and the time a delivery is made, installation performed or even the commencement of a product or service time-line execution.

Delivery Negotiation – Negotiation can have multiple meanings depending on the individual or the application. For some, it is the process of exploring known positions and alternatives to reach outcomes that gain the acceptance of all or some of the parties in negotiation with the presenter.  However, in many forms of selling, many believe that negotiatory process only begins when the known selling skills are exhausted and impasse is reached. Therefore, it is considered that negotiation focuses on overcoming the impasse, and working through the differences to eventually reach agreement on any negotiated financial terms, conditions, volumes and deliverable processes.

Delivery of Proposal Automation Software – Proposal automation software refers to newly created software that automates the creation, delivery and acceptance of a personalized sales proposal that is designed to theoretically best meet a buyer’s needs.

Delivery Tangible – Whenever it is used in a selling context, this describes, or is, an acute aspect of the product or service on offer that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost, value and so on.  As an example, any physical feature of the product, spare parts, delivery, or installation, or a regular service visit, or a warranty agreement, and so on.

Delivery Variable – This is an aspect of the sale or negotiation that can be adjusted and/or adapted in order to find the middle ground to better meet the needs of the seller and/or the buyer by way of concession. Here the typical variables may be price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up service, breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty, and so on. Variables may be real or perceived, and often the perceived ones are the most significant in any negotiation that may take place

Demand Free Market – A market in which prices of goods and services are affected by the available supply and demand, rather than being determined by government regulation.

Demand Market Forces – Refers to those market influences, such as the availability of raw materials for the production of goods, or customer numbers, which can affect supply, demand and prices of products and services.

Demerit Goods – This can include products or services such as alcohol, gambling, drugs, prostitution, etc., which are considered unhealthy or undesirable, and are often subject to extra taxes in order to reduce consumption and potentially to fund remedial actions in response to consumption.

Demo – Slang for a sales presentation. This is the act of presenting your product or service to a prospect. On your own litmus test declare an appointment and an actual sales presentation (or an actual demonstration) if price is discussed.

Demo Goals – Write down the number of demos (sales presentations) you wish to accomplish each week.

Demo or Sales Presentation – This generally refers to the actual sales presentation, also known as the “demo.” The goal of the presentation is to perform an emotional and intellectual sale in order to convince the prospect to buy.

Demo Ratio – Calculate then write down the percentage of demonstrations divided by the contacts made that could convert to demos. If you make 100 contacts and accomplish 10 demos, your demo ratio is 10%.

Demo/Demonstration – Usually consists of a live presentation that clearly shows how something works.

Demo/Demonstration (Sales Presentation) – The process of meeting with a prospect with the sole objective of making a sale. Sales presentations normally involve a product or service demonstration and contribute to the manner in which sales statistics are compiled

Demographic groupings Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Demographics – This is the study of, or information about, people’s lifestyles, habits, population movements, spending, age, social grade, employment, etc., in terms of the consuming and buying in public.  Anyone selling to the consumer sector will always do better through understanding relevant demographic information about prospects.

Demolishing Predatory Pricing – This is also known as Destroyer Pricing, and is a situation where a company purposely charges very low prices for goods or services in order to put its competitors under financial pressure or even out of business.  Once the damage has been done, the prices will be raised back to a realistic and profitable level.

Demonstrate – This usually consists of a live presentation that clearly shows how something of interest works.

Demonstrated Proof – This generally refers to the validation of a statement or claim that has been made by a salesperson. Typically, the general sales proof that is offered may include testimonials, results of independent tests, and in some obscure cases, is an actual demonstration of the claims being made.

Demonstration and Sales Related Activities – This refers to those actions that are usually and directly related to closing a sales call at the demonstration stage. This will usually include prospecting, setting appointments, doing product demonstrations, and attempting to close the sale.  Prospecting and setting appointments can sometimes be performed through marketing systems.

Demonstration Call – This is a customer call involving a salesperson and a manager, where the manager’s role is to teach and show the salesperson a technique or approach that the salesperson wishes to improve on.

Demonstration Close – If you can do an impressive demonstration of your product that really makes really creates a ‘wow’ factor.  Let them try it too and find out for themselves how good it is.  Once you have agreement on how good your product really is, simply ask for the order.  Close.  “Let me demonstrate how really good it is,” then add as you demonstrate to them.  “You won’t believe this. I didn’t either when I first saw it. Just watch.”

Demonstration Habits and Schedules – A salespersons regular sales schedules and habits which in turn dictate the amount of demonstrations and sales are ultimately made.

Demonstration in a Trade Show – Refers to an exhibition purposely created so that manufacturers and distributors may show or demonstrate new products or services to prospective buyers.

Demonstration Package Sale – The process of selling multiple items at the one presentation or product demonstration.  Moreover, in a selling context this is another term for a product offer where the whole product and service offering is at a given price, and is based upon given terms (which may be inflexible and/or exclusive to the product being sold).

Demonstration Presentation/Sales Presentation – This is generally referred to as the process by which a salesperson explains/presents the product or service to the prospect (be it a single contact or a group), and will ideally include an explanation of the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are pertinent/relevant to the needs of the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but will more usually involve the use of visuals, common bullet-points, text slides and images on a computer display, tablet or projected onto a screen.  They can incorporate a video and/or physical demonstration of the product(s) or service(s).

Demonstration Prototype – Relates to an original design or a working model of something, that may or may not be often used in sales demonstrations.  It may also relate to some form of visual, graphic or drawing which lays out the detail of the approach that could be used. Oftentime, blueprints are also referred to as “models,” or “prototypes.”

Demonstration Sales Aid – A device or apparatus that is purposely devised or designed to assist the sales professional gain an advantage during a presentation . Sales aids cover a wide gamut that can be anything from sophisticated demonstration tools and assessment technologies, to paper checklists, templates, and step-by-step how to’s.

Demonstration Sales Calls – These are calls made by phone or in-person or through contacts to flush out prospects, or to set an appointment, or to conduct a sales presentation or a sales conversation over the phone.

Demonstration Stage – This refers to the separate stages of the sales process by representing each step in the sales process.  It’s the salespersons responsibility for moving opportunities from one stage to the next stage.  Different companies define their sales stages differently, but each one has behind it a set a set of requirements that need to be completed, in order for the opportunity to move from one stage to the next.  Names for sales stages are usually things like, “Prospecting,” “Qualifying Leads,” “Demonstration,” “Presenting a Proposal,” and “Closing the Sale.”

Demonstration/’demo’/’dem’ – This is a physical presentation by the salesperson to the prospect of how a product works. Generally these calls are free of charge to the prospect, and are normally conducted at the prospect’s premises, but can be at another suitable venue, such as an exhibition, or at the supplier’s premises.

Demonstrations and NSA’s – This generally relates to any actions that are not directly related to “sales-related-activities” (and usually may exclude prospecting, setting appointments, demonstrations, closing the sale etc). NSA examples may include “surfing the web,” and including “obsessive email/voicemail checking.”

Density Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

Department Manager – A senior person who is generally in charge of a project, department, group, team, etc.

Department Profit-centre – A business division or a department or a unit which is charged with the responsible of producing a profit.  This may be a shop unit within a chain of shops, or a branch within a network of dealerships.  Importantly a Profit-centre business unit will use a form of ‘Profit and Loss Account’ as a means of managing and reporting the business based on the fact that a profit centre is involved in selling to customers as an alternative to a Cost-centre, which primarily appears to be responsible for internal services and perhaps also the supply to other departments within the group.

Department Sales Target – When considered within a sales context this is generally the issued (or ideally agreed) minimum level of sales performance for a salesperson or a team or department over a given period of time. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, and future positions etc., may all be dependent on the nominated sales staff meeting sales targets. Targets are established at the beginning of a fiscal trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular reviews throughout the year. Also see forecasting.

Department Store New Customer – A person or group or business who has never ordered before from that particular supplier.

Department Turn-Over Rate – This is the main relates to how often a sales position becomes vacant.  As an example, the average salesperson lasts six month in that position, then it’s considered to be a 6 month turn-over rate. Although this may seem low, sale positions, in general, are normally a higher turn-over rate compared to other positions within that department.

Department Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) – A system in which the yearly budget for a department in a company starts at zero with no pre-authorised funds, and thereafter the department has to justify its budget requests in order to support the formal issue of the budget.

Dependability and Relational Selling – A common selling methodology where the customer highly values the relationship with the salesperson or the sales organization they are doing business with. In relational selling, the salesperson’s credibility, trust, likeableness, and dependability become key factors in the immediate and on-going decision making process.

Dependant Business Partners – Realise this one thing. The people, small businesses, companies and organizations that have bought from a salesperson, but have not only just bought, they have become to depend on you.  They are now your business partners, and they will now depend more on you, and your company’s resources to grow and prosper.

Derived Demand – The Demand for a service or for goods which is driven by the demand for another form of service or goods.  As an example, the demand here is likened to the demand for steel to make cars.

Described Pre-Call Plan – This refers to the salesperson’s written description of either the determined objectives for the call, the key questions that will be asked during the call, and/or the strategy that will be taken in order to move the sales process forward in a positive manner.

Described Solutions Selling – This is a common description for a more customer-orientated selling method that is dependent on identifying prospect wants and needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a formal package or a specified solution. This term is based on the premise that prospects don’t buy products or features or benefits – but instead buy solutions to their organizational challenges and problems.  Some say that it’s a similar approach to what is loosely known as ‘needs-creation’ selling. Solutions selling remains relevant in modern selling and its methods can usefully be included in an open plan selling style.

Design Prototype – Relates to an original design or a working model of something, that may or may not be often used in sales demonstrations.  It may also relate to some form of visual, graphic or drawing which lays out the detail of the approach that could be used. Oftentime, blueprints are also referred to as “models,” or “prototypes.”

Design Split Testing – Primarily used in online marketing, where a testing model that has marketers simultaneously test two variables, often referred to and labeled A and B, in order to discover which variation either in web page content or ad content or design content and layout produces the best possible result.

Designated Product Life Cycle – This refers to the generally and stages that a product or service passes through from invention, development and to maturity through constant market decline until it becomes obsolete – usually because it has been superseded by other more competitive replacement offerings, and to a lesser degree the product or service had fully saturated that target market – everyone who wants it has purchased it.  From a marketing standpoint there are four stages in a product’s lifecycle.  These include Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. Understanding where a product is in its lifecycle can help the selling organization better define its sales strategy and the time it may take in selling the product or service in the designated market.

Designed Sales Aid – A device or apparatus that is purposely devised or designed to assist the sales professional gain an advantage during a presentation. Sales aids cover a wide gamut that can be anything from sophisticated demonstration tools and assessment technologies, to paper checklists, templates, and step-by-step how to’s.

Designer Knock-Off – This term is generally used for an unauthorised copy of a product – usually designer clothing.

Designer Knock-off Products – The term mostly used to describe imitations of a product design or concept. This imitated product (often imported) is manufactured and sold at a lower price than the original, often ‘knocking off’ the original product from retail shelves.

Desirable Trade-off – In all forms of sales negotiation, an exchange of something for something else of lesser known or lesser quality is known as a trade-off. Typically, it involves giving up one benefit for another that may be considered equal to or more desirable among various alternatives at the time.

Desire – Described as a longing, a wish. Strong desire drives ambition and performance.

Desire Based Selling – That product or service which is the one required or wanted by a customer. The ability of a sales professional to surface viable, “must address” needs (vs. wants)  always leads to greater sales success.

Desire Brand – A brand or a product which people admire and believe is of high quality – and wish to own because they think it could give them a higher social position.

Desire Word-of-Mouth – A well known and powerful method of promoting and selling products by creating interest, desire, or incentives on the part of current users to promote the use of a product or service to others.

Desired Objectives Pre-Call Briefing – The process usually led by a manager or coach and purposely involving a salesperson in order to strategize for a call, define certain desired objectives, prepare for those must answer questions, and build positive momentum for those necessary discussions with the prospect and/or existing customer.

Desired Sales Process – This incorporates a series of steps to bring about a desired end result. In sales, the process refers to the clearly defined steps that an organization or a salesperson takes the time or trouble to initiate and secure certain business processes to satisfy all manner of customer requirements.

Desired Sales Pursuit Management – The management and study of those activities the sales organization performs on behalf of the sales force in order to achieve the desired sales results where time is spent is the primary component of activity management.

Desk Jockey – This is an informal term describing someone who spends their working day sitting behind a desk, and who is concerned about getting involved in administration.

Desktop Publishing – The art of producing printed documents, magazines, books, etc., by using a small computer and printer.

Destination Shipping – The process of physically moving merchandise, machinery and other goods form a point of origin, like a retailer’s or wholesalers or distributors warehouse, to a destination, like a customer’s office, warehouse, shop or home.

Destroyer or Predatory Pricing – This is also known as Destroyer Pricing, and is a situation where a company purposely charges very low prices for goods or services in order to put its competitors under financial pressure or even out of business.  Once the damage has been done, the prices will be raised back to a realistic and profitable level.

Destructive Predatory Pricing – This is also known as Destroyer Pricing, and is a situation where a company purposely charges very low prices for goods or services in order to put its competitors under financial pressure or even out of business.  Once the damage has been done, the prices will be raised back to a realistic and profitable level.

Detail and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Detailed Prototype – Relates to an original design or a working model of something, that may or may not be often used in sales demonstrations.  It may also relate to some form of visual, graphic or drawing which lays out the detail of the approach that could be used. Often time, blueprints are also referred to as “models,” or “prototypes.”

Determination and Product Knowledge – To most people this refers to the amount of knowledge, information and direct experience the salesperson has in order to offer a product to potential customer – or existing client.  Here product knowledge is used in a general way and the salesperson in the main is not a sales engineer, but a sales representative.  The rule of thumb most to selling organizations work on is that a salespersons knowledge should be around 20% of a sales engineer, and that around 80% of the sale is based on enthusiasm and determination.

Determined Cold Calls – Making unsolicited calls in an attempt to see prospects and to sell products or services.  Many would say that this also a very inefficient way to find suspects, prospects or potential customers.

Determined Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Determined Marketplace Pricing – The process used to evaluate the eventual price of a product by taking into account the cost of production, the price it was purchased by the seller at that point, the price of similar competing products, the market situation, and the affordability factor of the buyers at that point and the exclusivity of those goods or services in the available and determined marketplace.

Determined Pre-Call Plan – This refers to the salesperson’s written description of either the determined objectives for the call, the key questions that will be asked during the call, and/or the strategy that will be taken in order to move the sales process forward in a positive manner.

Determined Prospect Profile – Researched information regarding leads or determined prospects such as first and last name, best time to call, background information, possible needs, and most importantly, names in common that salespeople can use to create and build rapport.

Determined Sales Forecast – A determined prediction of the sales that could be achieved over a given period, anything from a week to a year. Sales managers require sales people to forecast their future sales, in order to provide data to production, purchasing, and other functions whose activities need to be planned to meet sales demand. Sales forecasts are also an essential performance quantifier which feeds into the overall business plan for any organization. Due to the traditionally unreliable and overly optimistic nature of sales-department forecasts it is entirely normal for the sum of all individual sales persons’ sales annual forecast to grossly exceed what the business genuinely plans or intends to sell.

Determined Sales Target – When considered within a sales context this is generally the issued (or ideally agreed) minimum level of sales performance for a salesperson or a team or department over a given period of time. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, and future positions etc., may all be dependent on the nominated sales staff meeting sales targets. Targets are established at the beginning of a fiscal trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular reviews throughout the year. Also see forecasting.

Determined Scorecards – This is a term used to refer to the sales metrics a selling organization or a sales manager uses to measure progress.

Developed Sales Process Steps – Those involved in formal sales training will be quick to tell you of the well-understood, generic steps (initiation, qualify, evaluate, develop, propose, contract, win, close) as they are identified for the purpose of selling, from initiation to close. As a process, it is measurable and improvable.

Developed Skill Model – In sales training, this is the set of step-by-step actions someone would follow to accomplish something worthwhile. Skill models form the foundation of the training methods used to develop proficiency in a subject area.

Developed Strategies Segmentation – The division of a market into discrete smaller units that generally have similar characteristics. This in turn allows a selling organization to focus on the unique needs of each segment, and to develop strategies to capitalize on the different opportunities available as the needs of each segment.

Development Marketing – This refers to the act of promoting a company, or its products, and services in the effort to attract a primary influence to a company (normally pertains to customers) and is perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising.  However, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through to market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions. It’s the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it.

Device Widget – A small program which is run by some designated computers. It can also be a small device, switch, gadget, etc., whose name is not known.

Devious Motives – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Devised Sales Aid – A device or apparatus that is purposely devised or designed to assist the sales professional gain an advantage during a presentation . Sales aids cover a wide gamut that can be anything from sophisticated demonstration tools and assessment technologies, to paper checklists, templates, and step-by-step how to’s.

Devoted Person with an Amiable Style – The prospect, customer or new buyer who takes an amiable approach is generally the one who is agreeable, devoted, responsible, warm hearted, considerate, caring, practical, patient, but is also the one that is generally mostly indecisive in everything.  Why?  Simply because this person does not like “rocking the boat” and try to be all things to all people.

Diagnostic Consultative Selling Ideology – This implies that the salesperson is taking on the responsibility for a full, thorough, and all encompassing professional diagnosis of the challenge before them in order to suggest a solution – with no preconception as to the outcome.

Diagram Close – If you can, sit next to the person (prospect) while you are steadily drawing the picture on a clean sheet of paper.  Use different colours if needed to help clarify and make the diagram more attractive.  Talk steadily through the drawing process, narrating the story as you draw it.

Dialog – This is the art and science of interactive, and mutually-learning conversations with the executives who are involved in the decision-making process for the solution being provided by the salesperson.

Dialog Catalyst Tool – A tool or series of tools that are used actively to engage a prospect or customer in business focused conversations.

Dialogue Introductory Letter – This is a very effective way to improve appointment-making success, and to open initial dialogue, especially for selling to large organisations.

Diary Close – We all own a diary and use it for every day use, so why not use the diary as an adjunct sales tool.  This is where the Diary Close gains merit.  “When shall we make the next meeting, would that be one or two weeks from today?”

Dictated Habits and Schedules – A salespersons regular sales schedules and habits which in turn dictate the amount of demonstrations and sales are ultimately made.

Difference of Opinion – An attitude communicated by a prospect or customer about something that is generally believed to be true, when in effect, it is not true. The salesperson’s objective, therefore, is to simply clear up the misunderstanding.

Difference of Profit Margin Basics – This relates to the difference between what a retailer pays for a product and what the retailer’s customer pays for the same product.  The margin calculations may solely only the cost of the goods sold or may take into account other factors such as overheads and other variable costs.

Different Market Product offer – How the product and/or service offer is positioned and presented to the prospect or to the market, (which would normally include features and/or advantages) and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (via alternate segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully.

Different Product offer – How the product and/or service offer is positioned and presented to the prospect or to the market, (which would normally include features and/or advantages) and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (via alternate segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully.

Differentiated Commodity – This relates to a product or a service that is not differentiated. In other words, all competing products will bear the same or similar characteristics. Today, many of the products a company may sell have somewhat become commodity-like, requiring some form of differentiation in other areas, such as financing, service, or personal relationships. In these, and many of the other commodity-like situations, purchase decisions are often made primarily on the basis of price.

Differentiating a Product – A name, term, or symbol used to identify the products and/or services of the selling organization and as a means to differentiate them from those of competitors.  It can also be the result of a manufacturing process or another form natural processes (such as food) which can be offered for sale to the general public, usually via direct sales through self-branded products or through other retailers.

Differentiation – Refers to the methodology an organization can use to position itself above the competition.  Many call this preferential positioning.  Organizations can differentiate themselves by how easy it is to do business with them, or how the use of their products and services positively impacts the buyers bottom line.

Difficult Sale – An attempted sale where there are multiple decision makers and influencers, who often have different requirements, applications and agendas. These types of complex sales typically take much longer than an average sale to organize before they are closed.

Direct Appeal Close – This a closing style that will win the salesperson a good deal of customer respect and could allow for additional items to be sold at the same call, or alternately leaves the door open for future sales and upgrades to the sale client.  As with all closing styles there will be a degree of subtlety required, this close is a little different as it can be used with more directiveness as less subtlety.  “Let’s get the details sorted and get the paperwork underway.”

Direct Channel – The process by which a business house or an organization prefers to use to sell their products and services. A company who uses their own sales force is said to have a “direct channel.” Other sales channels could include the use of distributors, wholesalers, retailers, agencies, etc.

Direct Close – How the Direct Close works is that the details of the negotiation that had just taken place are detailed as a form of summary to which the Direct Close question is simply tagged-on. “The way I understand it, and based on what we have been discussing regarding your television, you need a high definition LCD TV that’s big enough for everyone in the living room to see clearly, that costs not more than $1,500, and you’d prefer it in black.  Are there any other features you’d like?”

Direct Distributor – Notably an individual or company or a wholesaler that buys products, mostly from manufacturers, and then resells them to other wholesalers, agents, retail outlets or direct to customers.

Direct Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Direct Marketing – This is when the marketing of products, services, etc., is done directly to strategic individual potential customers by sending them catalogues, leaflets, brochures, etc., by mail (including e-mail), or calling them on the telephone or flushing them out and then calling on them door-to-door.  It is also known to be a form of retailing where a producer/manufacturer, importer, or distributor markets directly to an end consumer without the use of a retailer.

Direct Overhead – This process is called a direct overhead when a portion of the overheads, e.g. lighting, rent, etc., or other costs directly associated with the production of goods and services are factored into the price of goods early in the equation.

Direct Primary Influences – These generally relate to the overall direct and indirect primary influences on any company, in business at any point in time, and may include Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Sales Personnel, Distributors, Agents, Banks, Lenders, Vendors, Other Institutions, Stock-holders, etc.

Direct Response Marketing – These are some of the ways of utilizing direct response marketing via advertising, mailers, letter box drops, emails, postcards, etc. to solicit interest from prospects and to receive responses (leads) that can be worked.

Direct Retailer – A business or individual who stocks, buy’s in, or sells pre-determined or market driven products or services directly to the customer.

Direct Sale Product – A name, term, or symbol used to identify the products and/or services of the selling organization and as a means to differentiate them from those of competitors.  It can also be the result of a manufacturing process or another form natural processes (such as food) which can be offered for sale to the general public, usually via direct sales through self-branded products or through other retailers.

Direct Sales B2B Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and IT sectors).

Direct Sales Catalyst – In sales organizations, this term refers to a salesperson or sales manager who is capable of stimulating positive and creative change, and who is one who causes a process or event to happen through both direct and indirect efforts.

Direct Sales Related Activities – This refers to those actions that are usually and directly related to closing a sales call at the demonstration stage. This will usually include prospecting, setting appointments, doing product demonstrations, and attempting to close the sale.  Prospecting and setting appointments can sometimes be performed through marketing systems.

Direct Sales Retailers – Companies, businesses and/or individuals that generally sell goods from a physical location, either a shop or warehouse, but now more increasingly over the internet, sell products and/or services directly to end consumers and collect sales tax, or goods and services tax (when and where applicable) on those transactions. Some direct sales companies and other organizations might also fit in this category. Since retailers buy at wholesale or in other ways, and sell at retail, is what makes them “retailers”.

Direct Sales Strategic Plan – This is usually the approach the individual, team or company will use to market and sell products, services and solutions to a buyer market whether it be to the end consumer, direct sales, retailers, wholesales, distributors or the internet.

Direct Selling – Direct selling refers to sales that occur through independent sales representatives, usually not from a store but from the customer’s own location.

Direct Selling Style – This is an interesting selling style and although it is considered to be relatively easy selling, it can be one of the hardest to master.  For that reason, those in direct selling are usually paid on commission only and are usually among the highest paid in the selling industry.  This selling style is best suited to relatively simple sales environments where the prospect is more likely to give a simple yes or a simple no decision in a relatively short time.  Most direct selling is based on the need to solve single pressing problems, and mostly in a short-term setting, without the need to dig down too deeply.       

Directional Ending Questions – These are primarily thought provoking questions that are generally used at the end of an opening statement.  These types of questions will get the prospect thinking about what the salesperson has said, and encourages the prospect to make a comment and/or ask more questions.  Questions of this nature are not only those that would encourage the prospect to share their ideas, beliefs, opinions, and views on a subject, and once shared it allows the salesperson to take the situation into any direction of interest to the prospect and in turn can generate more thought provoking questions.             

Directive Close – This is a close that any salesperson could use to help change the focus of the prospect’s thinking away from using a simple the decision such as a, ‘yes’ or a ‘no.’ “How does this sound to you, so far?” “Good, then Jim, our next step is…” When the prospect answers, “I’ll take it,” the seller then reinforces it adding, “Good, I’ll take care of all the details.” The fact is, most times the customer didn’t know how much he or she wanted to buy until the salesperson offered to take care of all the details.

Directives – At an official level, directives are instructions, guidelines or orders issued by a specific governing or regulatory body. They may relate to a form of law. In a less formal way, most directives equate to an instruction issued by an executive or manager or organizational department head.

Director – Relates to a person who has been appointed to oversee and/or run a company or organisation along with other directors.  In the entertainment industry, this is the person who directs the making of a film, TV program, etc.  In sales organizations this may be the sales director who is the appointed executive in charge of all sales and the development and future direction of this department.  The overall boss of the company is usually the managing director or CEO (Chief Executive Officer).

Directories – Sites that list and link to other sites, including online stores, are referred to as directories.  There are also physical directories such as business directories, yellow pages advertising directories, pink pages directories, telephone directories, specialist industry directories and internet directories, etc.

Directors – These are the assigned individuals who are held accountable for the responsible and timely completion of goals, plans, targets, objectives and expected work-loads of the nominated team leader        

Directors and Network of Influence – These are the systems people in authority including, decision makers, directors, community leaders, councilors, influencers and to a lesser extent, consumers try to influence productivity within a target organization.  Most people in this grouping are able to temporarily act at a level below, but will almost never accept a role a level above.  Once the group is underway, most of those in some form of leadership will abandon the post and return to their normal role within the community.

Dirty Money – Generally referred to money that is usually made from illegal, illegitimate  or unsavoury activities which needs to be ‘laundered’ (moved through legal bank accounts) so that it appears to be made from legitimate sources.

Disappointment or Success and a Sales Plan – For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Disbursement – A method used to pay out money from a large fund, e.g. a treasury or public fund.

Discharge Plan – The set of steps outlinDirectors – ing how the solution agreed to by the prospect or customer will be implemented. Implementation plans need to include What, Who, and By When elements.

Discipline Function – When used in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, for example; sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc. Understanding the work functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations.

Discipline of Project Management – Relates to the sciences and disciplines of planning, organizing, overseeing, managing and tracking projects within an organization. Project Management can be a simple or it can be a sophisticated process to help implement systematic change within an organization. “Farmer type” sales professionals who become proficient at effective project management can also be considered as valuable business allies by their prospects and customers/clients alike.

Discipline – Mostly relates to either personal discipline, or discipline within the context of an organization.  As a job role of any kind, discipline in a necessity.  Discipline can also refer more generally to a certain capability or responsibility, such as ‘financial disciplines’, ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.  Discipline can also mean separately ‘control’ of others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling. In the business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people can be affected by a change or proposition, usually accompanying the sale of a product or a service.

Discontinued Stock Markdown – A reduced selling price on specified selected items adjusted to meet the price of another retailer, clear out, or shopworn, or slow moving, or overstocked, or discontinued merchandise, or to increase customer traffic. This is generally basically, another name for a “sale”.

Discount – A genuine reduction to the amount normally charged (and typically reduced from a gazetted list price) that is usually offered by the seller or the selling organization to encourage more purchases of a product or services on offer.

Discount Close – You wrap the close around creating a discounted price just for the prospect at the time of communication.  But here is where you use everything available at the time to you.  Rather than just simply quoting a price, the seller should get out the calculator and appear to be thoroughly engrossed at working out the best on the keys for as long as the seller feels it will make the prospect be impressed enough to notice what is going on. “Now lets have a look at this.  I’ll have a look into the computer for you and see if I can do any better.  I can, but I will need to get the television into the store for you as this is generally not a stock line.  If you are prepared to give me a deposit today you can have the television at a further $100 off.”

Discount Code – Usually consists of a combination of series of numbers and/or letters that an online shopper may enter at checkout to get a discount or other special offer. Discount codes may also be called coupon codes.

Discount Loan – An unusual loan on which the finance charges and interest is paid for by the lender before the borrower receives the money.

Discount Mates Rates – One of the more recently promoted ways to sell a product or service to a friend or family member at a discounted or reduced rate on the normal price.

Discount Reference Pricing – A very widely used and usually a highly controversial marketing, advertising, or promotional tactic, where a selling company advertises a product (or less commonly a service), at what may be deemed a (usually heavily) discounted price compared to a (typically unfeasibly high) previous selling price, and commonly described by the seller as the ‘usual’ or ‘normal’ price (the ‘reference price’).

Discounted Multiple-Unit Pricing – Relates to a policy concept where a retailer, wholesaler, distributor or producer offers discounts to customers who buy in quantity. Often called a tiered or quantity-based pricing schedule.

Discovery Agreement – This is essence is a preview sheet that the salesperson can discuss with the prospect or customer – something somewhat similar to a short check-list.  How it works is, at the early part of the presentation the salesperson openly shares what is known about the prospects organization.  At this point the salesperson is also able to point out the plan of what he or she would like to cover as a presentation over the time needed for the prospect to make a decision.           

Discovery and Needs-Creation Selling – This relates to a selling style that was popularised in the 1970s and 80s which than asserted that sales people could create needs in a prospect for their products or services even if no needs were apparent, obvious or even existed. This method was one that required the salesperson to question the prospect in order to identify, discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product or service being sold. However, time proved that this method was no substitute for good research and proper targeting of prospects who have both the need and use of the products and services being sold at the time of the call.

Discovery Call – The first call of more than one call a salesperson makes to a prospect, with the goal of asking them questions and qualifying them for the next step before the selling process proceeds to either the next stage or the closing process.

Discreet Segmentation – The division of a market into discrete smaller units that generally have similar characteristics. This in turn allows a selling organization to focus on the unique needs of each segment, and to develop strategies to capitalize on the different opportunities available as the needs of each segment.

Discretionary Income – This refers to the amount of income a person is left with after taxes and basic essentials, such as food, housing, etc., have been deducted.

Discrimination and the Robinson-Patman Act – This act bars the majority of manufacturers and wholesalers from discrimination in price or sales terms in selling to individual retailers as long as these retailers are purchasing products of “like quality”.

Discussion and Sales Methodology – Refers to the “how” of the art of selling as a skill set.  The majority of sales methodology aligns to the customer buying decision process and the orientation, objectives, analysis, discussion, initiation, evaluation and decision processes and applicable methodologies.

Discussion in the Preliminary Suggestion – This is the point of a discussion with the prospect where the salesperson first makes a recommendation to the proposed buyer.  It is important to realize that this suggestion may or may not be a request to buy.

Discussions for a Pre-Call Briefing – The process usually led by a manager or coach and purposely involving a salesperson in order to strategize for a call, define certain desired objectives, prepare for those must answer questions, and build positive momentum for those necessary discussions with the prospect and/or existing customer.

Disguise and Smoke and Mirrors – An intentional deception for the purpose of disguising, concealing, or inflating something for personal or financial benefit.

Dishonest Spin – Generally accepted as a form of biased presentation of current news, or reports, or information mainly by politicians, entrepreneurs, business-people, etc., often times typically cynically, dishonestly, or unethically, but mostly told in a highly positive way, or in a way designed to support a particular thought or position. The term is derived from the sense of putting a ‘spin’ on a story, in such a way as to distort the truth to suit a particular purpose. This use of unreasonably optimistic interpretations in referring to one’s own point of view while providing unreasonably negative interpretations when referring to their critics and/or competitors and their actions.

Dishonest Wheeling and Dealing – The process of writing a profit, which could sometimes be done dishonestly.  Wheeling and Dealing also refers to the normal buy when buying and selling things, or acting as a go-between for two parties.

Dispatch Note/Advice – A document giving details of goods which have been dispatched by the supplier or are ready to be dispatched by the supplier to a customer.

Display Point-of-Purchase (POP) – Refers primarily to a display which may include a product inventory, an/or promotional inventory about that same inventory, as a means to assist in persuading browsers to buy. It is also often used for “impulse buy” product categories.

Display Products Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Distinct Characteristic Feature – A characteristic of a product or service or the distinct part of a product or service that can be described. It may also refer to an aspect of a product or service, eg., colour, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc.  Salespeople often believe features sell products, but it is the benefit of a feature that is more attributable for the sale.  It also refers to a function of a product that can solve for a potential buyer’s need or pain point; usually a distinguishing characteristic that helps boost appeal.

Distinct Niche or Target Market – Distinct and definable segments of generally a larger market segment that a business may seek to attract and satisfy individuals or groups with targeted goods and/or services directly or indirectly suitable for the niche market.

Distinctive Marketing – Refers to the offering of rewards or gifts to salespeople as an incentive to get more orders from dealers or customers. It is also a way to offer existing customers rewards for buying products or services.

Distinctive Niche Market – Relates to a unique segment of the market a selling organization is physically targeting or is targeted towards. This unique segment, if worked at or served well, can provide areas of distinctive competitive value.

Distinctive Vertical Market – A market characterized by certain unique characteristics based on the distinctive uniqueness of that market. The words “vertical market” are often referred to as the “Market Segment.”

Distinguishable Persistence – This would perhaps be one of the key factors that distinguishes a true sales professional from others in the selling field.   It goes hand in glove with the ability to keep working systematically and tirelessly to meet or exceed stated goals or until the goal appears to be no longer likely attainable.

Distinguishing Feature – A characteristic of a product or service or the distinct part of a product or service that can be described. It may also refer to an aspect of a product or service, eg., colour, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc.  Salespeople often believe features sell products, but it is the benefit of a feature that is more attributable for the sale.  It also refers to a function of a product that can solve for a potential buyer’s need or pain point; usually a distinguishing characteristic that helps boost appeal.

Distortion in Spin – Generally accepted as a form of biased presentation of current news, or reports, or information mainly by politicians, entrepreneurs, business-people, etc., often times typically cynically, dishonestly, or unethically, but mostly told in a highly positive way, or in a way designed to support a particular thought or position. The term is derived from the sense of putting a ‘spin’ on a story, in such a way as to distort the truth to suit a particular purpose. This use of unreasonably optimistic interpretations in referring to one’s own point of view while providing unreasonably negative interpretations when referring to their critics and/or competitors and their actions.

Distraction Close – This is most powerful when applied while they are in or approaching any manner of emotional overload or are so distracted that they only have a smallish part of their attention on you or the product or service they are considering.

Distress and Objections – A term often used in sales organizations or sales processes when a prospect challenges or rejects a salesperson’s suggestion, or when the prospect brings up issues that prevent the sale from moving forward.  Alternately it may refer to a prospect’s challenge to or the rejection of a product or service, as a natural part of the sales process.  However, these days, many sales organizations tend to be moving away from the word “objection,” preferring to use a more collaborative term such as “concerns” to describe the same reaction by the prospect.  Regardless of the term used, how a salesperson handles the situation will determine whether a sale will be made.

Distribution Business – A distribution business that moves and inventories products from a number of manufacturers and then on-sells to a wide area retailers. Quite often distributors are able to offer far shorter lead times than many manufacturers can and may sell their goods in smaller quantities. It is common for distributors to charge a premium over a manufacturer-direct price for the service and convenience provided.

Distribution Channel – This is a means (and by far not the only means) by which an organization uses to sell their products. A company who uses their own sales force is said to have a “direct channel.” Other channels may include distributors, wholesalers, retailers, agencies, etc – or a combination of one or more of these.

Distribution Channel – This is a means of distributing a product from the manufacturer to the customer/end user via warehouses, wholesalers, retailers, etc.

Distribution Channels – This includes all of the business entities involved in the paperwork and physical movement of goods and services from the producer to the consumer.  The simplest channel would be a manufacturer selling direct to a consumer, but channels may include the use of salespeople, sales reps, brokers, wholesalers, distributors, rack jobbers, trade shows personnel, and/or retail outlets.

Distribution Forward Integration – This is usually a well used business strategy where a company takes control of its distributors for the sole purpose of guaranteeing the distribution of the controlling company’s products.

Distribution Model SaaS: Software as a Service (SaaS) is a software distribution model from which applications are hosted by a vendor or service provider and made available to the customers over a network, typically and mainly the Internet.

Distribution Motivators – Those areas which, if known by salespeople and their management, can be used to position solutions to align with a decision maker’s most key criteria for selection.

Distribution Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Distribution Red Flag – Slang term used to describe conditions that may present danger to or within the selling organization. This is generally used to highlight those areas the sales professional needs to be alert to, or must solve, in order to move the sale forward.

Distribution Shipping – The process of physically moving merchandise, machinery and other goods form a point of origin, like a retailer’s or wholesalers or distributors warehouse, to a destination, like a customer’s office, warehouse, shop or home.

Distribution Supply Chain – A progressive chain of businesses or individuals through which a product passes from raw materials to manufacturing, distribution, retailing, etc., until it reaches the end consumer.  Alternately this could refer to a network or system of businesses involved in moving a product from its manufacturing point to the customer. In online retailing, the supply chain usually represents the distributor and manufacturer of a product.

Distribution – These are usually the methods or routes by which products and services are mostly taken to the marketplace. Sales distribution models can be many and varied, and in the main, are constantly changing and new ones are constantly being developed. Understanding and establishing best sales distribution methods – together with the established routes to market – are crucial aspects of running any sales organisation, and/or business model.

Distributor – An indirect form of sales utilising a sales channel that markets or sells a product or service. Distributors are used by selling organizations to capitalize on the distributor’s local presence and capacity to support the manufacturer.

Distributor – Notably an individual or company or a wholesaler that buys products, mostly from manufacturers, and then resells them to other wholesalers, agents, retail outlets or direct to customers.

Distributor Based Qualifying Leads – This relates to the process of assessing whether or not a prospect or customer or an alternate opportunity represents a potential fit for a specific product or service either supplied by a retailer, agent, distributor, wholesaler or manufacturer.

Distributor Channel – The process by which a business house or an organization prefers to use to sell their products and services. A company who uses their own sales force is said to have a “direct channel.” Other sales channels could include the use of distributors, wholesalers, retailers, agencies, etc.

Distributor Direct Marketing – This is when the marketing of products, services, etc., is done directly to strategic individual potential customers by sending them catalogues, leaflets, brochures, etc., by mail (including e-mail), or calling them on the telephone or flushing them out and then calling on them door-to-door.  It is also known to be a form of retailing where a producer/manufacturer, importer, or distributor markets directly to an end consumer without the use of a retailer.

Distributor Exclusivity – This occurs when a manufacturer, distributor, sales representative or other supplier that enter into any kind of agreements that limits the number of retailers or other suppliers that are entitled to carry a certain product, or product line, within a specified geographic area or types/kind of stores.

Distributor Lockout – The best way to describe this concept approach within the selling arena is that many of the professional salespeople would avoid using it.  Having said that, it’s an interesting idea.  At times there are products or services that may be exclusive to a company, or hard to get at a certain time of the year for whatever reason.  At times like this the seller may be in a position to offer the prospect a product that no-one else is able to at that time.  This is made more powerful if the salesperson is able to confirm the exclusivity in writing from the an executive of the company.  Because no-one else can provide that product or service at the time, it is considered to be and is aptly named a “lockout.”  It’s a simple process.  Highlight what you have that no-one else can provide and you effectively “lockout” every other supplier the day you make the call.

Distributor Multiple-Unit Pricing – Relates to a policy concept where a retailer, wholesaler, distributor or producer offers discounts to customers who buy in quantity. Often called a tiered or quantity-based pricing schedule.

Distributor New Customer – A person or group or business who has never ordered before from that particular supplier.

Distributor PayPal – Founded in 1998, PayPal has developed into a leading, worldwide payment processing company. The service is one that collects and processes payments for sales made on behalf or retail, wholesale and internet merchants.

Distributor RFP (Request for Proposal) – An acronym  (RFPs) Request for Proposal is/are often used by prospects or customers to assess who will respond to, and/or evaluate solutions being posed either by the manufacturer, distributor, company, agent or salesperson in regards to a certain venture or market shift/movement

Distributor RFP (Request for Proposal) Software – Software that enables an organization to create a library or repository of information containing the best content that can be used for responding to Requests for Proposals (RFPs). The software now allows a seller (and not the prospect or customer) to quickly search or browse for the best answers to the questions in a RFP and to easily respond to the RFP using that content.

Distributor Strategic Plan – This is usually the approach the individual, team or company will use to market and sell products, services and solutions to a buyer market whether it be to the end consumer, direct sales, retailers, wholesales, distributors or the internet.

Distributor Trade Show – Refers to an exhibition purposely created so that manufacturers and distributors may show or demonstrate new products or services to prospective buyers.

Distributor Wholesale – This refers to the sale of goods by a wholesales, distributor, importer or manufacturer, in small, medium or larger quantities, usually to retailers who then on-sell them for a profit.

Distributor Wholesale Price – The price a manufacturer, producer, importer or distributor places on a product to be sold to a retailer, who will then mark up the product for their customers.

Distributor Wholesale Trade Shows – There bare generally larger to massive sized temporary marketplaces, that can offer hundreds or at times thousands of exhibitor booths by manufacturers, producers, representatives, importers, and distributors. Only buyers from that trade or industry (e.g. retailers and distributors) are the one that may register as an attendee and obtain pass access.

Distributors – A sales intermediary between existing producers and retailers, that generally have large warehousing capacity and as large a sales and delivery force servicing stores and/or other businesses in a specified area or region. These purchase from manufacturers or importers in large quantities, and take both ownership and possession of the products, for delivery to their distribution network. Distributors sell (often with the use of in-house or independent representatives or brokers) and collect payments directly from the stores. This is generally the dominant method of food distribution in grocery and food service.

Distributors as Primary Influences – These generally relate to the overall direct and indirect primary influences on any company, in business at any point in time, and may include Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Sales Personnel, Distributors, Agents, Banks, Lenders, Vendors, Other Institutions, Stock-holders, etc.

Distributors B2B Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and IT sectors).

Distributors Minimum Order Size – There are many manufacturers and/or distributors that may require retailers to place orders that meet a minimum value or unit counts. This requirement would be assumed to be the minimum order size.

Distributors Organic Growth – A term used mainly by manufacturers or distributors to refer to growth from within, and not as a result of acquisition.

Distributors Per-Order Fee – This occurs when a manufacturer or distributor “drop ships” an order directly to a customer on a retailer’s behalf, that manufacturer or distributor may also be in a position to change a per-order fee for processing that order.

Distributors Wholesale Showrooms – These are usually large facilities in major metropolitan areas where manufacturers’ representatives, importers, distributors, co-ops, and manufacturers, showcase and sell lines to retail buyers. A very good facility will offer anywhere up to hundreds of showrooms on multiple floors.

Ditherers Close – The Ditherers Close may work in several ways based on the enticement that when they accept your unsolicited gift they would, in turn, emotionally close themselves on the product or service you have opened them up to.  In the simplest of terms, the minor issue influences the main buy.

Diversion – In the marketing field, business ‘diversion’ refers to the unofficial distribution and/or availability of branded consumer products. The supply of branded products through unauthorised stockists, retailers or other suppliers, notably marketing through the web is a concern world-wide. Diversion does not simply refer to pirated or counterfeit or ‘fake’ goods. Diversion refers to official goods being sold through unofficial channels.

Diversion Close – There are also the times when your prospect is so passionate about some particular thing that they won’t stop talking about it long enough to listen.  At other times, you know you are talking but they are definitely not listening to you because they still ‘away with pixies’ thinking about what they were just talking to you about – so passionately. “Hey John, did you see that.  I could swear John Howard was driving that car – yes John Howard, the former prime minister?   Now getting back to what you were just saying, tell me…”

Divest/Divestment – In business, the need to divest or the application of divestment refers to a corporation selling subsidiary interests, especially through a subsidiary company.  The terms were actually derived originally from a more literal meaning of taking power or rights from someone or a body of individuals.

Do Something Close-itis – This usually refers to a common salesperson syndrome, mainly recognizable by an overwhelming desire to do or say something, in fact say anything to a superior, or sales manager, that the prospect (or existing client) does mean to buy something, although it may not be happening at this point in time.  Most superiors and managers will also suggest that the salespersons time could be better spent looking elsewhere for the business.

Do Something Special Close – if you give a gift at the beginning of the presentation as a thank-you for presenting because you were recommended by a referral, it seems to be OK .  And if you turn up a day of two later and give them a gift, that is a wonderful gesture as a thank you for buying from me.

Do you have any Questions Close – “Do you have any questions so far?” is one of the best questions for a salesperson to ask at ant time during the presentation, and it’s also one of the least used in most sales presentations. Once asked, you’d be amazed by the kinds of responses you’ll get, and each of those answers will generally reveal what your prospect is thinking at the time.

Do You See a Benefit to That Close – The seller gets the prospect emotionally involved in owning the product, the consolidates it by asking, “Do you see the benefit in that?” “You can see the benefit in that, can’t you?” “The benefit you here is ____” at strategic points or after each feature as you describe it.  The more this is done the closer the prospect gets to buying.

DOA Customer – Generally refers to a customer who is no longer able to purchase for any reason.

Document Close – Ask your prospects to write down exactly what they want.  Once this is done, it is important the the salesperson promises to deliver what they have agreed in return for the order.  However if the prospects have already written down what they want, then the salesperson should use their document to create the order form – using a check-list principle to tick off the items on the list one by one.

Document Sharing – Used in video-conferencing.  This is a system which allows individuals or groups of people in different places to view and edit the same document at the same time on their computers.

Documentation Knowledge Center – A determined repository, typically on-line, where an organization maintains its product information, best practices documentation, sample presentations and proposals, etc. for easy access by the selling organization.

Documented Profit-and-Loss (Income) Statement – This is a financial document which is designed to provide a summary of business operations, primarily revenues and expenses recorded over a particular period of time.

Doers Never Say Selling is A Numbers Game – A totally misguided belief that is based on performing some manner of sales related activities the are predicted to result in pre-determined results and are always based on the numbers and statistics. However, only those that are believers of this theory are generally untrained people who dabble in sales and in far too many cases only last one two or more years.  Professional salespeople on the other hand understand that the numbers they need to concentrate on are their personal performance statistics based on conversion and closing percentages.  The narrower the conversion number between calls and sales, the better the seller, or the sales manager that helps guide the salesperson.

Dog – An informal slang term generally used when an investment has been shown to be a poor performer. The term “dog” may also refer to other poor-performing elements within a business, for example a product or service within a company range.

Do-it Anyway Close – The salesperson tells the prospect that there is never a good time to make a major purchase. So the salesperson suggests the prospect does it anyway.

Dollar per Customer (DPC) – Refers to an average dollar per customer expenditure which includes all their orders within a regular product purchase cycle.

Dollar Per Sale (DPS) – Refers to the average dollar per sale which can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period of time by the number of sales made (closed sales) during the same period of time..

Domain – The actual root address for a web page.

Domain Name – The link name for the root address for a web page.

Domestic White Goods – Refers mainly to large domestic electrical appliances, such as kitchen ranges, washing machines, dryers, freezers, fridges, etc.

Dominant Method Distribution – A sales intermediary between existing producers and retailers, that generally have large warehousing capacity and as large a sales and delivery force servicing stores and/or other businesses in a specified area or region. These purchase from manufacturers or importers in large quantities, and take both ownership and possession of the products, for delivery to their distribution network. Distributors sell (often with the use of in-house or independent representatives or brokers) and collect payments directly from the stores. This is generally the dominant method of food distribution in grocery and food service.

Dominating Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Don’t Keep it a Secret Close – All the seller needs to share is that the prospect shouldn’t be too proud to let other people know how much you would appreciate their business.   They simply tell others not to keep what I have a secret as I want everybody’s business.  Alternately, I have been using the “Don’t keep me a secret phrase as well as teaching it for more decades than I care to remember.  Moreover, I am impressed with two things regarding this closing style:

Door Close – The Front Door Close is a take on the ‘now is the best time to buy’ closing ideology.  How the seller uses it after being briefed on the way it works is in the sellers domain, simply because it infers that the prospects best interest to buy immediately as you can’t give them any second chances, or the ability to call you back and place an order at a later date – not at that price anyway.

Door in the Face Close – This closing technique is a persuasion style that relies on the likelihood that a prospect/customer will agree to the second request before they go ahead – for a variety of what seem to be good reasons held by the prospect/customer at the time – so cherish that thought, because the rules could be different the next time you see that same prospect/customer.

Door Knob Close – It’s a close the seller uses when all the other closing techniques seem to have failed and to a seasoned salesperson, this close is generally the one last ditch effort to resurrect the inevitable “Dead Horse.”

Door Knocking Calls – A sales method that generally typically refers to the first telephone call made to a prospective customer.  More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as ‘door-knocking’..

Door-to-Door Direct Marketing – This is when the marketing of products, services, etc., is done directly to strategic individual potential customers by sending them catalogues, leaflets, brochures, etc., by mail (including e-mail), or calling them on the telephone or flushing them out and then calling on them door-to-door.  It is also known to be a form of retailing where a producer/manufacturer, importer, or distributor markets directly to an end consumer without the use of a retailer.

Dormant Customers – Generally referred to customers who have not ordered in the last 12 to 24 months.

Double-Blind – A good method of testing a new product, primarily some kind of medication, in which neither the people trying the product nor those administering the treatment know who is testing the real product and who has been given a genuine product or a placebo (sugar tablet) containing none of the product.

Double-dipping – The practice, usually regarded as unethical, of receiving two incomes or benefits from the same source or two different sources, for example someone who may be receiving a pension and consultancy income from the same employer.

Doubt – A prospects lack of confidence in something a salesperson is presenting.  Many times this can relate to a feature or benefit which may or may not quite do the job a prospect may expect it to do.  Also refers to whenever someone is unsure of what the other may be thinking or about to do.  This may apply to either the salesperson and/or the prospect or customer alike.

Doubt and Skepticism – A factor that refers to an attitude of doubt on the part of a prospect or customer to a claim a salesperson or the selling organization is making.

Doubt Close – Here the salesperson could also express doubt either about the intended use of product or the readiness of the prospect for the product.  When this happens the salesperson should make any doubt they state a relatively weak and easily challenged statement relating to prospects doubt.

Down-Sell Monthly Recurring Revenue – This relates to the amount of revenue a subscription-based business receives each month and includes MMR gained by new accounts (net new), MRR gained form up-sells (net positive), MMR lost from down-sells (net negative), and also MRR lost from cancellations (net loss).

Downward Sales Funnel – Refers to a slang term used in sales to describe how, at the top of the funnel, all the opportunities that are available, and then, as the sales cycle unfolds, how those same opportunities progress downward through the funnel to the ultimate sale.  In turn this describes the pattern, plan or actual achievement of conversion of prospects into sales and customers, through the pre-enquiry and then through the sales cycle.  These also includes the conversion ratio at each stage of the sales cycle, which has been incorporated into a funneling effect.  Moreover, prospects are said to be fed into the top of the funnel, and converted sales drop out at the bottom. The extent of conversion success (ie the tightness of each ratio) reflects the quality of prospects fed into the top, and the sales skill at each conversion stage. The Sales Funnel is a long term and very powerful sales planning and sales management tool. Diagrams of typical basic Sales Funnel appear throughout the internet. Also referred to as the Sales Pipeline.

DPC (Dollar per Customer) – Refers to an average dollar per customer expenditure which includes all their orders within a regular product purchase cycle.

DPSDollar Per Sale – Your average dollar per sale can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period by the number of sales made (closed sales.)

DPS (Dollar Per Sale) – Refers to the average dollar per sale which can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period of time by the number of sales made (closed sales) during the same period of time.

Dramatic Meltdown – An often awkward situation in which something, or someone, suddenly dramatically ceases to function properly.

Draw – Generally a “loan” against future commissions earned. Usually set up as a debit/credit system where any commissions you earn must first be used/applied to “repay” the draw.  Other arrangements can be made.  Sometimes the company may ask for a part of future commissions to be applied against the draw

Draw Cap – The max amount a salesperson draw against future commissions can add up to or the most the salesperson can “go in the hole” with the draw being made available by the company.

Draw/Draw Against – In sales, this form of compensation generally refers to a cash advance in anticipation of future sales performance or sales written and the employer is waiting out the cooling off period before the commission can be paid.  It is sometimes seen as a way to provide a salesperson with cash compensation without providing them with a guaranteed salary. Draws against are typically recovered against future commission payments the salesperson earns. Some commissions only sales organizations offer “non-recoverable draws, often considered similar to a temporary salary, during the first months of the salesperson’s employment.

Drawback – Anything that is perceived to be a disadvantage of a product or service. In sales, all products mostly cannot serve all needs. Salespeople who are consistently or are often able to minimize the drawbacks of their product or service and position their value effectively generate more sales than others who do not.

Drawing Prototype – Relates to an original design or a working model of something, that may or may not be often used in sales demonstrations.  It may also relate to some form of visual, graphic or drawing which lays out the detail of the approach that could be used. Oftentime, blueprints are also referred to as “models,” or “prototypes.”

Drawn Model Blueprint – A visual or drawing which lays out in detail the approach that will need to be used. Often, these blueprints are also referred to as “models,” or “prototypes.”

Drip Advertising – Refers to any advertising campaign that is released in small amounts over a given or prolonged period of time to ensure that the public is continually made aware of a product or service being promoted.  This kind of advertising is also used in politics in a lead up to a new election.  At times it is used after an election has been won or lost to keep issues in front of the publics eyes

Drive By – This is usually the term used when a salesperson tends to “drop in” on a lead or prospect or an existing client in person, and unannounced to pass on some information or to just check on something, or to simply say hello when passing by.            

Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Drivers – Those areas which, if known or made aware of by the prospect to the salesperson, that can then be used to position solutions to align with a decision maker’s most important criteria, or for the selection of products or services allied to what is currently being discussed or about to be bought.

Dropshipping / Drop Shipping – An implementation strategy where the retailer does not actually carry any inventory of the drop shipped product in the initial stages, but instead passes on the shipping address to either the manufacturer, or a distributor that actually ships the purchased items directly to the customer.

Dry Well Close – When the prospect demands more from the salesperson, they only need to say, “Sorry, but the well is dry, and I don’t have any more to give.” Then when you show them that there’s no more to give, the prospect cannot demand more from without inferring that you are lying.  That’s it.

Dryer White Goods – Refers mainly to large domestic electrical appliances, such as kitchen ranges, washing machines, dryers, freezers, fridges, etc.

Ducks In A Row – A term use for getting a group, team or an individual organised, by having everything in order and making sure all of the smallest details are accounted for before embarking on a new project.

Dutch Auction – A strange kind of auction which opens with a high asking price which is then lowered until someone accepts the auctioneers opening price, or until the sellers reserve price has been reached.

Duty Lock – A commercial situation in which a person feels they may not be able to, or cannot leave their job because they are afraid of losing benefits connected to the job.

Dynamic Listening – This is a term used to describe high level of listening capability together with appropriate methodology, in which the sales person actively seeks to understand how the speaker feels, and what their issues are.  That way the type of listening extends far beyond common inattentive listening.  Related to empathy and the need to be understood.

 

Sales Dictionary

Sales Dictionary entries in E

Go to . . . A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

Eager Expressive Style – The buyers who take an expressive approach to the selling process are usually want to be the centre of attention, can sometimes be manipulative, as well as friendly, animated, enthusiastic, excited, spontaneous, gracious, eager, talkative, energized, pleasant, self-promoting, passionate, sociable, independent, commanding and creative.             

Early Action Proactive Selling – This refers to those salespeople that tend to take action without being asked to, or take action before it is absolutely necessary.  These actions are considered to be proactive.  In most cases, proactive salespeople are the ones that commit to anticipating the key issues and suggest a possible solution or suggestion to what they consider to be blatantly obvious.

Early Adopter Close For those salespeople that are selling into a competitive market or industry, this sales closing approach works well for those buyers who are striving to gain a valuable edge. “Judith, let me put some facts on the table.  If you place an order with me now, you’ll be the first one to have done this within this industry group and that means you’ll have a big advantage over your competitors for a while – maybe as long as six to twelve months.”

Earned Sale – An attempted sale where there are multiple decision makers and influencers, who often have different requirements, applications and agendas. These types of complex sales typically take much longer than an average sale to organize before they are closed.

Earnings Quota – Sales quotas are the most useful adjuncts to planning, control and all forms of measurement and verification tools.  The sales quota (estimate) is not the same as a sales forecast (goal).  All quotas can take on many forms including dollar amounts, numbers of products or services sold, the number of sales made, the number of appointments made etc..  Every salesperson should work at developing a strategy of earning far more than the quota given to him or her by the company.

Easy Selling Style – This is an interesting selling style and although it is considered to be relatively easy selling, it can be one of the hardest to master.  For that reason, those in direct selling are usually paid on commission only and are usually among the highest paid in the selling industry.  This selling style is best suited to relatively simple sales environments where the prospect is more likely to give a simple yes or a simple no decision in a relatively short time.  Most direct selling is based on the need to solve single pressing problems, and mostly in a short-term setting, without the need to dig down too deeply.       

Easy-to-make-a-decision Close – Most prospects have more trouble making major decisions than minor ones.  In cases such as this the salesperson should propose a series of easy-to-make minor decisions, the total of which will add up to a major close.  This close and this one has worked well for so many salespeople.  Used well it puts pressure on the prospect to say no. And after agreeing with the sellers assumptions, saying no is usually more difficult.

eBay – Generally referred to as an online auction and shopping website, and is best known for its consumer-to-consumer sales. Many online merchants also use the eBay site as a dedicated sales channel.

eBay Listing Fees – Today’s established marketplaces and online auction sites, like eBay, may charge a nominal listing fee for posting products for sale on their site.

eBusiness – This term relates to someone using the internet to conduct business, or enable businesses to link together, or the term used to refer to conducting business via the internet.

eCommerce – This relates to the buying and selling of products and services over the Internet.  It also means the buying and selling products over electronic networks, including the Internet or mobile applications, and may additionally apply specifically to electronic transactions or more generally to the online retailing and online business.

eCommerce Logistics – The management of products and related services, or other resources as they travel between a point of origin and a destination. In ecommerce, and other forms of internet transactions, logistics might describe the process of transporting inventory to a merchant or the act of shipping orders to customers.

eCommerce Long Tail – The Long Tail is Chris Anderson’s idea that markets and marketplaces, especially online, are moving away from mainstream, broad-appeal products and toward niche products. In ecommerce, most new retailers may now find it easier and more cost effective to focus on niche products.

Economic Benefit – This is the financial value of a specific product or service and is tied closely to the term ROI, or Return on Investment.

Economic Buyer – The person who is responsible for making the decision to commit or not to commit funds to certain kinds of expenditure.

Economic Close – No matter what the situation the salesperson should focus on the overall economic situation experienced by the prospect by showing how the cost is less by considering certain factors associated with the economic situation being assessed – and also show how buying alternatives may have hidden costs, deals for the prospect that will cost less overall at the longer-term. “You can buy on your credit card, but having said that you should be aware that our financing system has lower interest rates”.

Economic Engineering – This refers to the practice of solving financial problems or the creation of financial opportunities in a company, by changing or forcing the change of the way money is borrowed, debts paid, etc.

Economic Equity – Relates to anyone who has a form of financial ownership of interest in a company, usually in the form of shares.

Economic Failure – This is when the individual, company or organization not having enough finances or assets available to pay all the debts.

Economic Firepower – This generally relates to the amount of power, or money, and/or influence that is available to be used by a business or business organization.

Economic Free Enterprise – An economic system or process in which private businesses and SME’s have the freedom to compete with each other for profit, and all with minimal interference from the government.

Economic Growth – A defined increase in a region’s or nation’s production of goods and services.

Economic Growth Cycle – A considered and recorded sequence of economic activities typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at times, decline. Salespeople who are attuned to company business cycles (either individually or corporately) are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced by their prospects, and then capitalise how their products and services can alleviate some of the conditions being experienced in the business cycle.

Economic Recession Cycle – A sequence of economic activities which are usually typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at other times, through decline. Salespeople who are attuned to a company’s business cycle are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced at the time and know how their products and services can alleviate some of the tougher conditions that may be experienced within the business cycle at any given time.

Economic ROI – This is the financial value of a specific product or service and is tied closely to the term ROI, or Return on Investment.

Economies Of Scale – Whenever something is being manufactured, the more units being made the cheaper each unit will cost to produce.

Economy – This relates to the management of money, currency and the trade of a nation, including the efficient management of available resources.

Economy Think Tank – This occurs when a  group or organization which may research and/or advise on issues relating to technology, economy, politics, selling processes and social strategy invites a group of like-minded people together to collectively think-through solutions to a variety of challenges and/or specific problems confronting and industry or selling-based team or organization.

E-Currency – This is the currency as used on the Internet for making and receiving payments. Companies which provide this service include Paypal and E-Gold.

Edit and Document Sharing – Used in video-conferencing.  This is a system which allows individuals or groups of people in different places to view and edit the same document at the same time on their computers.

Educate – The methodology used in selling to suggest and to shape a variety of solutions, and solicit feedback based on the ideas being discussed.

e-Enabled – A method of being able to communicate and/or conduct and maintain a business model using the internet.

Effective Function – When used to express the functionality of the product, service or solution, it refers to the way it is used by an individual or the way it needs to be operated effectively to be functional.  See Features, Functions and Benefits

Effective Project Management – Relates to the sciences and disciplines of planning, organizing, overseeing, managing and tracking projects within an organization. Project Management can be a simple or it can be a sophisticated process to help implement systematic change within an organization. “Farmer type” sales professionals who become proficient at effective project management can also be considered as valuable business allies by their prospects and customers/clients alike.

Effective Questioning – The questioning process within the early part of a presentation is possibly the most revered primary prep-selling tool used to explore and understand a prospects or customers situation at the time of the call. Effective questioning is considered to be among the highest level skill of the successful sales professional. Most questions can be described with multiple labels, each with different objectives. Some sample question labels may include: Strategic Questions, Big Picture Questions, High Value Questions, Clarification Questions, Act and Action Questions, etc.

Effective Sales Process Documented – The accepted way sales are conducted and made by professional salespeople. When done effectively, the sales process is the clearly defined and the acceptable and documented steps an organization takes to satisfy customer requirements are followed to the letter. Typically, the sales process is defined by Phases, Key Activities, Tools, and Observable Outcomes.

Effective Selling – A vital part of the primary selling methodology of a process known as effective selling.  It can also relate to a salesperson’s ability to investigate systematically, explore every possibility, and probe for wants, needs, problems, and opportunities that lay at the heart of effective selling.

Effective Selling and Positioning – This is generally referred to as more a marketing term than a sales term, although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers.  The term is usually related to some manner of targeting.  In other words, positioning refers to how a product or service or proposition is presented or described or marketed in relation to the market place, with a focused reference to customers, competition, image, pricing, quality, etc. Positioning basically refers to whether a proposition is being sold appropriately, namely in the right way, to the right people, at the right time, in the right place, and at the right price. A business can also fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically suggests that salespeople are unable to sell successfully – and in far too many cases this is untrue – as the salespeople were not adequately trained as to how best position the product or service to the prospect. There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills, and the product/service, but the venture fails because the positioning is wrong. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service. Effective selling is not only about quality and skills – its about suitability of targeting.

Effective Selling MindSet – The frame of mind of a salesperson or a sales manager may be in at a specific time in the selling process. Attitude is considered to be extremely key in the world of sales, as it drives compelling behavior. A salesperson’s ability to assess the attitude of the customer is equally key in the selling process, and being able to align with or address a wide range of customer attitudes is essential in effective selling

Effective Selling System – This refers to the divisions of a selling organization that when, looked at as a group, comprise of complementary components to define how the organization sells on an overall level.  They are also aware that when the selling system is functioning well, the sales organization is said to be highly productive and effective in achieving results that constantly exceed expectations and/or break sales records.

Effective Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Effective Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Effective Smarketing – Refers to the alignment of sales and marketing processes to make both teams stronger and more effective.

Effective Transactional Selling – A known selling methodology where the prospect already knows precisely what they want. The role of the salesperson is to simply help that prospect obtain what they want as efficiently and effectively as possible.

Effectiveness and Well-being – Over the years, this has developed into a significant term/s for the consideration of marketers concerning personal health and happiness in the workplace, with implications for performance, quality, organizational effectiveness and profitability. The idea of well-being, and specifically the promotion and strategic improvement of personal well-being in the workplace, is a major extension of many of the earlier principles and issues of individual stress levels and the need for viable stress management.

Effectiveness of the Sales Pipeline Principle – This is generally known as a linear equivalent of the Sales Funnel principle.  In both equations, prospects need to be fed into the pipeline in order to drop out of the other end as sales and buyers. The length of the pipeline is the sales cycle time, which depends on business type, market situation, and the effectiveness of the sales process.

Efficiency Just-In-Time (JIT) – A term often used to denote the availability of goods and services when needed by the buyer or as to be able to be provided by the supplier. Organizations who operate using just-in-time principles are typically very analytical in their ability to predict needs, in order to not overstock, yet ensure sufficient product exists in inventory to produce or deliver on customer requirements.  Alternately it may be a manufacturing system in which materials and components are delivered immediately before they are required, in order to increase efficiency, reduce waste and minimise storage costs.

Efficiency Open Plan Selling Strategies – This proposition is strongly linked to the achievement of strategic business aims – typically and including improvements in costs, revenues, margins, overheads, profit, quality, efficiency, time-saving and competitive strengths areas. There is a strong reliance on seller having excellent strategic understanding of prospect organization and aims, market sector situation and trends, and access to strategic decision-makers and influencers.

Efficient Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Efficient Sales Productivity – This is the science and study of being efficient and effective in producing sales results. Also refers to the use of tools and methods to produce more – faster, cheaper, and better.

Effort and Smarketing – This term is usually used to refer to the practice of aligning a variety of Sales and Marketing efforts.  In a perfect world, marketing would pass off lots of fully qualified leads to the sales team, who would then subsequently work every one of those leads enough times to close them anywhere from 50% to 100% of the time.  This isn’t always how it works, simply because it’s a key for Marketing and Sales to align their efforts to impact the bottom line the best they can through coordination through communication.

Ego Close – Be nice to your prospects by telling them how wonderful they are. Be genuinely amazed and impressed by them.  Show them how impressed you are and make them out to be the experts so they sell to themselves.  Tell them how good they look or sound, how others will be impressed by them, had how impressed you are with them as a person and admire their integrity.

Either Or Close – The way this closing style works is to basically offer the prospect a simple choice between two options, that will either move them to a commitment or alternately will flush out at least some of the reasons why the buyer is not ready to commit at that point.  “Jennifer, would your preference here be the one in the red cobalt or the green one?

E-Lance – Freelance working using the Internet to sell a variety of services or goods anywhere in the world.

Elasticity Of Demand – The measure that the general public needs to ascertain whether people require more or less of a product or service after a price change.

Electrical Appliance White Goods – Refers mainly to large domestic electrical appliances, such as kitchen ranges, washing machines, dryers, freezers, fridges, etc.

Electronic Business – This term relates to someone using the internet to conduct business, or enable businesses to link together, or the term used to refer to conducting business via the internet.

Electronic Commerce – This relates to the buying and selling of products and services over the Internet.

Electronic Currency -The currency as used on the Internet for making and receiving payments. Companies which provide this service include Paypal and E-Gold.

Elevator Speech – An elevator speech, or elevator pitch, is a brief (less than 30 second) explanation you give to someone you just met.  It is also known as a form of sales slang for short, 30 second overview of who your company is, what it does, and what you do with the intent of gaining an individual’s interest to learn more and seek further discussion.

Elimination Close – This is a closing style where the seller is able to eliminate one thing at a time until down to three or four possibilities, and the seller could ask the prospect to prioritise which of the remaining is the greatest concern to him/her.  “I can see I’ve not explained this properly – can we take a moment to go through all the benefits and see which one is holding us back from proceeding?”

ELMO – An acronym that simply stands for – Enough, Let’s Move On!

Elsewhere Close-itis – This usually refers to a common salesperson syndrome, mainly recognizable by an overwhelming desire to do or say something, in fact say anything to a superior, or sales manager, that the prospect (or existing client) does mean to buy something, although it may not be happening at this point in time.  Most superiors and managers will also suggest that the salespersons time could be better spent looking elsewhere for the business.

Email Checking and NSA’s – This generally relates to any actions that are not directly related to “sales-related-activities” (and usually may exclude prospecting, setting appointments, demonstrations, closing the sale etc). NSA examples may include “surfing the web,” and including “obsessive email/voicemail checking.”

e-mail Direct Marketing – This is when the marketing of products, services, etc., is done directly to strategic individual potential customers by sending them catalogues, leaflets, brochures, etc., by mail (including e-mail), or calling them on the telephone or flushing them out and then calling on them door-to-door.  It is also known to be a form of retailing where a producer/manufacturer, importer, or distributor markets directly to an end consumer without the use of a retailer.

email Marketing Direct Response – These are some of the ways of utilizing direct response marketing via advertising, mailers, letter box drops, emails, postcards, etc. to solicit interest from prospects and to receive responses (leads) that can be worked.

email Networking – The process of developing and maintaining alliances both externally and internally within a group or a wide variety of contacts that may be able to provide or retrieve additional information, insight, help, and access to others.  Also refers to an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on a number of referrals and introductions that help build a larger data base – either via a face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc.

email Viral Marketing – This is sometimes also known as Word Of Mouth Viral Marketing, and relates to an advertising and/or marketing technique which encourages people to pass on information about a product, etc., often by e-mail or from one Internet website to another like internet website.

Embarrassment Close – If they do not buy at a particular price they could be embarrassed.  The seller works at dissuading them from buying cheap options by pointing out that they are cheap, low quality, etc. and that the higher priced options are much better value for little more outlay. “This is the cheapest option we have available. This one, however, is much better value for just a little more.”

Embezzlement – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Embezzlement and White Collar Crime – Can refer to any number of illegal acts including fraud, embezzlement, bribery, etc., that are committed by a worker, business partner or director in a business or administrative function.

Emergency Lifeboat – This is an emergency business loan offered to an individual, or company, or bank which is considered to be in financial trouble.

Emolument – Total wages paid, actual benefits or compensation renumerrated to someone for the job they do or the office they hold.

Emotion Appeal Close – Here the seller deliberately plays to the prospects emotions, methodically evoking and expounding specifically targeted emotions.  “If you took this unique item home now, how would you feel later?”

Emotional Capital – Exampling the emotional experiences, or the values and beliefs of a company’s employees that make good working relationships and help a business be successful. It also refers to low emotional capital that can result in some form of conflict between employees, or low morale and/or poor customer relations.

Emotional Close – This closing technique uses impulse and emotion selling techniques to first target the prospects emotions and then finalise the sale by closing with logic.

Emotional High Level Listening – High level listening is a process that is used by the salesperson when certain phrases are used by the prospect and then responded to by the seller.  The secret to this process is to listen and respond with real and personal emotion.  In other words, high level listeners make non-judgmental associations with others, and then offer acceptance through validation plus empathetic support.  In short, it is listening that does not pre-judge.

Emotional Quotient (EQ) – EQ refers to one’s ability to assess and monitor certain emotions and behavior, and to interact effectively with others.  In the area of sales, the capacity of a salesperson to direct emotional energy effectively can lead to an overall improvement in sales.

Emotional Sale – A Prospect that for a variety of reasons is emotionally “wanting” your product or service. Your Prospect is excited and interested.

Emotive Close – This is a closing style that adapts to a variety of product types and services.  “It’s OK if you don’t want my pest control prevention services, I have three other clients to see today in this suburb, and they’ve been using my services for the past few years now.”

Empathy – This is the ability to communicate and understand someone else’s feelings in a certain situation by being able to align with a customer with a high level of empathy, or a sales professional that communicates high levels of understanding and builds trust in the relationship.  It is also the ability to feel and show empathy is central to modern selling methods.

Empathy and Puestioning – Normally referred to as the second stage of the sales call, typically after the opening or introduction in the Seven Steps of the Sale, but also vital to modern selling methods when used with collaborative or facilitative selling.  A crucial selling skill, yet rarely well demonstrated. The correct timing and use of the key different types of questions are central to the processes of gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and empathy. This manner of predetermined questioning also requires that the salesperson has good listening, interpretation and empathic capabilities.

Empathy Close –  Works by the seller matching to the prospect then, when it is time to close, the prospect will naturally associate with the seller.  If the seller does what’s required they will close at the exactly the right moment.  If executed well this close encourages the client to come back again and again.

Empathy Question Close –  This is a closing style that simply asks the prospect directly what they feel.  This close takes it one step further because prospect genuinely love to share their experiences with others.  “John, your company has stopped doing business with some of the suppliers in this field.  Could you tell me what went wrong with these relationships in your opinion?”

Employee – An individual who is hired for a given purpose and paid by another person, company, organisation, etc., to perform a specified job or service.

Employee Capital – Refers primarily to the skills and knowledge of a company’s employees, which can be used to make the company more successful than its competitors.

Employee Fixed Term Contract – This refers to a contract of employment which ends on a specific date, or on completion of a task or project that ends on a specific date.  Fixed term employees have the rights to the same pay, conditions and benefits as full-time employees.

Employee Methodology Coaching – A business or sales coaching methodology where a manager meets one-on-one with an employee on a periodic basis to review performance and to coach and discuss areas of mutual interest. This process, when implemented effectively, can significantly enhance the quality of the relationship between the manager and an individual employee.

Employee Ownership – An unusual business model and constitutional framework in which staff hold significant or majority shares of a company.  For this reason they are able to ensure higher levels of loyalty and commitment, and fairness in the way that business performance relates to employee reward.

Employee Self Service – An Internet based programme or process system that enables an employee to access their personal records and payroll details, so they can change their own bank account details, contact details, etc.

Employee X-Inefficiency – This occurs when a small business or larger company is not using its employees, machinery, resources, etc., effectively.  The reason for this is often because of lack of competition.

Employees as Primary Influences – These generally relate to the overall direct and indirect primary influences on any company, in business at any point in time, and may include Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Sales Personnel, Distributors, Agents, Banks, Lenders, Vendors, Other Institutions, Stock-holders, etc.

Employer – A person, business or organisation, etc., that specifically pays for the services of the workers and others it employs.

Employess Internal Equity – A modern concept where within a company or organisation, ensures the pay each employee receives is determined fairly by the type of job they do.

Employment Equity – A system that promotes equal employment opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender, race, ability, etc.

Employment Headhunt – A person who sets out to find a person who is specialised in a particular job, usually for a senior position in a company, and then persuade them to leave their present employment for a fee to the prospective employer they are endeavouring to place them in.

Employment Human Resources (HR) – These are the people who are employed by an operator, a business or organization to be a part of a department within a company which deals with recruitment, training, employee benefit, and so on.

Employment Lock – A commercial situation in which a person feels they may not be able to, or cannot leave their job because they are afraid of losing benefits connected to the job.

Employment Term Contract – This refers to a contract of employment which ends on a specific date, or on completion of a task or project that ends on a specific date.  Fixed term employees have the rights to the same pay, conditions and benefits as full-time employees.

Empty Offer Close – The seller makes them a very kind offer that they cannot take up, then do something using a thing for sale, and which they might not have, then sell them that thing.  If they do have one, complete your offer with grace – it will still help build social capital for you.  “Will you need help setting up the computer? Our IT people can do that.”

Encompassing Consultative Selling Ideology – This implies that the salesperson is taking on the responsibility for a full, thorough, and all encompassing professional diagnosis of the challenge before them in order to suggest a solution – with no preconception as to the outcome.

Encounter Others to Believe – According to sales expert Anthony Parinello the art of sales is based on proactively understanding the needs and problems of others by using the art of honest persuasion to highlight possible solutions to those problems and to encounter others to believe in what the seller says and to invest their money and time in what the seller proposes – mildly paraphrased.

Encountered Obstacles – These are the issues that generally surface during the sales presentation that could keep the salesperson or selling organization from winning the business. These may cover a wide range of possibilities based on the obstacles being faced or encountered, and may include all manner of financial obstacles, implementation obstacles, existing methods of known obstacles being used, etc.

Encourage – This is one of a sales coach’s most important skills, and should always be used to highlight and anchor positive performance. The best coaches are genuine and absolute masters in the use of this skill with their sales teams and support staff.

Encouraging Questions – These are primarily thought provoking questions that are generally used at the end of an opening statement.  These types of questions will get the prospect thinking about what the salesperson has said, and encourages the prospect to make a comment and/or ask more questions.  Questions of this nature are not only those that would encourage the prospect to share their ideas, beliefs, opinions, and views on a subject, and once shared it allows the salesperson to take the situation into any direction of interest to the prospect and in turn can generate more thought provoking questions.             

Encrypt – The ability to convert data into a code form which cannot (and should not) be easily understood by people who have no authorisation to view it.

End Consumer – An individual or group or business house who buys and/or uses a product or service.

End Consumer Retailers – Companies, businesses and/or individuals that generally sell goods from a physical location, either a shop or warehouse, but now more increasingly over the internet, sell products and/or services directly to end consumers and collect sales tax, or goods and services tax (when and where applicable) on those transactions. Some direct sales companies and other organizations might also fit in this category. Since retailers buy at wholesale or in other ways, and sell at retail, is what makes them “retailers”.

End Consumer Strategic Plan – This is usually the approach the individual, team or company will use to market and sell products, services and solutions to a buyer market whether it be to the end consumer, direct sales, retailers, wholesales, distributors or the internet.

End Result Sales Process – This incorporates a series of steps to bring about a desired end result. In sales, the process refers to the clearly defined steps that an organization or a salesperson takes the time or trouble to initiate and secure certain business processes to satisfy all manner of customer requirements.

End Result Visualization – This is the ability to present a clear mental picture of the end result so that the prospect or customer can clearly  “see” the benefit or value of the product or solution on offer.

End User Market Distribution – Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditised mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electricals, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the internet.

End User Product – This generally refers to a physical item being supplied to end users, but can also mean or include services and other intangibles, in which case a product is used to mean the whole package being supplied.

Endeavour Enterprise – A company or business or a business project that is generally one which is sometimes difficult and/or risky to get right.

Ending Questions – These are primarily thought provoking questions that are generally used at the end of an opening statement.  These types of questions will get the prospect thinking about what the salesperson has said, and encourages the prospect to make a comment and/or ask more questions.  Questions of this nature are not only those that would encourage the prospect to share their ideas, beliefs, opinions, and views on a subject, and once shared it allows the salesperson to take the situation into any direction of interest to the prospect and in turn can generate more thought provoking questions.             

Endless Stream of Objections Sealed-Off – A technique used to pre-prepare the prospect from voicing too many objections and generally brought out to minimise any additional objections.  This process can also be used to prevent an endless stream of objections and may be used to bring the prospect to a point of decision (close)

End-of-line Liquidator – An individual, small business or company that purchases end-of line, short-run and closeout products for the purpose of resale.

End-of-Line Rem – A commonly used slang word for remainder or remnant in any business which deals with end-of-line, left-over, or otherwise non-standard-stock items, that which, typically are handled and disposed at attractive terms to minimise waste and write-offs.

End-User Selling – This is simply the selling undertaken by the salesperson of a product or service directly to the individual, company or corporation.                   

Energized Passion – Those salespeople who are known to have passion are the ones that are said to have boundless enthusiasm for what they do and for helping their customer succeed. When passion, properly channeled, it can be a powerful selling behavior, as the sellers customers can also feel it and are also usually energized by it.

Energy and Customer – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Engage – This is the process of winning over, attracting, and highly involving the end consumer (or customer).  In many of the more consultative roles, it can also mean the process of being secured to perform a pre-defined task or service.

Engineers and Product Knowledge – To most people this refers to the amount of knowledge, information and direct experience the salesperson has in order to offer a product to potential customer – or existing client.  Here product knowledge is used in a general way and the salesperson in the main is not a sales engineer, but a sales representative.  The rule of thumb most to selling organizations work on is that a salespersons knowledge should be around 20% of a sales engineer, and that around 80% of the sale is based on enthusiasm and determination.

Enhanced What’s In It For Me? (WIIFM) – Salespeople are always reminded to take time out to reflect on the WIIFM for the prospect / customer.  And by seeing things through the eyes of the prospect / customer, and how the product, service or solution enhances the prospect or customer personally or professionally.

Enterprise – A company or business or a business project that is generally one which is sometimes difficult and/or risky to get right.

Enterprise Working Capital – Also known as Net Current Assets Capital. This refers to the amount of funds which are made available to an individual, an enterprise or a company for its everyday running costs, such as wages, overheads, rent, etc.

Enterprise-to-Enterprise Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and IT sectors).

Enthusiasm and Passion – Those salespeople who are known to have passion are the ones that are said to have boundless enthusiasm for what they do and for helping their customer succeed. When passion, properly channeled, it can be a powerful selling behavior, as the sellers customers can also feel it and are also usually energized by it.

Enthusiasm and Product Knowledge – To most people this refers to the amount of knowledge, information and direct experience the salesperson has in order to offer a product to potential customer – or existing client.  Here product knowledge is used in a general way and the salesperson in the main is not a sales engineer, but a sales representative.  The rule of thumb most to selling organizations work on is that a salespersons knowledge should be around 20% of a sales engineer, and that around 80% of the sale is based on enthusiasm and determination.

Enthusiastic Expressive Style – The buyers who take an expressive approach to the selling process are usually want to be the centre of attention, can sometimes be manipulative, as well as friendly, animated, enthusiastic, excited, spontaneous, gracious, eager, talkative, energized, pleasant, self-promoting, passionate, sociable, independent, commanding and creative.             

Enticement – Whenever this is used in sales compensation, it grnerally refers to a type of incentive payment, typically awarded when the salesperson or sales team achieves pre-determined financial objectives.

Enticement Close – It is so easy to dismiss an inducement as being wrong, bad or dangerous, and in many circumstances it can be viewed that way – some states even have restrictive laws governing its use. Yet it is surprisingly common in sales and often necessary as many prospects expect to be offered an incentive.  “So you like the look of this unit … mmm … OK then, I’ll leave it behind as a gift to you.” “Sure we can provide you with a dinner for two at your favourite restaurant, but I can only do that if you take the larger quantity option.”

Enticement Mix – When applied to sales compensation, it refers to the mix of salary and incentive that is considered necessary in making a job appealing to attract a qualified set of candidates for the sales position.

Entitlement Win Rate – This is the rate at which a salesperson or sales organization “wins” new business, “wins” back old customers, or “wins” more sales than originally budgeted for.  Often, this is expressed as a percentage of the overall proposals submitted vs. the percentage of sales closed.

Entrepreneur – A highly ambitious individual who starts new business ventures in order to make a lot of money, and is a person who often takes financial risks.

Entrepreneur – Also known as a mogul or tycoon. In other words, a very rich, powerful business person.

Entrusted Salesperson – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Entry Point – It is an accepted fact that the more experienced salespeople generally ascertain where they believe to be the most logical place, or point in time, to begin a relationship with a customer. Often, this point presents the least difficult entry point or it becomes a place where there is a clear differentiated value that can be worked for mutual benefit. Moreover, this now newly exposed entry point can be the springboard for deeper access to the individual or business being worked on.

Environmental B2B Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufactuerers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecomms and IT sectors).

Environmental Sales Cycle – Every product or service has a cycle where things become obsolete, stop working or simply don’t look good any more, or just “don’t stack up” in the current environment.  Knowing these cycles provides individual sellers and sales organizations a distinct sales advantage.

EQ (Emotional Quotient) – EQ refers to one’s ability to assess and monitor certain emotions and behaviour, and to interact effectively with others.  In the area of sales, the capacity of a salesperson to direct emotional energy effectively can lead to an overall improvement in sales.

Equal Employment Equity – A system that promotes equal employment opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender, race, ability, etc.

Equal Opportunity Territory Design – This is the process applied that primarily sales managers engage in to allocate territories in order to ensure potential exists, and to balance the opportunities among their sales team members. This is mostly done build a sense of equal opportunity within the sales force.

Equilibrium Price – This relates to the price at which the demand of a particular product or service is equal to the quantity being supplied.

Equipment First Mover – An individual, a business, an organization or a charity that obtains an advantage by being the first (first mover) to establish a specific market or by establishing  itself in a specific market by producing a new product or offering a new service, or by being the first to use new technology.

Equipment Fixed Assets – Fixed Assets, such as property, equipment, furniture, vehicles, etc., which are owned by a company and which are also needed to operate the business or service conducted by the company or individual.

Error and Misunderstanding – An attitude communicated by a prospect or customer about something that is generally believed to be true, when in effect, it is not true. The salesperson’s objective, therefore, is to simply clear up the misunderstanding.

Error Tolerance – A process that enables any system, especially one in computing, to continue to operate effectively even though a component in the system may have failed.

Escape Clause – A condition within a contract that allows the contract to be broken in particular circumstances.

Essential Goods Price Control – Refers to maximum and minimum price limitations, and is trotted out often during periods of inflation, during which a government may be forced to promote a variety of alternative but essential goods and/or services.

Essential Income – This refers to the amount of income a person is left with after taxes and basic essentials, such as food, housing, etc., have been deducted.

Essential MindSet – The frame of mind of a salesperson or a sales manager may be in at a specific time in the selling process. Attitude is considered to be extremely key in the world of sales, as it drives compelling behavior. A salesperson’s ability to assess the attitude of the customer is equally key in the selling process, and being able to align with or address a wide range of customer attitudes is essential in effective selling

Essential Negotiation Hierarchy – The level of execution that may have to be touched to gain a favorable decision on a product or service. This may vary significantly fro customer to customer, yet it is an essential component of coming to an agreement in more involved sales a good proportion of the time.

Essential Sales Plan – Refers to a written document that ideally should incorporate related key goals and strategies that a salesperson should review regularly in the presence of a sales manager.  For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Essential Selling Skills – This is one of the most important and/or considered to be the key selling skill.  In selling, without the salesperson being able to exhibit listening skills the process of sales questioning becomes pointless. The two work hand in glove and are both essential skills to be mastered by the salesperson.

Essentials in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Abraham Maslow is the inventor of the “needs pyramid” that suggests that all human beings will always satisfy their needs from a triangle format that resembles a pyramid, with their primary needs being satisfied at the widest point, signifying the base.  The needs factor both reduces as it moves upwards from that point.  In Maslow’s theory, if a lower level need is not satisfied, people will continue to focus on that need before they address a higher one.  At the first level are the essentials (food, shelter) and these are automatic and not negotiable, and most of the selling is done by supermarkets, department stores and food outlets. Selling at the second level is still basic, but now encompasses a new take-it-or-leave-it level that centers around security.  Alarm system sales can satisfy these needs.  The third level centres around social needs and are catered for by clubs, restaurants and specialist groups like golf clubs etc.  The fourth level caters for status needs like luxury cars, nice homes etc.. And at the top level, where the width is the narrowest and the demand the most costly, self-actualization such as self-help products and the more exclusive and costly products such as unique travel, high-end jewelry and exclusive and very costly services.

Established First Mover – An individual, a business, an organization or a charity that obtains an advantage by being the first (first mover) to establish a specific market or by establishing  itself in a specific market by producing a new product or offering a new service, or by being the first to use new technology.

Established Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Established Relationship Close – If you have an established and working relationship with an existing customer and the customer respects your judgment, jot down any products of affiliated services being considered onto an order form as you are discussing their needs. When the salesperson feels the timing is right, simply put an X adjacent to the signature line, hand it to the customer with a pen on top, and say, “Sign here,” and say nothing more.

Estimate Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Estimate Quotas – Sales quotas are the most useful adjuncts to planning, control and all forms of measurement and verification tools.  The sales quota (estimate) is not the same as a sales forecast (goal).  All quotas can take on many forms including dollar amounts, numbers of products or services sold, the number of sales made, the number of appointments made etc..  Every salesperson should work at developing a strategy of earning far more than the quota given to him or her by the company.

Estimated Sales Anticipated Forecasts – These kind of sales anticipated forecasts are future sales predictions based on activities and results from nominated past sales periods. They are predictions made by a sales organization of prospective sales that are in the sales pipeline, their associated revenue vales and the period of time in which they will convert to and order being placed.

Ethical Open Plan Selling – Open Plan Selling is also underpinned by strong ethical principles, notably honesty and the premise that persuasion and influence are unhelpful, and in this respect the methodology relates somewhat to modern ideas of facilitating and helping.

Ethics/Ethical Selling/Ethical Business – this would not have appeared in a selling glossary, simply because the line between right and wrong is wide. Honesty, morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in the majority of effective selling methods. Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but these days they carry far greater risks. Consumers are wiser, better informed, authorities and courts are less tolerant and more senstitive to transgressions. Today, poor ethics guarantee personal and/or business failure.

Ethnic Monitoring – This relates to the recording and the evaluating the racial origins of employees in a company to ensure that all races are represented fairly.

Euphemism – The replacement of a strong or offensive word or phrase with a carefully chosen alternative word or phrase considered to be milder or less inoffensive. Euphemisms are used widely and very wrongly by politicians and business people attempting to avoid responsibility and personal acknowledgment of mistakes, bad decisions and unjustifiable actions, etc. Euphemisms in such situations are part of ‘spin’ story process, or the spinning a story.

Evaluate and Sales Process Steps – Those involved in formal sales training will be quick to tell you of the well-understood, generic steps (initiation, qualify, evaluate, develop, propose, contract, win, close) as they are identified for the purpose of selling, from initiation to close. As a process, it is measurable and improvable.

Evaluating and Test Marketing – In a marketing sense, this usually relates to a product or service which is usually tested in a particular area of the country before it is launched nationally.  In fact, it relates to a process of evaluating the appeal of a product or service generally by selecting cities, prospects, existing customers and locations in which to introduce the product or service, and monitor its receptivity by those intended users.

Evaluating Needs Analysis – This is the process of formally evaluating a customer’s wants, needs and any other requirements. Here the methodology followed can be light where one person provides the majority of insight or it can be quite complex, where significant research, survey work, and multiple evaluation methods are or need to be used. Needs Analysis is one of the most key competencies of strong salespeople, as their ability to surface, frame, and get at the essence of the customer’s problems, requirements, or issues sets the stage to build momentum for the sale.

Evaluation and Sales Methodology – Refers to the “how” of the art of selling as a skill set.  The majority of sales methodology aligns to the customer buying decision process and the orientation, objectives, analysis, discussion, initiation, evaluation and decision processes and applicable methodologies.

Evaluation Close – An easy close to work.  The salesperson allows the prospect who is evaluating a certain product a few privileges that they would normally not otherwise get.  “How about I leave it with you now and come back at the end of the week, that way you could try it for free, would that be OK with you?”

Evaluation Mystery Shopper – A technique used by a variety of organizations to pose as a legitimate customer in order to grade service providers on the experience they provide. In other words, a person hired by market research companies or manufacturers, etc., to visit or telephone shops or service providers anonymously in order to assess the quality of goods, helpfulness of staff, layout of premises, etc.  For some industries, namely retail, these evaluations, conducted by independent organizations, provide a close approximation of the true customer experience, and can be used to fine tune training methods for the front-line staff.

Evaluation Raise-the-Bar – A common term used in many sales organizations to refer to the process of elevating the overall performance of an individual salesperson or a sales team.  Raising- the-bar is always a primary objective of all sales management.

Event Probability – Refers to the likelihood that a given event will occur at some time in the near future. In defining a sales pipeline, historic probability is generally the number that will convey the likelihood that a specific sale will occur in a certain way.  Probability is typically expressed as a percentage between 10% and 100%.

Event Sales Catalyst – In sales organizations, this term refers to a salesperson or sales manager who is capable of stimulating positive and creative change, and who is one who causes a process or event to happen through both direct and indirect efforts.

Events Plan Document – In sales compensation plans, the formal document that outlines the objectives and elements of a selling organization’s compensation strategy is generally referred to as a plan document.  This document communicates the strategy of the company, and the rewards – both financial and non-financial – that will generally be paid when goals are met. This document also describes targets and compensable events and key details about compensation and administration of the payments.

Eventual Pricing – The process used to evaluate the eventual price of a product by taking into account the cost of production, the price it was purchased by the seller at that point, the price of similar competing products, the market situation, and the affordability factor of the buyers at that point and the exclusivity of those goods or services in the available and determined marketplace.

Everyone gets to Win – Describes a situation, understanding or arrangement in which all parties benefit or profit.  It also describes a situation where all parties involved in a formal selling process meet their primary objectives and all become winners negotiation.

Evidence of Social Proof – This is the real world evidence that a salespersons solution for a certain individual or business challenge works.  This evidence may take the part of a testimonial or other similar kinds of proof, however, the best proof is still the amount of sales made at the lowest conversion rate.  And the more sales made, the better the social.

Ex Stock – These are any goods which are available for immediate delivery because the supplier has them in stock or is overstocked.

Ex Works – These are any goods which may be delivered to the purchaser at the plant or place where they are manufactured. The purchaser then pays for transporting and insuring the goods from that point.

Exact SMART Goal – A mnemonic used to describe the components of a well-defined and realistic goal statement.  It stands for a goal needing to be Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, and Time bound.

Exacting and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Examination of Sales Process Engineering – This refers to the extent an organization takes to examine its selling practices and then uses this information to transform them to new behaviors, approaches, and strategies.

Examined Problem Analysis – This refers to the process of examining the symptoms, conditions, and possible causes of a problem in order to define any or all of the alternatives for possible resolution. Problem analysis is a critical skill superior salespeople constantly study and implement as needed on behalf of their prospects and clients.

Example Product Purchase Cycle – This refers to the time frame used to measure a market based consumer or customer’s ordering habits.  As a marketing cycle example: “Our product purchase cycle for our customers in one year is 4.5 orders.”

Exampled Pro-Forma – This refers to the process of preparing a hypothetical income statement for customers, generally based on a given set of assumptions. As an example, a sales professional may need to prepare a pro-forma of revenues anticipated based on the result of a solution being accepted, and when compared to the costs being incurred.

Excellence and Sales Effectiveness – Sales effectiveness is the ability for a sales organizations to “win over” the prospect at each stage of the customer’s cycle, thereby winning the business and improving sales results.  It is also the term used to cover the broad range of activities a sales organization uses in order to improve the productivity and the results of its sales teams. Sometimes the words “Sales Excellence” are used as synonyms to further explain sales effectiveness.

Excellence and Sales Effectiveness Process – Refers to a variety of systems, activities, processes and information that support and promote knowledge-based sales interactions with clients and prospects. The responsibility of this kind of limited sales enablement is typically co-owned by the sales organization and a variety of other parts of the organization, including marketing, product development, human resources and others.

Exchange – The process of the exchanging one item or commodity for another item or commodity. Bartering usually involves going back and forth or “haggling” to reach mutual agreement.

Exchange and Trade-off – In all forms of sales negotiation, an exchange of something for something else of lesser known or lesser quality is known as a trade-off. Typically, it involves giving up one benefit for another that may be considered equal to or more desirable among various alternatives at the time.

Exchange Negotiation/Negotiating – Negotiation and Negotiating are terms that depict the trading of all manner of concessions that may include price reductions, primarily between supplier and customer, in an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and customer alike. Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years, although generally it’s down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of correspondence or other documentation. Ideally, from the seller’s point of view, negotiation must only commence when the sale has been agreed in principle, and conditionally upon satisfactory negotiation. However most sales people fall into the trap set by most buyers (whether intentionally or otherwise) of starting to negotiate before the selling process have even been formally commenced.

Exchange Principle Close – Once applied, and you are sure of the fact that you made a point to appreciate heir integrity, you will find it easier to ask for the sale.  It is also important that you compliment them on the previous good decisions they have shared with you.

Excited Expressive Style – The buyers who take an expressive approach to the selling process are usually want to be the centre of attention, can sometimes be manipulative, as well as friendly, animated, enthusiastic, excited, spontaneous, gracious, eager, talkative, energized, pleasant, self-promoting, passionate, sociable, independent, commanding and creative.             

Exciting – An extremely positive characteristic directed to salespeople who are able to influence the customer to take strong action, with conviction. Inspiring salespeople arouse a high level of interest, motivate the customer to move forward, and stimulate ideas in a positive direction.

Excluded Fixtures – The items that are presumed to stay with the property after the property is sold, and have been specified on the contract as not remaining. Fixed items such as curtains, light fittings, ceiling fans, shrubs, built in cabinets, and so on.

Exclusive Inventory Patent – A form of protection for some or all manner of intellectual property, that may include the granting of the inventory exclusive right to manufacture, use, market or sell an invention for a certain number of years.

Exclusive Package Sale – The process of selling multiple items at the one presentation or product demonstration.  Moreover, in a selling context this is another term for a product offer where the whole product and service offering is at a given price, and is based upon given terms (which may be inflexible and/or exclusive to the product being sold).

Exclusivity – This occurs when a manufacturer, distributor, sales representative or other supplier that enter into any kind of agreements that limits the number of retailers or other suppliers that are entitled to carry a certain product, or product line, within a specified geographic area or types/kind of stores.

Exclusivity Close – Here the salesperson needs to explain to the prospect how not everybody is able to buy this item and that some form of ‘qualification’ would be needed.  However if they do not meet the criteria required to get the special price, the salesperson could quietly ‘let them’ buy at the special price as a special favour to them.  This discount is really for local residents only. Let me ask you, do you live in locally? So where do you normally shop?”

Exclusivity Leverage – Mostly referred to an action a particular salesperson may take to strategically position one or more of the exclusive advantages of a product or service. If the suggested product benefit is perceived positively, the salesperson “leverages” that benefit in order to build momentum for the sale to be made.

Exclusivity Lockout – The best way to describe this concept approach within the selling arena is that many of the professional salespeople would avoid using it.  Having said that, it’s an interesting idea.  At times there are products or services that may be exclusive to a company, or hard to get at a certain time of the year for whatever reason.  At times like this the seller may be in a position to offer the prospect a product that no-one else is able to at that time.  This is made more powerful if the salesperson is able to confirm the exclusivity in writing from the an executive of the company.  Because no-one else can provide that product or service at the time, it is considered to be and is aptly named a “lockout.”  It’s a simple process.  Highlight what you have that no-one else can provide and you effectively “lockout” every other supplier the day you make the call.

Exclusivity Pricing – The process used to evaluate the eventual price of a product by taking into account the cost of production, the price it was purchased by the seller at that point, the price of similar competing products, the market situation, and the affordability factor of the buyers at that point and the exclusivity of those goods or services in the available and determined marketplace.

Execution Plan – The set of steps outlining how the solution agreed to by the prospect or customer will be implemented. Implementation plans need to include What, Who, and By When elements.

Executive Directives – At an official level, directives are instructions, guidelines or orders issued by a specific governing or regulatory body. They may relate to a form of law. In a less formal way, most directives equate to an instruction issued by an executive or manager or organizational department head.

Executive Director – This relates to a person who usually works as a full-time senior executive for a company, and is responsible for the day to day running of the business, and is often a member of the company’s board of directors.

Executive Internal Coach – Two words that typically refer to someone in the organization who is your internal coach, supporting your solution. This may also refer to the customer executive who is the primary advocate for the project or solution you are attempting to sell, e.g. Executive Sponsor.

Executive Linchpin – The most senior person or key person or specific thing the influences the direction of a business or organisation.

Executive PA (Personal Assistant) – A person who works for one person, often an executive in an organisation, and generally performs secretarial and administrative duties.

Executive Perquisite Benefit – Relates to a benefit tied to a specific job, e.g. a company car, expense accounts, etc.

Executive Sales Manager – This is usually the executive or individual responsible for training and/or motivating and managing individual salespeople while accounting and being responsible for tracking the results of a sales team.

Executive Sponsor – Mostly refers to someone in the organisation who is an internal coach, supporting solutions. This may also refer to the customer executive who is the primary advocate for the project or solution the sponsor is attempting to sell.

Executive Sponsor – Refers to someone in the organization who is an internal coach, supporting a financial solution to those being sponsored. This may also refer to the customer executive sponsor who is the primary advocate for the project or solution you are attempting to sell.

Executive Summary – Something that is often considered the first page or first several pages in a major proposal that summarizes the key issues, solutions and the value a customer will receive by implementing the recommendation. The executive summary is a document targeted to senior executives who may want to receive a high-level overview of the proposed solution prior to reading the complete recommendation and its rationale.

Exhibition Trade Show – Refers to an exhibition purposely created so that manufacturers and distributors may show or demonstrate new products or services to prospective buyers.

Exhibitor Wholesale Trade Shows – There bare generally larger to massive sized temporary marketplaces, that can offer hundreds or at times thousands of exhibitor booths by manufacturers, producers, representatives, importers, and distributors. Only buyers from that trade or industry (e.g. retailers and distributors) are the one that may register as an attendee and obtain pass access.

Existing Accounts in the Hunter/Farmer Model – In today’s modern selling there are clearly defined roles for salespeople. These days two differing roles have emerged and are termed as either “hunter” salespeople, or “farmer” salespeople.  The “hunter” is the one that that generates new customers or new business or is able to support and upgrade existing clients whereas, on the other hand, the “farmer” is the one that works cultivating and farming existing accounts that do not need to be upgraded.  The reason for the differential between the two is that all businesses need a healthy mix of market share among their clients, and the “hunter” and “farmer” concept proves to be an ideal mix.  Many sales companies expect their salespeople to perform both roles in a given territory.

Existing Clients and the Hunter/Farmer Model – In today’s modern selling there are clearly defined roles for salespeople. These days two differing roles have emerged and are termed as either “hunter” salespeople, or “farmer” salespeople.  The “hunter” is the one that that generates new customers or new business or is able to support and upgrade existing clients whereas, on the other hand, the “farmer” is the one that works cultivating and farming existing accounts that do not need to be upgraded.  The reason for the differential between the two is that all businesses need a healthy mix of market share among their clients, and the “hunter” and “farmer” concept proves to be an ideal mix.  Many sales companies expect their salespeople to perform both roles in a given territory.

Existing Customer Pre-Call Briefing – The process usually led by a manager or coach and purposely involving a salesperson in order to strategize for a call, define certain desired objectives, prepare for those must answer questions, and build positive momentum for those necessary discussions with the prospect and/or existing customer.

Existing Customer Retention Costs – This simply means keeping existing customers and not losing them to competitors. Today’s cost conscious companies realise that it’s far more expensive to find new customers than to keep existing ones, and therefore put a sufficient amount of time and investment into looking after and growing existing buyers and/or business accounts.  Alternatively, those without this cost overview could find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity.  This is likened to a hole in the bucket, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.

Existing Customer Targeting – The term targeting has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of the word target. As a marketing term, it is very relevant for salespeople and managers to focus on the prospects at which the selling effort is aimed, namely ‘target markets’, or ‘target sectors’ by ‘positioning’ a product or service or proposition welcomed by the targeted user. Targeting provides a potential to develop and refine local markets and aim efforts at the sectors or prospect groups which will produce the greatest results. Sales generally are made more easily from existing or previous customers, rather than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is completely unknown. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximises its chances of engaging with the most responsive and profitable sectors of a defined market.

Existing Customer Test Marketing – In a marketing sense, this usually relates to a product or service which is usually tested in a particular area of the country before it is launched nationally.  In fact, it relates to a process of evaluating the appeal of a product or service generally by selecting cities, prospects, existing customers and locations in which to introduce the product or service, and monitor its receptivity by those intended users.

Existing Obstacles – These are the issues that generally surface during the sales presentation that could keep the salesperson or selling organization from winning the business. These may cover a wide range of possibilities based on the obstacles being faced or encountered, and may include all manner of financial obstacles, implementation obstacles, existing methods of known obstacles being used, etc.

Exit Strategy – A structured plan by an investor to dispose of a personal or business investment, such as shares in a company, to make a profit, or a business owner or group to dispose of their company, by selling the business, floating it on the stock market, ceasing to trade, handing it over to another family member, etc.

Expanding the Pie Close – In so many negotiations there’s an assumption that we sell on a win-lose scenario.  When this concept is applied, it can become personal, and if not handled well, tension sets the scene.  So a win-win scenario is generally the best option.  If the seller uses “we” instead of “you” or “I” the chance of each sharing the pie increases.  The buyer wants as good a price as possible and the seller needs to ensure the profit margin covers the sale and after sales service.  If both work at helping the other grow the pie, then what they each share will be bigger too.

Expectations of a Strategic Account Manager (SAM) – Acronym – This is a relationship manager who both oversees and is the one responsible for strategizing, managing, and fulfilling the expectations of the selling and customer organizations he or she may represent.

Expectations of the Customer – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Expected Workloads for Directors – These are the assigned individuals who are held accountable for the responsible and timely completion of goals, plans, targets, objectives and expected work-loads of the nominated team leader        

Expenses Profit-and-Loss (Income) Statement – This is a financial document which is designed to provide a summary of business operations, primarily revenues and expenses recorded over a particular period of time.

Experience and Prominence – In any manner of sales compensation design, this factor refers to the level of influence a salesperson has within the sales process.  Most sales processes where the salesperson has an above average or somewhat high prominence, this reflects on a situation where a decision is made where its often due to the salesperson’s experience, understanding, affable characteristics and/or ability to be persuasive.

Experience Curve – In business, whenever costs fall and the production of goods tends to increase as a result of increase in workers skills and lower material costs.

Experienced Point of Entry – It is an accepted fact that the more experienced salespeople generally ascertain where they believe to be the most logical place, or point in time, to begin a relationship with a customer. Often, this point presents the least difficult entry point or it becomes a place where there is a clear differentiated value that can be worked for mutual benefit. Moreover, this now newly exposed entry point can be the springboard for deeper access to the individual or business being worked on.

Expert Guru – An influential teacher of or an expert in a particular subject or field who shares their knowledge, often by writing books.

Exploration Selling – A vital part of the primary selling methodology of a process known as effective selling.  It can also relate to a salesperson’s ability to investigate systematically, explore every possibility, and probe for wants, needs, problems, and opportunities that lay at the heart of effective selling.

Explorations – A term based on those individuals or organizations who contact your organization to find out more about what you do. These organizations have not yet been qualified. When qualified, they become a qualified lead.

Exploratory Call to Action – The-is refers to the process of asking for a commitment, although this may not necessarily be for a commitment to purchase.  Other types of commitment could be for another appointment, a future meeting, to bring in a more senior person, or the promise to explore specific issues with another decision maker within the same organization.

Exploratory Questions – The questioning process within the early part of a presentation is possibly the most revered primary prep-selling tool used to explore and understand a prospects or customers situation at the time of the call. Effective questioning is considered to be among the highest level skill of the successful sales professional. Most questions can be described with multiple labels, each with different objectives. Some sample question labels may include: Strategic Questions, Big Picture Questions, High Value Questions, Clarification Questions, Act and Action Questions, etc.

Exporting – This is the usual practice of selling items to wholesale or retail customers in another country.

Exposing Objections Close – Professional sellers understand that an objection is nothing more than a request for additional information by the prospect. And the best of the top sales producers not only expect objections during the sales process, but actually anticipate them.

Exposure and Trade-shows – Refers to a marketed event that is designed to create leads from those who attend to gain more information about their occupation or industry. Most trade shows are usually sponsored by vendors wishing to gain exposure in front of their most probable customers.

Express Targeted Opportunities – A process that is mainly used in sales organizations where mainly the gaining more sales is a function of taking away business from one or more business streams of those considered to be competitors.  Here the ratio used is usually a percentage to measure of the number of targeted opportunities sold when compared to the number of opportunities pursued.

Expressed Customer Value – Refers to the perceived value that is typically expressed in financial terms, of a customer, for a given period of time. This term is often used to describe the impact of a former customer now lost to the opposition.

Expressed Sale Win Rates – This refers to the ratio of sales that have been won in comparison to the total number of sales that have been created, including those that may have been won and lost. Win rates are usually expressed as a percentage of revenue or a number of unique sales opportunities available. Some organizations include sales made in a ‘non decision’ status in their calculations of win rates. Other organizations consider ‘non decision’ sales as a part of their losses status. Win rates are typically calculated (or reported) by the percentage of revenue of the sales made.

Expressed Win Rate – This is the rate at which a salesperson or sales organization “wins” new business, “wins” back old customers, or “wins” more sales than originally budgeted for.  Often, this is expressed as a percentage of the overall proposals submitted vs. the percentage of sales closed.

Extend your Hand Close – Nothing could be easier than this close.  It’s called the Extend Your Hand Close because as you make a closing offer, you extend your hand for a handshake, smile and nod as if the sale was already made. Look expectantly and if you need to make a more necessary point, raise your eyebrows slightly and tell them exactly what you need to.  “Bob and Mary, I can tell that you need a moment to discuss this information in private, so I am going to get a cup of coffee and give you time to make your decision.”

Extension of Credit Terms of Credit or Sale The conditions or requirements within a sales contract, purchase order, or agreement, may include such shipping costs, minimums, payment options, or extension of credit.

Extension Strategy – A marketing strategy that is designed to stop a product going into decline by making small changes to it, reaching new customers or finding new uses for it.  As an example a drink originally sold as an aid to those recovering from illness is now sold as a sports drink.

External Authority Close – If you tell your prospect you only have limited authority to give discounts and you will have to ask a higher authority in order to give them more.  No matter what transpires next, you should at this point ask the prospect what they want you to do for them.  After they had agreed to do this, and only then speak with the manager.

Extra Bonus Paid – This is usually a specified amount paid to an employee who agrees to perform a difficult task.  The amount of the bonus may be unexpectedly increased if the work done far exceeds the expectations of the one setting the task in the first place.

Extra Information Close – This close is appropriately named Extra Information Close.  It does just that, it encourages the seller to give out more information, better deals and rely more on the after the sale aspects of selling, simply because the buyer generally wants it that way.  “For some reason I previously forgot to tell you that this model has additional flange brackets that offer double the safety of previous models we produced.”

Extraordinary Conditions References – This refers to an individual, group or company that is willing to back up certain claims of what your product or service may achieve either under ordinary conditions, extraordinary conditions, or beyond what is generally expected and/or experienced.  References may be recorded by way of personally written testimonials, recorded testimonials and/or visually recorded testimonials.

Extrapolation – An estimated determination of what will happen in the future by extending (extrapolating) of any known information or data. The verb ‘extrapolate’ is common and means using mathematics or other logical processes to extend a proven trend or set of data. ‘What if’ scenarios and business modeling generally involves some manner of extrapolation. It’s also a way of predicting something by assuming that a certain historical pattern will continue into the future.

Eye’s of the Prospect What’s In It For Me? (WIIFM) – Salespeople are always reminded to take time out to reflect on the WIIFM for the prospect / customer.  And by seeing things through the eyes of the prospect / customer, and how the product, service or solution enhances the prospect or customer personally or professionally.

Eyes of the Customer – This is a common term used in sales that refers to the outlook a salesperson may need to take to advance the sales process. By seeing everything “through the customer’s eyes”, a sales professional gains perspective on how to position solutions that may help to improve the prospects business.

 

Sales Dictionary

Sales Dictionary entries in F

Go to . . . A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

FABs (Features Advantages Benefits) – This relates to the vital links between a product description and its advantage over other similar products, and the benefits that may be derived by the consumer by using it.  This is one of the better, if not central, if not rather predictable technique used in the presentation stage of the selling process.

Face-to-Face Networking – The process of developing and maintaining alliances both externally and internally within a group or a wide variety of contacts that may be able to provide or retrieve additional information, insight, help, and access to others.  Also refers to an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on a number of referrals and introductions that help build a larger data base – either via a face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc.

Face-to-Face Prospecting – A sales method that generally typically refers to the first telephone call made to a prospective customer.  More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as ‘door-knocking’..

Face-to-Face Sales Territory – This relates to the pre-zoned geographical area of responsibility assigned to a salesperson, a sales team or sales organization. A few generations ago, in Australia, a field-based salespersons territory would commonly be a zoned area within a state or the state itself. In the USA a field-based salespersons territory would be a region, a county or a state.  Now days, as fact-to-face selling is becoming more costly, so much more of the selling is done online, or remotely by telephone, so field-based sales territories are now much larger and can be two, three or 10 times larger.

Facilitation Selling – Considered to be a very modern and sophisticated selling style in which seller truly collaborates with the buyer and buying organization to help the prospect or existing customer buy. A logical extension to ‘strategic’ or ‘open plan’ selling.

Facilitative Puestioning – Normally referred to as the second stage of the sales call, typically after the opening or introduction in the Seven Steps of the Sale, but also vital to modern selling methods when used with collaborative or facilitative selling. A crucial selling skill, yet rarely well demonstrated. The correct timing and use of the key different types of questions are central to the processes of gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and empathy. This manner of predetermined questioning also requires that the salesperson has good listening, interpretation and empathic capabilities.

Facility of Open Plan Selling Ethics – Open Plan Selling is also underpinned by strong ethical principles, notably honesty and the premise that persuasion and influence are unhelpful, and in this respect the methodology relates somewhat to modern ideas of facilitating and helping.

Fact Finding Call – The first call of more than one call a salesperson makes to a prospect, with the goal of asking them questions and qualifying them for the next step before the selling process proceeds to either the next stage or to the closing process.

Factor Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Factory Floor – This is the area of a factory where the goods are made (factory floor). This can also the collective name of the ordinary workers in a factory, rather than management.

Factory Price – The price charged for goods sold direct from the factory, not including transport costs, etc.  A Factory Price is often quoted by retailers or in advertisements to show that products are for sale at what is considered to be a very low price.

Factual and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Failure – This is when the individual, company or organization not having enough finances or assets available to pay all the debts.

Failure or Success and a Sales Plan – For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Fairness Close – We all have a basic need for fairness and feel we generally feel a loss of power when others are unfair.  Fairness becomes mutually owned if it is agreed by both parties. Also when fairness is being negotiated it is a good idea to acknowledge it.

Fairy Sale – When a salesperson closes a sale, however the buyer possibly said yes just to get rid of the seller and has not really purchased the product or service they signed for.  Many in the sales industry call this a “fairy sale.” Why a fairy sale? Because, as youngsters, many of us were sent to the bottom of the garden to look for ‘fairies.” And as I recall we never found any fairies.  That’s the same with a “fairy” sale, and no matter how long a salesperson looks for that “fairy sale,” it will never be found.  Also see Closing and Closed and Lost

Faith Driven Sale – This is a common way of establishing a considered or agreed value experienced by the customer as a result of the purchase of a product or service.  Salespeople who focus on communicating benefits and aligning those benefits to a customer’s business objectives, increase the likelihood of completing a sale.

Fake – Intentional deception for the purpose of financial or other gain.

Fake Goods – In the marketing field, business ‘diversion’ refers to the unofficial distribution and/or availability of branded consumer products. The supply of branded products through unauthorised stockists, retailers or other suppliers, notably marketing through the web is a concern world-wide. Diversion does not simply refer to pirated or counterfeit or ‘fake’ goods. Diversion refers to official goods being sold through unofficial channels.

Fame Kudos – Commonly used management term meaning positive recognition, praise or fame – from the Greek word kydos, meaning glory.

Family Mates Rates – One of the more recently promoted ways to sell a product or service to a friend or family member at a discounted or reduced rate on the normal price.

Family Member Referrals – Obtaining additional profile information about other possible prospects from a current prospect or customer, associate, client, neighbour or family member.

Farm Machinery Field Day – In country areas this refers to an event help in a rural selling close to a country town where farm machinery, and other goods and services are showcased to the local and extended communities.  These field days are usually accompanied with circus type rides, games, stalls and food halls to help pay for the event.

Farmer – A common slang term in sales referring to a salesperson whose primary job is to maintain and grow business with existing customers, that is, versus the costs and effort required in  acquiring new customers.

Farmer Type Project Management – Relates to the sciences and disciplines of planning, organizing, overseeing, managing and tracking projects within an organization. Project Management can be a simple or it can be a sophisticated process to help implement systematic change within an organization. “Farmer type” sales professionals who become proficient at effective project management can also be considered as valuable business allies by their prospects and customers/clients alike.

Farmer/Hunter Model – In today’s modern selling there are clearly defined roles for salespeople. These days two differing roles have emerged and are termed as either “hunter” salespeople, or “farmer” salespeople.  The “hunter” is the one that that generates new customers or new business or is able to support and upgrade existing clients whereas, on the other hand, the “farmer” is the one that works cultivating and farming existing accounts that do not need to be upgraded.  The reason for the differential between the two is that all businesses need a healthy mix of market share among their clients, and the “hunter” and “farmer” concept proves to be an ideal mix.  Many sales companies expect their salespeople to perform both roles in a given territory.

Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) – These are products and the related industry which are sold in big volumes by big retailers at somewhat lower profit margins, perhaps even at keen prices, to mainly domestic consumers – including a good selection of traditional foods and groceries, or household consumables, etc., and nowadays goods that may extend to any products of a considered short life and a disposable/consumable nature.

Fast Moving Consumer Group (FMCG) Distribution – Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditised mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electricals, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the internet.

Fast Track – A quick (fast-track) route in a career to success and promotion, and is usually associated with high ambition and above average futurization.

Faster Sales Productivity – This is the science and study of being efficient and effective in producing sales results. Also refers to the use of tools and methods to produce more – faster, cheaper, and better.

Fat Cat – Refers to a wealthy person or individual  living off his or her investments or dividends.  It may also refer to a chief executive of a large company or organization who is on a very large salary with a huge pension, etc.

Fault Tolerance – A process that enables any system, especially one in computing, to continue to operate effectively even though a component in the system may have failed.

Faulty Market – A market where buyers do not have access to enough information about prices and products, and where buyers or sellers singularly can have an influence over the quantity and price of goods sold.

Favourable Reception – Generally a favorable attitude response expressed by an existing customer for a salesperson’s recommendation or solution that has met or exceeded expectations.

Favoured by a Mentor – A special person who guides, helps, and teaches in order to enable an individuals or favoured salesperson’s success. In sales organizations, the practice of coaching is considered the best and most key characteristic of effective management. It is the coach’s responsibility to create the necessary environment for results to flourish, and to tap the energy of each individual contributor to maximize talent and performance.

Feared Predatory Pricing – This is also known as Destroyer Pricing, and is a situation where a company purposely charges very low prices for goods or services in order to put its competitors under financial pressure or even out of business.  Once the damage has been done, the prices will be raised back to a realistic and profitable level.

Feasibility Study – Generally referred to a preliminary assessment of a new project, which usually includes the related costs, risks, etc., in order to determine whether the project under scrutiny has the potential of being both successful as well as practical.

Feather-Bedding – This is a term that is often used within industry to describe the unhealthy practice of hiring more workers than is necessary on a project to carry out a specific job.  This happens more times that is usually wanted in industry often because of a contract agreed to with a union.

Feature – A characteristic of a product or service or the distinct part of a product or service that can be described. It may also refer to an aspect of a product or service, eg., colour, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc.  Salespeople often believe features sell products, but it is the benefit of a feature that is more attributable for the sale.  It also refers to a function of a product that can solve for a potential buyer’s need or pain point; usually a distinguishing characteristic that helps boost appeal.

Feature & Benefit Close –  There is more to this because no prospect every buys on features, so the professional seller sells on benefits, but once you involve the supersellers they suggest that attributes are more powerful than the other two.  It’s all about features, attributes and benefits.  And it’s powerful.

Feature Tangible – Whenever it is used in a selling context, this describes, or is, an acute aspect of the product or service on offer that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost, value and so on.  As an example, any physical feature of the product, spare parts, delivery, or installation, or a regular service visit, or a warranty agreement, and so on.

Feature Uniqueness – This usually relates to a function, feature or benefit (and in some cases all three) that is/are peculiar to a product or service or supplier.  It may also be that no other competitor can offer it. Uniqueness is usually a much overlooked aspect of selling. The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and services, and because of that inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price differences.  On the other hand, the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which will dramatically reduces competitive pressures.

Features – The components, features and parts of a product, service or solution.  Also see Feature

Features Advantages Benefits (FABs) – This relates to the vital links between a product description and its advantage over other similar products, and the benefits that may be derived by the consumer by using it.  This is one of the better, if not central, if not rather predictable technique used in the presentation stage of the selling process.

Features and Benefits Spray and Pray – A very old slang term (know to grandparent salespeople) and used to describe salespeople who “spray” the customer with all the facts they can, add all the features, and benefits about a product or service they have ever learned, and then “pray” that one of those features influences the customer to buy. This is typically done by salespeople who do not engage the customer in dialog to express his/her needs directly.

Features Presentation/Sales Presentation – This is generally referred to as the process by which a salesperson explains/presents the product or service to the prospect (be it a single contact or a group), and will ideally include an explanation of the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are pertinent/relevant to the needs of the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but will more usually involve the use of visuals, common bullet-points, text slides and images on a computer display, tablet or projected onto a screen.  They can incorporate a video and/or physical demonstration of the product(s) or service(s).

Features Product offer – How the product and/or service offer is positioned and presented to the prospect or to the market, (which would normally include features and/or advantages) and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (via alternate segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully.

Feedback Observation Call – A sales call that generally involves a salesperson and a manager where the manager’s role is purposely minimal, and the manager’s primary objective is to observe the skills of the salesperson, the reaction of the customer in order to provide quality feedback during the post-call and debrief session.

Feel Felt Found – This is a great closing style to help the salesperson combat objections and other stumbling blocks that might otherwise impede the selling process moving forward.   The ‘feel-felt-found’ technique is more than just another popular tactic to help overcome objections and keep the sale moving forward – it’s a process that can help the seller create an emotionally charged atmosphere where the salesperson can personalise what is happening at that particular point.  In fact, it’s one of the great ways to re-establish attention and get the sale back in a way that gives the seller some degree of control that was not there a few minutes earlier.  This technique is based on a response built around the three ‘feel felt found’ elements of: “I understand how you feel, and I have other customers that feel the same way, but when they have some of their concerns addressed (as I am doing with you now) they have found that there was a viable alternative they have accepted that they can be better off because of it.”

Felt Passion – Those salespeople who are known to have passion are the ones that are said to have boundless enthusiasm for what they do and for helping their customer succeed. When passion, properly channeled, it can be a powerful selling behavior, as the sellers customers can also feel it and are also usually energized by it.

FFAB – Acronym for – Functions, Feature, Advantage, Benefit       

FFB (Feature, Function, Benefit) Uniqueness – This usually relates to a function, feature or benefit (and in some cases all three) that is/are peculiar to a product or service or supplier.  It may also be that no other competitor can offer it. Uniqueness is usually a much overlooked aspect of selling. The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and services, and because of that inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price differences.  On the other hand, the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which will dramatically reduces competitive pressures.

FFB Function – When used to express the functionality of the product, service or solution, it refers to the way it is used by an individual or the way it needs to be operated effectively to be functional.  See Features, Functions and Benefits

Field Day – In country areas this refers to an event help in a rural selling close to a country town where farm machinery, and other goods and services are showcased to the local and extended communities.  These field days are usually accompanied with circus type rides, games, stalls and food halls to help pay for the event.

Field Day (sales) – World-wide this is referred to a situation when a candidate for a sales position “rides-along” with an experienced salesperson in order to learn more about the position he or she is interviewing for.

Field – This usually means anywhere out of the sales office where salespeople are involved.  Field sales people or sales managers are those who travel around meeting people personally (one-on-one) in the course of managing and working a sales territory. To be field-based is to work on the sales territory, as opposed to being office-based.

Field-based Telesales Selling – The process of selling by telephone contact alone, which is normally a sales function in its own right by utilising specially trained telesales personnel.  This kind of selling flourishes typically where low order values prevent the use of expensive field-based sales people, when used to sell a recognized product or service that will allow the viability of selling by telephone to succeed.

Field-Based Territory – This relates to the pre-zoned geographical area of responsibility assigned to a salesperson, a sales team or sales organization. A few generations ago, in Australia, a field-based salespersons territory would commonly be a zoned area within a state or the state itself. In the USA a field-based salespersons territory would be a region, a county or a state.  Now days, as fact-to-face selling is becoming more costly, so much more of the selling is done online, or remotely by telephone, so field-based sales territories are now much larger and can be two, three or 10 times larger.

Fifth Rejection – What needs to remembered here by the salesperson is that prospects are not rejecting the salesperson or the company they work for, the prospect is simply rejecting the offer.  Another factor here is that the salesperson should never back off or under the pressure at the first, second, or third, fourth or fifth or even the sixth no.  In fact, much of the university research suggests that the salesperson should be prepared for at least seven no’s.  Anything less spells a timid salesperson not willing to understand the distance they need to go in a sales call to get the order.

Figurehead – Usually referred a person who holds an important position or office but lacks real power or authority for that position.  This person can also be referred to as a ‘front man’ either in business, organizations, politics, etc. The term was originally derived from the carved painted figurehead models which traditionally were fixed to the front of sailing ships.

Film Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Final Decision Maker – A person in the organization who has the final power and budgetary authority to agree to a sales proposal. One of the most common mistakes by all manner of salespeople is to attempt to sell to someone other than a genuine decision maker. For anything other than a routine repeating order, the only two people in any organization of any size that are real decision makers, especially for significant sales values/orders are the CEO, Managing Director, President, and the Finance Director or CFO. Everyone else in the organization is generally working within stipulated budgets and supply contracts, and will almost always need to refer major purchasing decisions to one or both of the above people. In very large organizations, functional directors may well be decision-makers for significant sales that relate only to their own function’s activities.

Final Offer CloseThe salesperson needs to work this close carefully.  When they have a limited number of goods to sell or a limited amount of time. As you do this you should be looking away from the prospect looking down slightly to the right and look sad while you deliver the message.  Doing this implies that this is not only ‘limited offer’ but a ‘final offer’.  It also suggests your prospect should buy from you because they now trust you.

Finance Lease Purchase – A finance purchase agreement in which an item, generally a car, is leased for a certain period of time with an option to purchase at the end of the contract.

Finance Shark – This relates to a greedy person who offers unsecured loans at excessive rates of interest.

Financial Acumen – This is the ability of someone to understand the financial and fiscal implications of recommendations made. Sales professionals who have high financial acumen are able to analyze and justify the financial benefits of the recommendations made by others succinctly and with clarity.

Financial Bank Interest Rate – A fee which the lender is charged for borrowing money, e.g., a loan from a bank or financial institution, lease arrangement, goods bought through hire purchase, and so on.

Financial Benefit and Smoke and Mirrors – An intentional deception for the purpose of disguising, concealing, or inflating something for personal or financial benefit.

Financial Benefit Value – This is often considered the primary reason for a buyer to purchase something. Value is the relative worth, utility, importance, or perceived financial benefit that is assigned by a buyer to the product or service an organization or individual may sell.

Financial Close – The beauty with this close is that it is extremely flexible.  The price can always be tampered with and brought down to the lowest common denominator as often as necessary and/or as often as needed to ensure they always remain in their comfort zone.  It will also help avoid overselling and possibly eliminate selling to those who cannot afford to buy.  “Now tell me, how much per month can you afford . . . yes, we can arrange that for you for ____ a month.”

Financial Discipline – Mostly relates to either personal discipline, or discipline within the context of an organization.  As a job role of any kind, discipline in a necessity.  Discipline can also refer more generally to a certain capability or responsibility, such as ‘financial disciplines’, ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.  Discipline can also mean separately ‘control’ of others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling. In the business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people can be affected by a change or proposition, usually accompanying the sale of a product or a service.

Financial Engineering – This refers to the practice of solving financial problems or the creation of financial opportunities in a company, by changing or forcing the change of the way money is borrowed, debts paid, etc.

Financial Equity – Relates to anyone who has a form of financial ownership of interest in a company, usually in the form of shares.

Financial Firepower – This generally relates to the amount of power, or money, and/or influence that is available to be used by a business or business organization.

Financial Fit – The word Fit in marketing and business situations refers to the degree which a product, service, solution, organization matches customer requirements. It is useful to consider Fit in 5 dimensions: Product Fit, Technical Fit, Solution Fit, Financial Fit, and Business Fit. Salespeople who organize their thinking around this Fit scenario and are able to align their solution to as many of these dimensions as possible elevate the probability of them effectively preparing then making the sale.

Financial Gain and Vested Interest – This term is applied when an individual, or business or group has a special interest in something, such as property, an activity, etc., from which there is a high probability of personal and/or financial gain.

Financial Golden Handcuffs – A financial incentive or a number of incentives or benefits given to or provided for a valued employee to ensure that they continue working for a company, and to discourage them from wanting to leave to work for another company.

Financial Instability Capital – The on-going movement of large sums of money from one of investment to another, or from one country to another.  This is generally done to avoid high taxes or financial instability due to political unrest.

Financial Lifeboat – This is an emergency business loan offered to an individual, or company, or bank which is considered to be in financial trouble.

Financial Obstacles – These are the issues that generally surface during the sales presentation that could keep the salesperson or selling organization from winning the business. These may cover a wide range of possibilities based on the obstacles being faced or encountered, and may include all manner of financial obstacles, implementation obstacles, existing methods of known obstacles being used, etc.

Financial Plan – In many sales organizations, the financial plan is a applied as a quota of for any of the financial sales goals set by management. The more traditional definition used by customers and other organizations is the sum of financial resources allocated for a particular purpose.  It can also mean an allocation of funds or the estimation of costs for a department, project, etc., over a specific period – or the management of spending and saving money.

Financial Plan Document – In sales compensation plans, the formal document that outlines the objectives and elements of a selling organization’s compensation strategy is generally referred to as a plan document.  This document communicates the strategy of the company, and the rewards – both financial and non-financial – that will generally be paid when goals are met. This document also describes targets and compensable events and key details about compensation and administration of the payments.

Financial Pressure Predatory Pricing – This is also known as Destroyer Pricing, and is a situation where a company purposely charges very low prices for goods or services in order to put its competitors under financial pressure or even out of business.  Once the damage has been done, the prices will be raised back to a realistic and profitable level.

Financial Profit-and-Loss (Income) Statement – This is a financial document which is designed to provide a summary of business operations, primarily revenues and expenses recorded over a particular period of time.

Financial Terms Negotiation – Negotiation can have multiple meanings depending on the individual or the application. For some, it is the process of exploring known positions and alternatives to reach outcomes that gain the acceptance of all or some of the parties in negotiation with the presenter.  However, in many forms of selling, many believe that negotiatory process only begins when the known selling skills are exhausted and impasse is reached. Therefore, it is considered that negotiation focuses on overcoming the impasse, and working through the differences to eventually reach agreement on any negotiated financial terms, conditions, volumes and deliverable processes.

Financing Conditions of Satisfaction – Represents those criteria that the customer will use to determine whether or not to do business with a sales organization.  The criteria the prospect is looking for might include a combination of quality, reliability, service support, delivery, price, timing, risk, financing, warranties, and other limitations, to name a few.

Fine-Tuning Mystery Shopper – A technique used by a variety of organizations to pose as a legitimate customer in order to grade service providers on the experience they provide. In other words, a person hired by market research companies or manufacturers, etc., to visit or telephone shops or service providers anonymously in order to assess the quality of goods, helpfulness of staff, layout of premises, etc.  For some industries, namely retail, these evaluations, conducted by independent organizations, provide a close approximation of the true customer experience, and can be used to fine tune training methods for the front-line staff.

Fire Sale Close – Here the salesperson should explain that they have a one-off opportunity and the current prices are lower than normal because of unusual circumstances, it’s a fire sale – a real fire sale.  The salesperson will also need to point out how the time-scales, in relation to the low prices, with this technique, are also limited.  “We had a storm here at the weekend and the roof was damaged, and because of that we lost a lot of stock. Insurance will cover any of the losses so we’re just getting rid of this stock at below cost price.”

Firepower – This generally relates to the amount of power, or money, and/or influence that is available to be used by a business or business organization.

Firm Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

First Approach Proposition – This usually means a product offer that can also mean a sales proposal. The initial proposition is founded on the basis of the first approach.

First Meeting Ice Breaker Statement – This refers to the first sentence or two (usually prepared and rehearsed) a salesperson could say to a prospect at the first meeting for a specific product, services or solutions presentation.  This could also be used on a following-on or follow-up call by a relational representative or salesperson.  Mostly it is used to settle down the atmosphere and to create a thought-provoking introduction a vitally important idea, new concept or innovative way of doing something previously thought of as conventional.  Similar to the concept of using attention grabbing statements but with a more direct focus.

First Mover – An individual, a business, an organization or a charity that obtains an advantage by being the first (first mover) to establish a specific market or by establishing  itself in a specific market by producing a new product or offering a new service, or by being the first to use new technology.

First Order Of Business – Refers to the most important task of business to be dealt with.

First Rejection – What needs to remembered here by the salesperson is that prospects are not rejecting the salesperson or the company they work for, the prospect is simply rejecting the offer.  Another factor here is that the salesperson should never back off or under the pressure at the first, second, or third, fourth or fifth or even the sixth no.  In fact, much of the university research suggests that the salesperson should be prepared for at least seven no’s.  Anything less spells a timid salesperson not willing to understand the distance they need to go in a sales call to get the order.

First Time Wow Factor – This relates to the seen instant appeal of a product, property, etc., which immediately impresses and surprises people the first time they see it.

Fiscal Acumen – This is the ability of someone to understand the financial and fiscal implications of recommendations made. Sales professionals who have high financial acumen are able to analyze and justify the financial benefits of the recommendations made by others succinctly and with clarity.

Fiscal Close – This close will usually focus on an economic situation relative to the prospect, and shows how the cost reduces during certain circumstances.  It also details how buying larger quantities provide lucrative volume discounts.  “Now tell me, having thought about it briefly, in an ideal world what would you like to achieve at the best possible price?”

Fiscal Drag – An economic situation in which real wages rise because of inflation but the related income tax thresholds are not increased, which in turn, can push tax paying individuals into higher tax brackets and therefore forces them pay an increased proportion of their wages in tax.

Fiscal Engineering – This refers to the practice of solving financial problems or the creation of financial opportunities in a company, by changing or forcing the change of the way money is borrowed, debts paid, etc.

Fiscal Equity – Relates to anyone who has a form of financial ownership of interest in a company, usually in the form of shares.

Fiscal Firepower – This generally relates to the amount of power, or money, and/or influence that is available to be used by a business or business organization.

Fiscal Free Enterprise – An economic system or process in which private businesses and SME’s have the freedom to compete with each other for profit, and all with minimal interference from the government.

Fiscal Year Sales Target – When considered within a sales context this is generally the issued (or ideally agreed) minimum level of sales performance for a salesperson or a team or department over a given period of time. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, and future positions etc., may all be dependent on the nominated sales staff meeting sales targets. Targets are established at the beginning of a fiscal trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular reviews throughout the year. Also see forecasting.

Fit – The word Fit in marketing and business situations refers to the degree which a product, service, solution, organization matches customer requirements. It is useful to consider Fit in 5 dimensions: Product Fit, Technical Fit, Solution Fit, Financial Fit, and Business Fit. Salespeople who organize their thinking around this Fit scenario and are able to align their solution to as many of these dimensions as possible elevate the probability of them effectively preparing then making the sale.

Five Points Close – This is a closing style invented by the IBM Corporation in the 1970’s when their typewriter technicians wore suits and ties and doubled as salespeople.  In those days the big seller was the golf ball typewriter that was sold in a variety of colours.  With this close, the technician would narrow down what they sold (or had too many of a certain colour) by pointing at their fingers and thumb and highlighting the first and the fifth – one of the two on offer was usually sold.  “The colours I can offer you are red, blue, white, green and black.”  Most times the red or black typewriter fwas sold.

Fixed Assets – Fixed Assets, such as property, equipment, furniture, vehicles, etc., which are owned by a company and which are also needed to operate the business or service conducted by the company or individual.

Fixed Costs – These are the costs, or the overheads, which are incurred by a business such as wages, rent, insurance, utilities (for example electricity, gas, water), etc., whether or not it is fully or partially operating or generating an income.

Fixed Pricing – This is often an illegal, practice of prices being fixed, by agreement, by competing companies who provide the same goods or services as each other.

Fixed Term Contract – This refers to a contract of employment which ends on a specific date, or on completion of a task or project that ends on a specific date.  Fixed term employees have the rights to the same pay, conditions and benefits as full-time employees.

Flaccid Passive and Leading Indicators – Leading indicators represent those measures that tend to predict or assume a future outcome. Passive indicators are measures that suggest what has happened historically. Most sales organisations tend to focus more on passive indicators due to the relative ease to track that information.

Flawed Market – A market where buyers do not have access to enough information about prices and products, and where buyers or sellers singularly can have an influence over the quantity and price of goods sold.

Flexecutive – An executive or manager who works flexible hours, often from home using the Internet, or a multi-skilled executive who can change tasks or jobs with ease.

Flight Capital – The on-going movement of large sums of money from one of investment to another, or from one country to another.  This is generally done to avoid high taxes or financial instability due to political unrest.

Flighting – Considered to be a cost effective method of advertising. This happens when a commercial is scheduled to appear on TV, usually when viewing figures are high (flight). There are periods in between the flights when the commercial does not appear on TV (hiatus). During the TV hiatus the product being advertised will often appear in newspapers or magazines, so the public is continually aware of it.

Floating Strategy – A structured plan by an investor to dispose of a personal or business investment, such as shares in a company, to make a profit, or a business owner or group to dispose of their company, by selling the business, floating it on the stock market, ceasing to trade, handing it over to another family member, etc.

Floor Limit – In retailing, this process refers to the highest amount of money that can be paid for a sale for which a debit or credit card can be used by a customer without authorisation from the customer’s bank.

Flyback – Also known as a Callback. A series of screening interviews for a job during which a person, usually a student, is interviewed several times, often on the same same day, by the prospective employer.

FMCG – Distribution – Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditised mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electricals, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the internet.

FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) – These are products and the related industry which are sold in big volumes by big retailers at somewhat lower profit margins, perhaps even at keen prices, to mainly domestic consumers – including a good selection of traditional foods and groceries, or household consumables, etc., and nowadays goods that may extend to any products of a considered short life and a disposable/consumable nature.

FOB (Free on Board) – The physical point in the sale where the transfer of goods goes from the seller to the buyer, and where the buyer takes responsibility for the shipping charges, and usually the ownership.

Focal Point Consumers – These are generally considered to be a part of the largest and technically lowest level of the company’s focus point as they are the easiest to sell to as they are the ones that actually use the products or services being more aggressively marketed to other harder to sell to sectors.            

Focus Coaching – A business or sales coaching methodology where a manager meets one-on-one with an employee on a periodic basis to review performance and to coach and discuss areas of mutual interest. This process, when implemented effectively, can significantly enhance the quality of the relationship between the manager and an individual employee.

Focus Coaching – A business or sales coaching methodology where a manager meets one-on-one with an employee on a periodic basis to review performance and to coach and discuss areas of mutual interest. This process, when implemented effectively, can significantly enhance the quality of the relationship between the manager and an individual employee.

Focus Group – A small group purposely selected to participate in open discussions on a topic, in order to solicit the participants’ opinion about that topic or area. Mainly used by salespeople and marketing research to gain insight on an issue from a wider variety of people, typically before making important decisions.

Focus Long Tail – The Long Tail is Chris Anderson’s idea that markets and marketplaces, especially online, are moving away from mainstream, broad-appeal products and toward niche products. In ecommerce, most new retailers may now find it easier and more cost effective to focus on niche products.

Focus Marketing Myopia – This occurs when a business is being shortsighted regarding the needs of its customers, and is only focusing on its products or short range goals and in the process is missing marketing opportunities.

Focus Negotiation – Negotiation can have multiple meanings depending on the individual or the application. For some, it is the process of exploring known positions and alternatives to reach outcomes that gain the acceptance of all or some of the parties in negotiation with the presenter.  However, in many forms of selling, many believe that negotiatory process only begins when the known selling skills are exhausted and impasse is reached. Therefore, it is considered that negotiation focuses on overcoming the impasse, and working through the differences to eventually reach agreement on any negotiated financial terms, conditions, volumes and deliverable processes.

Focus on Sales Territory – Refers to a sales person’s “area of focus” from which they are to obtain sales. Most territories are organized by post codes (zip codes) or geographical boundaries. Many territories are also “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and usually disallow another salesperson to sell in another team member’s territory.

Focus on the Point of Pain – This is generally a well used slang term used in sales to describe the areas where the prospect or customer is most being challenged or the areas where the prospect or customer can most benefit from using a salespersons solution.  Finding the customer’s Point of Pain is a powerful selling tactic as most research in on this subject concludes that a prospect or customer is more likely be willing to act decisively when there is a definite need to alleviate a problem. While relieving “pain” is considered more powerful than promoting “gain,” both play a focused, yet powerful role in driving the needs an organization has to address in order to remain affective.

Focus Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Focused Decisive Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Focused Market Penetration – The ability of an individual or company to enter and gain share in a specified market, generally measured in percentage terms.

Focused Market Producers – This is simply another name for manufacturers who choose to produce a product for a target market or a series of wider markets.

Focused Passive Indicators – There are a number of leading indicators that represent those measures that are able to predict all forms of future outcomes.  Passive indicators are also measures that can suggest what happened historically and therefore are able to perhaps influence buyers.  However, far too many salespeople, sales managers and sales forces tend to focus more on passive indicators simply because it is relatively far easier to track that information than to work at creating far more aggressive appeal factors.

Focused Segmentation – The division of a market into discrete smaller units that generally have similar characteristics. This in turn allows a selling organization to focus on the unique needs of each segment, and to develop strategies to capitalize on the different opportunities available as the needs of each segment.

Focused Targeting – The term targeting has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of the word target. As a marketing term, it is very relevant for salespeople and managers to focus on the prospects at which the selling effort is aimed, namely ‘target markets’, or ‘target sectors’ by ‘positioning’ a product or service or proposition welcomed by the targeted user. Targeting provides a potential to develop and refine local markets and aim efforts at the sectors or prospect groups which will produce the greatest results. Sales generally are made more easily from existing or previous customers, rather than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is completely unknown. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximises its chances of engaging with the most responsive and profitable sectors of a defined market.

Follow a Sales Plan – Refers to a written document that ideally should incorporate related key goals and strategies that a salesperson should review regularly in the presence of a sales manager.  For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Follow-the-Leader Close – Because we live in a world where there are more followers than leaders, it will generally be the leaders that will influence more than the followers. The fact is, some prospects will only buy after they are made aware what prominent people have signed up.

Follow-the-Money – Sales slang term that refers to another understanding clearly the level of money required to get things underway, and who will be responsible to make the economic decision to buy.

Follow-up Ice Breaker Statement – This refers to the first sentence or two (usually prepared and rehearsed) a salesperson could say to a prospect at the first meeting for a specific product, services or solutions presentation.  This could also be used on a following-on or follow-up call by a relational representative or salesperson.  Mostly it is used to settle down the atmosphere and to create a thought-provoking introduction a vitally important idea, new concept or innovative way of doing something previously thought of as conventional.  Similar to the concept of using attention grabbing statements but with a more direct focus.

Follow-up Leave Behind – A sample of a product or a piece of written material about the product or service that a salesperson may leave with a prospect or customer during the call or at the end of a sales call or follow-up call.

Food Product – A name, term, or symbol used to identify the products and/or services of the selling organization and as a means to differentiate them from those of competitors.  It can also be the result of a manufacturing process or another form natural processes (such as food) which can be offered for sale to the general public, usually via direct sales through self-branded products or through other retailers.

Food Products Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Foot in the Door Close – The salesperson sells a smaller item at a loss leader price (a very low price that the company could be losing money on), and a little while later selling the same prospect something more costly. It’s a technique generally used by non-profit organizations and charities.

Footfall – The measure, tally or the extent of the numbers of people who visit a business or shop or another retail, leisure, or entertainment venue during any given period of time. Footfall is a crucial factor in modern retailing methods, and also in all forms of promotion and advertising which focuses on the physical presence – on foot – of prospects and consumers at a particular location.

Footprint – The exact and appropriate steps an order must transgress through from acquisition to delivery.

Forbidden Sales Territory – Refers to a sales person’s “area of focus” from which they are to obtain sales. Most territories are organized by post codes (zip codes) or geographical boundaries. Many territories are also “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and usually disallow another salesperson to sell in another team member’s territory.

Forced Involuntary Liquidation – A situation when a company is forced into bankruptcy by its creditors, so that its debts can be paid.

Forced Obstacles – These are the issues that generally surface during the sales presentation that could keep the salesperson or selling organization from winning the business. These may cover a wide range of possibilities based on the obstacles being faced or encountered, and may include all manner of financial obstacles, implementation obstacles, existing methods of known obstacles being used, etc.

Forced Price Control – Refers to maximum and minimum price limitations, and is trotted out often during periods of inflation, during which a government may be forced to promote a variety of alternative but essential goods and/or services.

Forceful Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Forceful Hard Sell – Refers to what many in sales may consider to be an over-the-top aggressive or overly forceful selling technique, made popular in the 1960s, and since then regaining popularity among advocates/practitioners of old-fashioned one-way sales methods, that constantly may use high pressure and cynical so called sales tactics to cajole customers to buy. This style of selling today is rarely successful and mostly never sustainable. Contrasts with ‘soft sell’.

Forceful Selling – An aggressive type of selling which many consider unethical these days that puts a lot of pressure on a prospective customer to buy a product or a service from someone in the selling field currently that is unlikely to remain in sales for too long.

Forcing Choice Close – One of the tricks magicians use when doing card tricks, is referred to as “forcing” – a technique used to get the target volunteer to pick the card they want them to pick – despite the fact the target person makes the selection thinking they were not coerced at the time.  To activate this close, the salesperson simply creates a contrast by emphasizing the desirable.  “There are three cars you can choose from here.  This one is a little on the big size, the blue one is a little heavy on gas, and this mid-size model has a few features the others don’t.  Which do you thing you prefer?”

Forecast – A salespersons or a sales manager’s prediction of the proposed sales results as a result of analyzing where the appropriate opportunities are within the sales cycle.

Forecast/Sales Forecast – A determined prediction of the sales that could be achieved over a given period, anything from a week to a year. Sales managers require sales people to forecast their future sales, in order to provide data to production, purchasing, and other functions whose activities need to be planned to meet sales demand. Sales forecasts are also an essential performance quantifier which feeds into the overall business plan for any organization. Due to the traditionally unreliable and overly optimistic nature of sales-department forecasts it is entirely normal for the sum of all individual sales persons’ sales annual forecast to grossly exceed what the business genuinely plans or intends to sell.

Forecasted Sales Target – When considered within a sales context this is generally the issued (or ideally agreed) minimum level of sales performance for a salesperson or a team or department over a given period of time. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, and future positions etc., may all be dependent on the nominated sales staff meeting sales targets. Targets are established at the beginning of a fiscal trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular reviews throughout the year. Also see forecasting., and growth.

Forecasting Gestation Period – A sale gestation period typically refers to the time taken from an enquiry to sale, or the Sales Cycle.  Awareness and monitoring of the Sale Gestation Period within a Sales Cycle times are crucial factors in sales planning, forecasting and management, for individuals sales teams and for sales organizations.

Forecasts and Sales Report/Reporting – A commonly used business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of salespeople too. A sales report can be required daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often may include the need to provide sales forecasts.

Foremost Leading and Passive Indicators – Leading indicators represent those measures that tend to predict or assume a future outcome. Passive indicators are measures that suggest what has happened historically. Most sales organisations tend to focus more on passive indicators due to the relative ease to track that information.

Form and Financial Equity – Relates to anyone who has a form of financial ownership of interest in a company, usually in the form of shares.

Formal Negotiation/Negotiating – Negotiation and Negotiating are terms that depict the trading of all manner of concessions that may include price reductions, primarily between supplier and customer, in an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and customer alike. Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years, although generally it’s down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of correspondence or other documentation. Ideally, from the seller’s point of view, negotiation must only commence when the sale has been agreed in principle, and conditionally upon satisfactory negotiation. However most sales people fall into the trap set by most buyers (whether intentionally or otherwise) of starting to negotiate before the selling process have even been formally commenced.

Formal Review – This is considered to be a powerful tactic for developing key accounts, and business reviews in a formal setting where executives of the selling company formally meet with executives of the customer organization to present what has been accomplished between their two companies during the previous 12-months. When done well, this method is a collaborative two-way dialog, where the sellers and customers are involved in setting and agreeing to mutual goals for the on-going business relationship.

Formal Sales Cycle Process – The Sales Cycle process generally describes the time and/or the lapse between first contact with the prospect to when the sale is formally made. Sales Cycle times and processes can vary enormously depending on the company, type of business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, and the market and the particular situation applying to the customer at the time of the enquiry. The Sales Cycle time is also referred to as the Sale Gestation Period (ie from conception to birth – enquiry to sale).

Formal Sales Cycle: The beginning to end of your sales process – from “nothing” to close. Starts normally with data-mining, includes the activities and stages associated with taking an opportunity and ends with attempting to get referrals from your client. These are considered to be the set of steps an organization believes are needed to make a sale and the sales cycles can vary considerably across business organizations and the markets they serve.

Formal Sales Preparation – Whenever this is used in the context of the selling process, this is generally the work done by the salesperson to research and plan the sales presentation and/or the formal sales call to a particular prospect or customer. Without exception in professional selling, calls need to be adequately prepared for, and sales that fail to manifest are usually due to under-preparing the presentation, the proposals within the call and the method used to close the sale.

Formal Sales Process Steps – Those involved in formal sales training will be quick to tell you of the well-understood, generic steps (initiation, qualify, evaluate, develop, propose, contract, win, close) as they are identified for the purpose of selling, from initiation to close. As a process, it is measurable and improvable.

Formal Selling Win-Win – Describes a situation, understanding or arrangement in which all parties benefit or profit.  It also describes a situation where all parties involved in a formal selling process meet their primary objectives and all become winners negotiation.

Formal Solutions Selling – This is a common description for a more customer-orientated selling method that is dependent on identifying prospect wants and needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a formal package or a specified solution. This term is based on the premise that prospects don’t buy products or features or benefits – but instead buy solutions to their organizational challenges and problems.  Some say that it’s a similar approach to what is loosely known as ‘needs-creation’ selling. Solutions selling remains relevant in modern selling and its methods can usefully be included in an open plan selling style.

Formal Tender – A structured formal proposal in response to the issue of an invitation for the supply of a product or service to a large organization or government department. Tenders require certain qualifying criteria to be met first by the tendering organization. Tenders need to adhere to strict submission deadlines, contract terms, specifications and even the presentation of the tender itself. It is not unknown for very successful tendering companies to actually help the customer formulate the tender specification, which explains why it’s so difficult to prize the business away from them.

Former and/or Past Customers – Generally referred to customers who have not ordered in the last 12 to 24 months.

Former Customer Value – Refers to the perceived value that is typically expressed in financial terms, of a customer, for a given period of time. This term is often used to describe the impact of a former customer now lost to the opposition.

Formidable Need Behind the Need – A formidable and key concept in selling is to surface or expose  the “hidden” need that will result in a sale. It becomes a good process in the hands of a professional salesperson as often, customers mask their real needs. Salespeople who are able to determine and/of expose these hidden-needs are the ones who are likely to increase the possibility of greater sales results, simply because they are able to position their product or service towards the driving motivators of the customer.

Formula Trade Secret – This is what may be considered to be a secret device or formula used by a company in the manufacturing of a product which they believe gives it a distinct advantage over the competition.

Forthcoming Event – An upcoming event that is expected to occur created to drive the rationale for a customer making a decision for your product or service.

Fortune 500 – An annual list of corporations published by Fortune magazine.  This list is reviewed annually and is a detailed list of the top 500 US corporations with the largest revenue.

Forward Go Points – A rarely used off-the-cuff term to imply the point at which the prospect or customer and the salesperson, or the selling organization will make the decision to move forward in the selling process at the time. In a business organization’s selling cycle, there may be multiple go points or no-go points.

Forward Integration – This is usually a well used business strategy where a company takes control of its distributors for the sole purpose of guaranteeing the distribution of the controlling company’s products.

Forward Moving Pre-Call Plan – This refers to the salesperson’s written description of either the determined objectives for the call, the key questions that will be asked during the call, and/or the strategy that will be taken in order to move the sales process forward in a positive manner.

Forward Vision and Thought Leadership – A (generally academic) term used to project an image of innovation and/or a forward vision associated with that innovation. The best of the sales organizations and salespeople who are mainly perceived to be “thought leaders” are the ones looked to for creative ideas and innovative approaches to today’s known business challenges and problems.

Forwarding Company – Also called a ‘freight forwarder’, Refers to a company that specialises in transfer of freight from businesses or individuals by finding an appropriate transporter of the goods.

Foundation Keystone Pricing or Keystoning – A process that doubles the wholesale cost by the retailer, which may or may not include shipping fees, depending on the retailer. This is standard markup in some industries, such as gifts and related gift supplies. However, in areas with high real estate values, such as large cities in Sydney, Melbourne, or Perth retailers may often triple the wholesale cost or more.

Foundational Skill Model – In sales training, this is the set of step-by-step actions someone would follow to accomplish something worthwhile. Skill models form the foundation of the training methods used to develop proficiency in a subject area.

Four Day Territory Planning – This relates to the process of planning the optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calls) within a sales territory by the available sales resources to a salesperson, including, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even in the one territory managed by one sales person.  These one person sales territories used to be called journey planning areas, and the territory cycle there was often based on either a four or six day cycle, so the salesperson could avoid always missing those prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the week.

Four Stages of Learning – This refers to the four different steps a person goes through when learning any new skill or trade.

Fourth Quarter Close – Isolate what you consider be the top 50 percent of the potential sales you’ve been working on during the past quarter, that you believe have the greatest revenue potential and set their files aside in a priority pile.  If you are using a computer, highlight them with a colour code in your master page. Now make contact with each and simply ask what you need to do to do business.

Fourth Rejection – What needs to remembered here by the salesperson is that prospects are not rejecting the salesperson or the company they work for, the prospect is simply rejecting the offer.  Another factor here is that the salesperson should never back off or under the pressure at the first, second, or third, fourth or fifth or even the sixth no.  In fact, much of the university research suggests that the salesperson should be prepared for at least seven no’s.  Anything less spells a timid salesperson not willing to understand the distance they need to go in a sales call to get the order.

FPI – Function Programming Interface – An FPI is a procedure created to allow separate software solutions to communicate over a relatively simple interface. For this reason Software Developers will often use FPIs to connect or integrate systems and services.

Fraction Win Rate – This is the rate at which a salesperson or sales organization “wins” new business, “wins” back old customers, or “wins” more sales than originally budgeted for.  Often, this is expressed as a percentage of the overall proposals submitted vs. the percentage of sales closed.

Framework Sell – This is generally referred to as sales slang for the way sellers go to the market using the sales force channel. In essence it is the gathering of the best practices on the way the salesperson builds the framework for sales excellence, which is called the sales process.

Franchising Product B2B Sales – Distribution models tend create their own shape, being dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. More recent examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed and utelised), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centres, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufactuerers and ‘principals’), and including channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecomms and IT sectors).

Fraud – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Fraud and Deception – Intentional deception for the purpose of financial or other gain.

Fraud and White Collar Crime – Can refer to any number of illegal acts including fraud, embezzlement, bribery, etc., that are committed by a worker, business partner or director in a business or administrative function.

Free Enterprise – An economic system or process in which private businesses and SME’s have the freedom to compete with each other for profit, and all with minimal interference from the government.

Free Market – A market in which prices of goods and services are affected by the available supply and demand, rather than being determined by government regulation.

Free Market Economy – A situation in which businesses may operate in a free market, i.e., when they are in competition with each other and are not under government control.

Free on Board (FOB) – The physical point in the sale where the transfer of goods goes from the seller to the buyer, and where the buyer takes responsibility for the shipping charges, and usually the ownership.

Free Rider – A person or one or more organisations that enjoy benefits and/or suitable services provided by another or others, and doesn’t pay their fair share of the costs.

Freehold – A freehold property that has a clear title of ownership and is not subject to a lease.

Freezer White Goods – Refers mainly to large domestic electrical appliances, such as kitchen ranges, washing machines, dryers, freezers, fridges, etc.

Freight Forwarding Company – Also called a ‘freight forwarder’, Refers to a company that specialises in transfer of freight from businesses or individuals by finding an appropriate transporter of the goods.

Frictional Unemployment – Unemployment of those individuals/people/persons who are temporarily between jobs, or changing careers, or changing location, etc.

Friday Afternoon Meeting – Typically a sales meeting conducted at the end of each work week, usually on Friday afternoons. Typical topics include discussing the previous week’s sales activities and accomplishments, covering the next week’s goals, and communicating other key information.

Friendly Expressive Style – The buyers who take an expressive approach to the selling process are usually want to be the centre of attention, can sometimes be manipulative, as well as friendly, animated, enthusiastic, excited, spontaneous, gracious, eager, talkative, energized, pleasant, self-promoting, passionate, sociable, independent, commanding and creative.             

Friends Mates Rates – One of the more recently promoted ways to sell a product or service to a friend or family member at a discounted or reduced rate on the normal price.

Fringe Benefit – An agreed benefit given to employees that is in addition to their salary, such as a company car, pension scheme, paid holidays, etc.

Front Door Close – This is a far different way by appealing to the prospects compassionate nature than many salespeople would expect.  The salesperson simply uses the near exit through the front door to stop, and systematically renegotiate the communication until the seller can sit down with the prospects and start selling over again.

Front Man – Usually referred a person who holds an important position or office but lacks real power or authority for that position.  This person can also be referred to as a ‘front man’ either in business, organizations, politics, etc. The term was originally derived from the carved painted figurehead models which traditionally were fixed to the front of sailing ships.

Front-Line Staff and Mystery Shopper – A technique used by a variety of organizations to pose as a legitimate customer in order to grade service providers on the experience they provide. In other words, a person hired by market research companies or manufacturers, etc., to visit or telephone shops or service providers anonymously in order to assess the quality of goods, helpfulness of staff, layout of premises, etc.  For some industries, namely retail, these evaluations, conducted by independent organizations, provide a close approximation of the true customer experience, and can be used to fine tune training methods for the front-line staff.

Frustration and  Procrastination Objection – Far too many of those in sales can be easily “put-off” by a prospect.  When this happens they get frustrated when they leave without a yes or no from the prospect.  Simply asking for the order is the best way to overcome this issue

FUD Close – For the salespeople who like to use negative closes, because to them, someone saying “no” is music to their ears, then this close could be for you.  It’s called a F U D Close.  And the acronym F U D stands for Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt.  Wow – that is negative!

Fulfillment – When used in ecommerce, fulfillment is the process of completing an order or consolidating the sale. The term may also be applied to third-party companies that inventory products and ship orders on behalf of an online store.

Full Trust Customers – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.                     

Full-Time Employee Contract – This refers to a contract of employment which ends on a specific date, or on completion of a task or project that ends on a specific date.  Fixed term employees have the rights to the same pay, conditions and benefits as full-time employees.

Function – When used to express the functionality of the product, service or solution, it refers to the way it is used by an individual or the way it needs to be operated effectively to be functional.  See Features, Functions and Benefits

Function Feature – A characteristic of a product or service or the distinct part of a product or service that can be described. It may also refer to an aspect of a product or service, eg., colour, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc.  Salespeople often believe features sell products, but it is the benefit of a feature that is more attributable for the sale.  It also refers to a function of a product that can solve for a potential buyer’s need or pain point; usually a distinguishing characteristic that helps boost appeal.

Function of Targeted Opportunities – A process that is mainly used in sales organizations where mainly the gaining more sales is a function of taking away business from one or more business streams of those considered to be competitors.  Here the ratio used is usually a percentage to measure of the number of targeted opportunities sold when compared to the number of opportunities pursued.

Function Programming Interface (FPI) – An FPI is a procedure created to allow separate software solutions to communicate over a relatively simple interface. For this reason Software Developers will often use FPIs to connect or integrate systems and services.

Function Uniqueness – This usually relates to a function, feature or benefit (and in some cases all three) that is/are peculiar to a product or service or supplier.  It may also be that no other competitor can offer it. Uniqueness is usually a much overlooked aspect of selling. The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and services, and because of that inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price differences.  On the other hand, the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which will dramatically reduces competitive pressures.

Function – When used in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, for example; sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc. Understanding the work functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations.

Functional Listening – This is a term used to describe high level of listening capability together with appropriate methodology, in which the sales person actively seeks to understand how the speaker feels, and what their issues are.  That way the type of listening extends far beyond common inattentive listening.  Related to empathy and the need to be understood.

Functional Sales Force Automation (SFA) – This relates to automating the sales activities within an organization. A comprehensive SFA software solution provides functions such as contact management and account management, workflow and approval processes, sales lead and opportunity tracking capabilities, note and information sharing, quick proposal and presentation generation, product configurators, calendars and to-do lists and reporting capabilities.

Functional Selling System – This refers to the divisions of a selling organization that when, looked at as a group, comprise of complementary components to define how the organization sells on an overall level.  They are also aware that when the selling system is functioning well, the sales organization is said to be highly productive and effective in achieving results that constantly exceed expectations and/or break sales records.

Functionality Close – To make the Functionality Close suit both parts as a win/win scenario, where the prospect and the seller get to achieve what they are both after in the negotiations, the seller could use alternative questioning closed-type to narrow things down to something like, “Do you really think you need this a s a function, or would it be ______?”

Fund Disbursement – A method used to pay out money from a large fund, e.g. a treasury or public fund.

Fundamental Key Players – The (key) men and women situated inside an account who are essential to the selling organization for the seller’s gaining a positive decision.

Fundamental Sales Plan – Refers to a written document that ideally should incorporate related key goals and strategies that a salesperson should review regularly in the presence of a sales manager.  For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Fundamental Success and a Sales Plan – For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Funded Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) – A system in which the yearly budget for a department in a company starts at zero with no pre-authorised funds, and thereafter the department has to justify its budget requests in order to support the formal issue of the budget.

Funnel – See Sales Funnel.

Furniture Fixed Assets – Fixed Assets, such as property, equipment, furniture, vehicles, etc., which are owned by a company and which are also needed to operate the business or service conducted by the company or individual.

Future Appointment Call to Action – The-is refers to the process of asking for a commitment, although this may not necessarily be for a commitment to purchase.  Other types of commitment could be for another appointment, a future meeting, to bring in a more senior person, or the promise to explore specific issues with another decision maker within the same organization.

Future Close – If they are not ready to close now, agree a future date when you can meet. This at least keeps the sale alive and you return another day. It may also be just what you are seeking to take you to the next step in the strategy.  “When you have thought about it carefully and having thought through all the options you are aware of, do you think you may be ready to buy?”

Future Event – An upcoming event that is expected to occur created to drive the rationale for a customer making a decision for your product or service.

Future Positions and Sales Target – When considered within a sales context this is generally the issued (or ideally agreed) minimum level of sales performance for a salesperson or a team or department over a given period of time. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, and future positions etc., may all be dependent on the nominated sales staff meeting sales targets. Targets are established at the beginning of a fiscal trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular reviews throughout the year. Also see forecasting.

Future Prospects – These are the individuals or companies a salesperson has contacted, or have contacted the sales company, and who represent a future potential to be future buyers of a product, service or solution.

Future Sales Anticipated Forecasts – These kind of sales anticipated forecasts are future sales predictions based on activities and results from nominated past sales periods. They are predictions made by a sales organization of prospective sales that are in the sales pipeline, their associated revenue vales and the period of time in which they will convert to and order being placed.

Future Target Account – A specific account a salesperson or the sales organization has pre-selected to focus their effort and resources on. In the majority of cases, salespeople will select Target Accounts based on establishing criteria that suggest these accounts are more likely to represent a viable opportunity or the potential to purchase and utelise a specific product or service of immediate or future value to them.

Futurization – A quick (fast-track) route in a career to success and promotion, and is usually associated with high ambition and above average futurization.

 

Sales Dictionary

Sales Dictionary entries in G

Go to . . . A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

Gadget Widget – A small program which is run by some designated computers. It can also be a small device, switch, gadget, etc., whose name is not known.

Gain Close – Here you suggest that if they do what you ask, this will somehow lead to a significantly bigger gain being made by them. Then use phrasing such as ‘If you…then…’ to show causal connection.  “If you save a little each day starting today you should be able to live with far more luxury in retirement.”

Gained Targeted Opportunities – A process that is mainly used in sales organizations where mainly the gaining more sales is a function of taking away business from one or more business streams of those considered to be competitors.  Here the ratio used is usually a percentage to measure of the number of targeted opportunities sold when compared to the number of opportunities pursued.

Gambler – A highly ambitious individual who starts new business ventures in order to make a lot of money, and is a person who often takes financial risks.

Gap Analysis – Enables a company to assess the notable gap between its actual performance and its potential performance, by openly comparing what skills, products, etc. are available as to what is required to improve performance, output, etc.

Gaps and Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Garnering – A term primarily used when a product is still being sold, although it is no longer being invested in, or prior to the product being withdrawn from the market.

Gas Commodity Sales – This refers to the sale of something that is typically bought in bulk and consumed continuously.  And refers to products such as solvents, oils and gasses, a number of paper goods that fit into the commodities sector.

Gatekeeper – This term is despised by many professional salespeople and mainly refers to a person (usually a secretary or person answering the phones or greeting people in an office or company) who often is responsible for “screening” sales people or strangers who call the company prior to forwarding these sales people or strangers to purchasing agents, managers, or owners.  This may also be a person in an organisation who controls access to the people in the organisation, and/or controls access to information or goods, or even a market. Microsoft could be described as a gatekeeper to the computer industry. Google could be described as a gatekeeper to the internet industry.

Gathered for a Research Dossier – This may typically represent a collection of a salesperson’s notes, articles and collateral that is gathered during the planning phase of the sales process. Having a prospect’s or customer’s unique research dossier with on a call, the salesperson communicates to the prospect or customer that they have done their homework properly and have their best interests at heart.

Gazetted Discount – A genuine reduction to the amount normally charged (and typically reduced from a gazetted list price) that is usually offered by the seller or the selling organization to encourage more purchases of a product or services on offer.

GBS (General Benefit Statement) Often used in the very beginning of a sales call, the general benefit statement highlights the value or benefit that may occur as a result of the salesperson’s visit, or of the selling organization and the customer working together.

GDP (Gross Domestic Product) – The term, Gross Domestic Product is a very frequently used expression in business and economic circles, and basically refers to a nation’s total production at prescribed market values. GDP is however not easily explained, or understood, at what may be considered a detailed and/or precise level. And GDP may be calculated in different ways. Each method requires some qualification of precise definition, and then comprises quite complex formulae, mainly to ensure there is no double-counting, and no omissions. The main methods seem to be that although each nation has its own rules and various institutional bodies may produce other rules and standards for calculations and definitions, ordinary people can reasonably regard fully detailed definitions of GDP very confusing. Lots of experts do too.  Mostly GDP may be calculated by totaling the market (sales) values of all products and services and that way GDP may instead be expressed as the combined total spending on products and services by consumers, industry and state. Alternatively, GDP may be expressed in terms of a population’s total incomes, plus corporate profits and taxes on a variety of products and services. Each of these methods contains several and variable minor additional factors and caviats. Other methods exist as well.

Geared Pre-Call Plan – This refers to the salesperson’s written description of either the determined objectives for the call, the key questions that will be asked during the call, and/or the strategy that will be taken in order to move the sales process forward in a positive manner.

GEM – Acronym for Going the Extra Mile. Often referred to when a sales or service provider does extra things to communicate commitment, genuine caring and the honest desire to help the customer.

Gender Employment Equity – A system that promotes equal employment opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender, race, ability, etc.

General Benefit Statement – Often used in the very beginning of a sales call, the general benefit statement highlights the value or benefit that may occur as a result of the salesperson’s visit, or of the selling organization and the customer working together.

General Debriefing – A meeting, interview, group meeting or group interview in which a person or group of people report about a task or mission just completed or attempted.

General Management Function – When used in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, for example; sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc. Understanding the work functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations.

General Market Penetration – The ability of an individual or company to enter and gain share in a specified market, generally measured in percentage terms.

General Market Sector – Competing businesses which may produce or possibly buy similar goods and/or services, and the customers to which certain goods and services are marketed.

General Marketing – The technical process followed by individuals, companies and organizations to satisfy the needs, wants, and demands of their customers through the application and promotion of products and services that satisfy those customer requirements.

General Open Market – A market which generally operates without restrictions, and in which anyone can buy and sell at will.

General Pressure Sales Words – These are words that can cause concern, or stress, to the prospect. Whenever the seller believes there is the need to use pressure sales words in a sales presentation and to in turn use any one of the recommended replacements available to them.

General Proof – This generally refers to the validation of a statement or claim that has been made by a salesperson. Typically, the general sales proof that is offered may include testimonials, results of independent tests, and in some obscure cases, is an actual demonstration of the claims being made.

General Public Mass Marketing – The process of marketing a product or service to the general public through the mass media, for example, TV, radio, newspapers and magazines.

General Sales Forecast Projections – This is also known as sales projections, these are the predictions that sales people and sales managers are required to make about future business levels, necessary for their own organisation to plan and budget everything from stock levels, production, staffing levels, to advertising and promotion, financial performance and market strategies.

General Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Generalist – Often referred to a person who has a broad general knowledge at a high level, and/or may posses many of the skills required to adequately undertake the role.

Generate More Ending Questions – These are primarily thought provoking questions that are generally used at the end of an opening statement.  These types of questions will get the prospect thinking about what the salesperson has said, and encourages the prospect to make a comment and/or ask more questions.  Questions of this nature are not only those that would encourage the prospect to share their ideas, beliefs, opinions, and views on a subject, and once shared it allows the salesperson to take the situation into any direction of interest to the prospect and in turn can generate more thought provoking questions.             

Generic Sales Process Steps – Those involved in formal sales training will be quick to tell you of the well-understood, generic steps (initiation, qualify, evaluate, develop, propose, contract, win, close) as they are identified for the purpose of selling, from initiation to close. As a process, it is measurable and improvable.

Generic Sales Process Steps – Those involved in formal sales training will be quick to tell you of the well-understood, generic steps (initiation, qualify, evaluate, develop, propose, contract, win, close) as they are identified for the purpose of selling, from initiation to close. As a process, it is measurable and improvable.

Genuine Rapport – These are usually the things a salesperson or selling group has in common with a prospect.  Most salespeople usually refer only to what matters most to build genuine relationships like names in common joint and/or mutual benefits of doing business with each other and whatever else it may take to get things humming along with as little interruption as possible.

Geographic Exclusivity – This occurs when a manufacturer, distributor, sales representative or other supplier that enter into any kind of agreements that limits the number of retailers or other suppliers that are entitled to carry a certain product, or product line, within a specified geographic area or types/kind of stores.

Geographic Location Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Geographic Territory Design – This is the process applied that primarily sales managers engage in to allocate territories in order to ensure potential exists, and to balance the opportunities among their sales team members. This is mostly done build a sense of equal opportunity within the sales force.

Geographical Boundary Area of Focus – A salespersons pre-determined “area of focus,” is an area from which they allowed to obtain sales. Most sales territories are organized by post codes, zip codes or geographical boundaries.. Many sales territories are also “protected,” meaning that those companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and disallow another salesperson to sell in that pre-determined sales territory.

Geographical Market Sector – An integral part of the market that can be described, categorised and then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics.  These sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, as an example, a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc.

Geographical Sales Territory – Refers to a sales person’s “area of focus” from which they are to obtain sales. Most territories are organized by post codes (zip codes) or geographical boundaries. Many territories are also “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own salespeople and usually disallow another salesperson to sell in another team member’s territory.

Geographical Territory – This relates to the pre-zoned geographical area of responsibility assigned to a salesperson, a sales team or sales organization. A few generations ago, in Australia, a field-based salespersons territory would commonly be a zoned area within a state or the state itself. In the USA a field-based salespersons territory would be a region, a county or a state.  Now days, as fact-to-face selling is becoming more costly, so much more of the selling is done online, or remotely by telephone, so field-based sales territories are now much larger and can be two, three or 10 times larger.

Geographical Test Market – In a marketing sense, this usually relates to a product or service which is usually tested in a particular area of the country before it is launched nationally.  In fact, it relates to a process of evaluating the appeal of a product or service generally by selecting cities, prospects, existing customers and locations in which to introduce the product or service, and monitor its receptivity by those intended users.

Gestation Period – A sale gestation period typically refers to the time taken from an enquiry to sale, or the Sales Cycle.  Awareness and monitoring of the Sale Gestation Period within a Sales Cycle times are crucial factors in sales planning, forecasting and management, for individuals sales teams and for sales organizations.

Gestation Sales Cycle Process – The Sales Cycle process generally describes the time and/or the lapse between first contact with the prospect to when the sale is formally made. Sales Cycle times and processes can vary enormously depending on the company, type of business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, and the market and the particular situation applying to the customer at the time of the enquiry. The Sales Cycle time is also referred to as the Sale Gestation Period (ie from conception to birth – enquiry to sale).

Gestation Sales Cycle: The beginning to end of your sales process – from “nothing” to close. Starts normally with data-mining, includes the activities and stages associated with taking an opportunity and ends with attempting to get referrals from your client. These are considered to be the set of steps an organization believes are needed to make a sale and the sales cycles can vary considerably across business organizations and the markets they serve.

Gestures Mirroring – This relates to the gestures, body movements, ands by which a person communicates their outlook or frame of mind. Paying attention to and reading body language can provide valuable insight in the selling process.

Get Action Close – Here is a close that most of the prospects that I have met over the years that I have sold either on a one-off or one-on-one basis.  Why? Because it addresses something every prospect ever wanted – instantly.  “I’m not sure if I have your size. Would you want me to put them aside for you if I have them in stock?”

Get Out Clause – A condition within a contract that allows the contract to be broken in particular circumstances.

Getting All Your Ducks In A Row – A term use for getting a group, team or an individual organised, by having everything in order and making sure all of the smallest details are accounted for before embarking on a new project.

Gift Of Gab – The perceived or the actual skill or the known ability for a salesperson to converse at will or to freely communicate with a prospect or customer.

Give it a Try Close – Here is a really easy to use closing style. The seller says, “Well then, why don’t you give it a try?” Or alternately can say, “Why don’t you give us a try?” Or may even say, “Why don’t you take it?” When the prospect answers, the seller then reinforces it adding, “Good, I’ll take care of all the details.” The fact is, most times the customer didn’t know how much he or she wanted to buy until the salesperson offered to take care of all the details.

Give Me Detail and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Give the Parinello Principle a go – Parinello calculated a rule that suggests that if 75%of a salespersons work time is managed properly and allocated directly to supporting the sales process, then 75% of a salespersons sales activities will yield a 125% quota performance.  This suggests that a salesperson working effectively 75% 0f the time will earn approximately two thirds more (50% increase on the 75% = 125%) and on an earning capacity at 100% of say $100,000, the same salesperson working the Parinello Principle should earn around $170,000.  That’s enough reason to at least make a go at working this way.

Give-Take Close – It takes guts to use this close. The seller gives a little, then takes it away.  The purpose of this is to get the prospect to work harder to get it back. More seasoned salespeople love to use this close.

Gizmo Feature – A characteristic of a product or service or the distinct part of a product or service that can be described. It may also refer to an aspect of a product or service, eg., colour, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc.  Salespeople often believe features sell products, but it is the benefit of a feature that is more attributable for the sale.  It also refers to a function of a product that can solve for a potential buyer’s need or pain point; usually a distinguishing characteristic that helps boost appeal.

Go and No-Go Points – This is a generally referred to slang term that denotes the point at which the customer and/or the selling organization will make the decision to move forward within a certain point or generally defined points of the sales cycle. In an organization’s selling cycle, there may be multiple GO and/or No-Go points.

Go Points – A rarely used off-the-cuff term to imply the point at which the prospect or customer and the salesperson, or the selling organization will make the decision to move forward in the selling process at the time. In a business organization’s selling cycle, there may be multiple go points or no-go points.

Goal – The end result towards which a salesperson or sales organization has assumed they would be headed. The ability for the individual or group to set and execute against ambitious yet realistic goals is considered the essential foundation to a sales organization’s success..

Goal Incentive Program –  Quota sales incentive program developed and applied from a known existing Cycle Of Sales process. This is the kind of incentive program that has been designed to motivate and encourage positive sales results within a small sales team, to larger group of sales teams.

Goal Quotas – Sales Quotas are the most useful adjuncts to planning, control and all forms of measurement and verification tools.  The sales quota (estimate) is not the same as a sales forecast (goal).  All quotas can take on many forms including dollar amounts, numbers of products or services sold, the number of sales made, the number of appointments made etc..  Every salesperson should work at developing a strategy of earning far more than the quota given to him or her by the company.

Goals and Directors – These are the assigned individuals who are held accountable for the responsible and timely completion of goals, plans, targets, objectives and expected work-loads of the nominated team leader        

Goals and Quotas – An official allocation of something, or a quantifiable goal or series of objectives that reflect what a salesperson or sales unit must achieve in during an upcoming financial period. Quotas can also be measured in revenues, in units, or other measures appropriate to a product or service and may incorporate a sales goal, a set amount of sales a salesperson is expect to meet over a given time frame.

Goals and Total Target Cash Compensation – In sales and the associated compensation factors, this refers to the total compensation a salesperson earns once the expected goals are achieved. This may include salary and incentive components earned if the individual achieves the pre-defined goals.

Goals Board – A thick paper board, document or electronically inspired printed artwork to track prospecting approaches, appointed calls, presentations made and sales achieved.

Goals Card – A paper card, document or electronic device to track prospecting approaches, appointed calls, presentations made and sales achieved.

Goals Monday Morning Meeting – Typically a sales meeting conducted at the start of each work week, usually on Monday mornings. Typical topics include discussing the previous week’s sales activities and accomplishments, covering the next week’s goals, and communicating other key information.

Go-between Wheeling and Dealing – The process of writing a profit, which could sometimes be done dishonestly.  Wheeling and Dealing also refers to the normal buy when buying and selling things, or acting as a go-between for two parties.

Go-Getters Never Say Selling is a Numbers Game – A totally misguided belief that is based on performing some manner of sales related activities the are predicted to result in pre-determined results and are always based on the numbers and statistics. However, only those that are believers of this theory are generally untrained people who dabble in sales and in far too many cases only last one two or more years.  Professional salespeople on the other hand understand that the numbers they need to concentrate on are their personal performance statistics based on conversion and closing percentages.  The narrower the conversion number between calls and sales, the better the seller, or the sales manager that helps guide the salesperson.

Go-Getting SMART Goal – A mnemonic used to describe the components of a well-defined and realistic goal statement.  It stands for a goal needing to be Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, and Time bound.

Going Live – This is the point in time when a company or organisation, etc., replaces an old program or system with a new one.

Going the Extra Mile (GEM) – Acronym for Going the Extra Mile. Often referred to when a sales or service provider does extra things to communicate commitment, genuine caring and the honest desire to help the customer.

Golden Bridge Close – If you want a person to take a particular option, don’t mention it directly, but, show how other options are neither feasible nor desirable.  That way, you are able to let your prospects choose the  option you want them to have for themselves.  “Sorry, we’re out of that one…Hmm, that one is really too expensive for you …And that one over there has got really bad reviews and I wouldn’t recommend it either…”

Golden Handcuffs – A financial incentive or a number of incentives or benefits given to or provided for a valued employee to ensure that they continue working for a company, and to discourage them from wanting to leave to work for another company.

Gone To The Wall – This is an adequate description of a business which has failed.

Good CRM strategy – This refers to systems that are generally considered necessary for modern organisations of any size and scale to enable them to create effective planning and implementation of sales (and to a certain extent marketing) activities.

Good Fortune Windfall – Mostly refers to a sudden, and unexpected sum of money, or a sudden piece of good fortune received by someone unexpectedly.

Good Positioning – This is generally referred to as more a marketing term than a sales term, although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers.  The term is usually related to some manner of targeting.  In other words, positioning refers to how a product or service or proposition is presented or described or marketed in relation to the market place, with a focused reference to customers, competition, image, pricing, quality, etc. Positioning basically refers to whether a proposition is being sold appropriately, namely in the right way, to the right people, at the right time, in the right place, and at the right price. A business can also fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically suggests that salespeople are unable to sell successfully – and in far too many cases this is untrue – as the salespeople were not adequately trained as to how best position the product or service to the prospect. There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills, and the product/service, but the venture fails because the positioning is wrong. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service. Effective selling is not only about quality and skills – its about suitability of targeting.

Good Reason Close – If you are selling something that you know they would like but cannot justify to themselves that they should buy it, then suggest they deserve to give themselves a treat.  And give themselves a treat sooner rather than later.  “I can see that you really like it. You know what, I really think you deserve it – and you know you do.  So go on, treat yourself!”

Good Success Through a Sales Plan – For those that do not have a sales plan, the old adage that suggests that those that have not written and follow a plan for success, are by default following a plan form mediocrity and ultimately a plan for failure.

Goods and Price – Refers to the amount of money required to purchase goods or services or alternately to bribe someone for a given amount of money. This will invariably be the amount agreed upon between the buyer and seller in a commercial transaction – either in retail, wholesale, distribution or commercial or in-house sales.

Goods and Services One-Stop Shop – Relates to a retail establishment which generally provides an extensive range of goods and services, so the customer can purchase everything they need without having to go elsewhere.

Goods Discount – A genuine reduction to the amount normally charged (and typically reduced from a gazetted list price) that is usually offered by the seller or the selling organization to encourage more purchases of a product or services on offer.

Goods Exchange – The process of the exchanging one item or commodity for another item or commodity. Bartering usually involves going back and forth or “haggling” to reach mutual agreement.

Goods Free Market – A market in which prices of goods and services are affected by the available supply and demand, rather than being determined by government regulation.

Goods Markdown – A reduced selling price on specified selected items adjusted to meet the price of another retailer, clear out, or shopworn, or slow moving, or overstocked, or discontinued merchandise, or to increase customer traffic. This is generally basically, another name for a “sale”.

Goods Market – The commercial activity of buying and selling goods and services but not restricted to the buying and selling goods and services. Also referred to as the customers who buy goods and services.

Goods Net Price – This is the price payable for nominated goods or services (after any deductions, discounts, etc.), have been taken off.

Goods or Services Zero-Rated – Describes the goods or services on which the buyer pays no GST, goods tax, or VAT (value-added-tax).

Goods Reseller – Relates to a company that purchases goods or services for the purpose of resale, not consumption. In web economics, a reseller may also be a form of affiliate marketer, promoting a re-branded product or service.

Goods Retailers – Companies, businesses and/or individuals that generally sell goods from a physical location, either a shop or warehouse, but now more increasingly over the internet, sell products and/or services directly to end consumers and collect sales tax, or goods and services tax (when and where applicable) on those transactions. Some direct sales companies and other organizations might also fit in this category. Since retailers buy at wholesale or in other ways, and sell at retail, is what makes them “retailers”.

Goods Sold Profit Margin Basics – This relates to the difference between what a retailer pays for a product and what the retailer’s customer pays for the same product.  The margin calculations may solely only the cost of the goods sold or may take into account other factors such as overheads and other variable costs.

Goods Vendors – Refers to an organization or manufacturer that manufactures and/or supplies specific goods or services to businesses in a specified category, or range of categories, within a particular industry group.

Google – Google is considered to be the world’s leading search engine provider. Google displays search results by using a complex and secret algorithm that considers many factors important to advertising or product or services exposed by individuals and companies. Google seeks to show its users the best possible results. Google also provides other services, including a pay-per-click advertising network, payment processing solutions, product discovery tools, and an excellent analytics platform.

Google Gatekeeper – Google could be described as a gatekeeper to the internet industry.

Google Keyword Tool – Refers to a free keyword suggestion tool included within the Google AdWords Platform. The tool uses data from the many searches conducted on the Google search engine to suggest keywords for a given URL and category or group of categories.

Google PageRank or PageRanking – This is a Google’s proprietary page ranking or page ranking  system that places emphasis on inbound links as a means of determining how key a given page is. PageRank or PageRanking can also be measured on either a ten-point or 100-point scale.

Google Pay Per Click (PPC) – Mostly refers to an online advertising model where the advertisers pay only when a prospect clicks on an advertisement and is then redirected to the advertiser’s website. Google’s AdWords platform is an example of pay-per-click promotion.

Google Trends – Refers to a search engine tool that shows how often a particular term or keyword is searched for by a consumer on Google. Results are shown in a relative scale, making the tool well suited for individuals or companies comparing keywords or phrases. Trends will also show where searches came from and how search volume for a particular keyword has changed over time.

Go-to-Market Strategy – This is a strategy or strategies an organization takes to build their presence within a target market.

Government and Price Control – Refers to maximum and minimum price limitations, and is trotted out often during periods of inflation, during which a government may be forced to promote a variety of alternative but essential goods and/or services.

Government Tender – A structured formal proposal in response to the issue of an invitation for the supply of a product or service to a large organization or government department. Tenders require certain qualifying criteria to be met first by the tendering organization. Tenders need to adhere to strict submission deadlines, contract terms, specifications and even the presentation of the tender itself. It is not unknown for very successful tendering companies to actually help the customer formulate the tender specification, which explains why it’s so difficult to prize the business away from them.

Gracious Expressive Style – The buyers who take an expressive approach to the selling process are usually want to be the centre of attention, can sometimes be manipulative, as well as friendly, animated, enthusiastic, excited, spontaneous, gracious, eager, talkative, energized, pleasant, self-promoting, passionate, sociable, independent, commanding and creative.             

Granting Close – With this close the salesperson should offer a concession of something they want in return for buying the product.  In fact, the seller should be up front about wanting an order in return for the concession. “In my opinion, I think you deserve a free case with this.  Will you take the free case?”

Granting Factor – In sales negotiation, the process of yielding on a negotiating point is usually primarily a request or a specific term or condition. Concessions can be typically used by either party in a negotiation to enable making forward progress.

Graphic Prototype – Relates to an original design or a working model of something, that may or may not be often used in sales demonstrations.  It may also relate to some form of visual, graphic or drawing which lays out the detail of the approach that could be used. Oftentime, blueprints are also referred to as “models,” or “prototypes.”

Grass Roots – The ordinary people in any business or organisation, rather than the management or the decision-makers.

Gratis – To do or give something without payment. Free of charge.

Gravy Train – Any business activity which makes a large profit for an individual or an organisation without too much effort. To have it easy.

Greedy Predatory Pricing – This is also known as Destroyer Pricing, and is a situation where a company purposely charges very low prices for goods or services in order to put its competitors under financial pressure or even out of business.  Once the damage has been done, the prices will be raised back to a realistic and profitable level.

Grey Market – In the marketing field, business ‘diversion’ refers to the unofficial distribution and/or availability of branded consumer products. The supply of branded products through unauthorised stockists, retailers or other suppliers, notably marketing through the web is a concern world-wide. Diversion does not simply refer to pirated or counterfeit or ‘fake’ goods. Diversion refers to official goods being sold through unofficial channels.

Grey Market/Gray Market – In today’s marketing and business processes a grey market (gray market in the USA) is generally referred to as the supply of official goods through unofficial channels, for example the availability of branded consumer products on the internet from unauthorized stockists – despite the fact that these goods may be counterfeit. The reference here is to the unofficial, and often time illegal, distribution and availability of known and official branded original goods. The term grey market extends widely and includes notably the substantial availability of products which have been diverted from one international marketing territory to another.

gridlock – Whenever this term is used in sales, it refers to the point at which both parties are deadlocked in some way, and are not able to move forward unless the parties enter into more mutually substantive negotiation.

Grocery Store Unit Pricing – This relates to a practice in which mainly retailers and supermarkets expresses price in terms of both the total price of an item and the price per unit of measure (e.g. per ounce). Common in larger grocery stores and chains.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – The term, Gross Domestic Product is a very frequently used expression in business and economic circles, and basically refers to a nation’s total production at prescribed market values. GDP is however not easily explained, or understood, at what may be considered a detailed and/or precise level. And GDP may be calculated in different ways. Each method requires some qualification of precise definition, and then comprises quite complex formulae, mainly to ensure there is no double-counting, and no omissions. The main methods seem to be that although each nation has its own rules and various institutional bodies may produce other rules and standards for calculations and definitions, ordinary people can reasonably regard fully detailed definitions of GDP very confusing. Lots of experts do too.  Mostly GDP may be calculated by totaling the market (sales) values of all products and services and that way GDP may instead be expressed as the combined total spending on products and services by consumers, industry and state. Alternatively, GDP may be expressed in terms of a population’s total incomes, plus corporate profits and taxes on a variety of products and services. Each of these methods contains several and variable minor additional factors and caviats. Other methods exist as well.

Gross Margin – The difference between the cost paid for goods sold and the price at which they were sold.

Gross Margin, or Product Margin: The percentage of the SELLING PRICE, which is above and beyond the cost of purchasing.  Sometimes, margin is expressed as a %, other times as a unit of measure, e.g. $$ per unit i.e., profit margin.

Gross Profit (CGS) – This is the difference between GROSS sales and the cost of goods sold (CGS) before operating expenses are taken out to determine net profit.

Gross Profit Margin – Generally expressed as a percentage of the profits earned, in other words, what is left from a company’s sales after cost of goods sold is paid out. Gross profit margin is obtained by dividing the gross income by the net sales.

Group Debriefing – A meeting, interview, group meeting or group interview in which a person or group of people report about a task or mission just completed or attempted.

Group Discussion Complex Sales Model – Mainly associated with the normal sale of products, services and solutions to companies, organizations and corporates which may require multiple group discussions and long time frames.

Group Goal Driven Program  – A sales incentive program developed and applied from a known existing Cycle Of Sales process. This is the kind of incentive program that has been designed to motivate and encourage positive sales results within a small sales team, to larger group of sales teams.

Group Manager – A senior person who is generally in charge of a project, department, group, team, etc.

Group Market Segmentation – The mechanical or computerized process of identifying and dividing consumers into groups according to their purchasing behaviour.

Group Niche or Target Market – Distinct and definable segments of generally a larger market segment that a business may seek to attract and satisfy individuals or groups with targeted goods and/or services directly or indirectly suitable for the niche market.

Group Potential – A term used openly in sales to evaluate a salesperson’s assessment, either in dollars, or units and/or relationship, of doing business with a particular area, region, company, group or individual customer.

Group Presentation/Sales Presentation – This is generally referred to as the process by which a salesperson explains/presents the product or service to the prospect (be it a single contact or a group), and will ideally include an explanation of the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are pertinent/relevant to the needs of the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but will more usually involve the use of visuals, common bullet-points, text slides and images on a computer display, tablet or projected onto a screen.  They can incorporate a video and/or physical demonstration of the product(s) or service(s).

Group Product Portfolio – Defines the combined total of all products and services, either individually or by set’s a company may offer to its customers as a package.

Group References – This refers to an individual, group or company that is willing to back up certain claims of what your product or service may achieve either under ordinary conditions, extraordinary conditions, or beyond what is generally expected and/or experienced.  References may be recorded by way of personally written testimonials, recorded testimonials and/or visually recorded testimonials.

Group Selling System – This refers to the divisions of a selling organization that when, looked at as a group, comprise of complementary components to define how the organization sells on an overall level.  They are also aware that when the selling system is functioning well, the sales organization is said to be highly productive and effective in achieving results that constantly exceed expectations and/or break sales records.

Group Sponsor – A company, group or individual who may help, most usually in a financial way, a team, an event, a sports meeting or concert, etc., in return for publicity or to advertise their own company or product in some way or another.

Group Suspects – This refers to those individuals, company’s or organizations that are suspected potential clients but have not been contacted by the salesperson or organization for an exploratory appointment.  These suspects are usually compiled into lists based on territories, business size and revenue ranking and potential status.

Group Synergy – The working together of two or more individuals, groups, businesses companies, etc., to produce a greater result than working individually.

Group Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Group Targeting – The term targeting has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of the word target. As a marketing term, it is very relevant for salespeople and managers to focus on the prospects at which the selling effort is aimed, namely ‘target markets’, or ‘target sectors’ by ‘positioning’ a product or service or proposition welcomed by the targeted user. Targeting provides a potential to develop and refine local markets and aim efforts at the sectors or prospect groups which will produce the greatest results. Sales generally are made more easily from existing or previous customers, rather than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is completely unknown. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximises its chances of engaging with the most responsive and profitable sectors of a defined market.

Group Think Tank – This occurs when a  group or organization which may research and/or advise on issues relating to technology, economy, politics, selling processes and social strategy invites a group of like-minded people together to collectively think-through solutions to a variety of challenges and/or specific problems confronting and industry or selling-based team or organization.

Group Trust Customers – Refers to an individual, SME, or organization with a challenging need that they have entrusted in a salesperson to satisfy or resolve.  It also relates to an individual or group of people who have full trust in the abilities and talents of the salesperson to meet and or exceed their expectations as they are the ones who willfully invest their time, money and energy to buy that prescribed product, service or solution in order to get on top of their problems and challenges.           

Group Vested Interest – This term is applied when an individual, or business or group has a special interest in something, such as property, an activity, etc., from which there is a high probability of personal and/or financial gain.

Grouped Product offer – How the product and/or service offer is positioned and presented to the prospect or to the market, (which would normally include features and/or advantages) and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (via alternate segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully.

Grouped Target Market – A defined group of people (prospects) or individuals (business, company or consortiums) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these focus types into customers. Target Markets will usually share key traits in common such as industry type, demographic groupings, geographic location or areas, income groups, or sales revenue levels.

Grouping Market Sector – An integral part of the market that can be described, categorised and then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics.  These sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, as an example, a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc.

Grouping Market Segment – Relates to a sub-sector or market niche, which is basically a grouping that’s more narrowly defined and smaller than what is generally known as a sector.  A segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors.

Growth and Recession Cycle – A sequence of economic activities which are usually typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at other times, through decline. Salespeople who are attuned to a company’s business cycle are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced at the time and know how their products and services can alleviate some of the tougher conditions that may be experienced within the business cycle at any given time.

Growth Based Territory Business Plan – This is usually a hands-on, tactical process where each salesperson examines the performance of his/her territory over usually the previous 12-month period – or perhaps a shorter term such as a half-year, quarter or month. A Territory Business Plans will identify the strengths, weaknesses, competitive presence, opportunities for growth, and action plans for the upcoming period.

Growth Business Partners – Realise this one thing. The people, small businesses, companies and organizations that have bought from a salesperson, but have not only just bought, they have become to depend on you.  They are now your business partners, and they will now depend more on you, and your company’s resources to grow and prosper.

Growth Cycle – A considered and recorded sequence of economic activities typically characterized by recessions, recovery, growth, and at times, decline. Salespeople who are attuned to company business cycles (either individually or corporately) are able to position their products effectively against the challenges being experienced by their prospects, and then capitalise how their products and services can alleviate some of the conditions being experienced in the business cycle.

Growth in a Product Life Cycle – This refers to the generally and stages that a product or service passes through from invention, development and to maturity through constant market decline until it becomes obsolete – usually because it has been superseded by other more competitive replacement offerings, and to a lesser degree the product or service had fully saturated that target market – everyone who wants it has purchased it.  From a marketing standpoint there are four stages in a product’s lifecycle.  These include Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. Understanding where a product is in its lifecycle can help the selling organization better define its sales strategy and the time it may take in selling the product or service in the designated market.

GST Zero-Rated – Describes the goods or services on which the buyer pays no GST, goods tax, or VAT (value-added-tax).

Guarantee – A written, verbal or legal guarantee of the working integrity of a product or service, and the manufacturer’s responsibility for the repair or replacement, if the product or service does not work as specified.

Guarantee – When used in a sales compensation program, this is used to denote what portion of the salesperson’s compensation mix that is assured by position, regardless of level of performance achieved.

Guaranteed Forward Integration – This is usually a well used business strategy where a company takes control of its distributors for the sole purpose of guaranteeing the distribution of the controlling company’s products.

Guideline Directives – At an official level, directives are instructions, guidelines or orders issued by a specific governing or regulatory body. They may relate to a form of law. In a less formal way, most directives equate to an instruction issued by an executive or manager or organizational department head.

Guilt Close – This is a closing style that plays with the prospects heart strings.  To activate it the salesperson simply states, with a high degree of confidence, “You have come to me today because of _______ and all you’d like me to do is to supply the details that ______.  Is that correct?”  Then wait for an answer.

Guru – An influential teacher of or an expert in a particular subject or field who shares their knowledge, often by writing books.

 

Sales Dictionary

Sales Dictionary entries in H

Go to . . . A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

 

Habits and Schedules – A salespersons regular sales schedules and habits which in turn dictate the amount of demonstrations and sales are ultimately made.

Habits and Schedules – A salespersons regular sales schedules and habits which in turn dictate the amount of demonstrations and sales are ultimately made.

Haggle – More than just the ability to negotiate with someone over the price of something until an agreeably mutual price is reached.  Most haggles will try to lower the price for no other reason than they can.  This process continues until the seller cannot accept a price any lower than the last price agreed upon.

Haggler Close – This closing technique is the one that should be used to overcome what the whole of the selling profession would consider to be an unreasonable objection or demand by the prospect. It’s one of the few closing techniques that’s been designed to specifically use on prospects who like to haggle for every last cent and raise as many objections as they believe they should to get the seller off guard.

Haggling – The process of the exchanging one item or commodity for another item or commodity. Bartering usually involves going back and forth or “haggling” to reach mutual agreement.

Half Metre Confidential Zone – This refers to an invisible zone outward in all directions approximately a half metre from the salespersons body.  Other zones will extend outwards in larger concentric circles and are usually reserved for social events with lesser degrees of intimacy.  These are generally referred to as individual, socialble and common zones.

Half Nelson Close – When it comes to understanding how to get the upper hand in sales, there are some nifty techniques that can help you get the sale over the line. One of the better ways to do this is to apply the Half Nelson Close.  “Would you go ahead with the purchase today if I gave you a ten per cent discount?”

Half-yearly Territory Business Plan – This is usually a hands-on, tactical process where each salesperson examines the performance of his/her territory over usually the previous 12-month period – or perhaps a shorter term such as a half-year, quarter or month. A Territory Business Plans will identify the strengths, weaknesses, competitive presence, opportunities for growth, and action plans for the upcoming period.

Hall of Fame – This is a special position within a company for those that achieve extraordinary results, generally in sales, but not just restricted to sales.  To achieve Hall of Fame status the recipient would need to have performed above and achieved results far above others in the same field in the same year.

Hall of Fame Top Gun – In many sales organizations, this refers to the top salesperson. There is also quite often, a Top Gun contest that a sales organization may promote throughout the year associated with a special prize, trip trophy, hall of fame membership or other memorabilia.

Handover Close – This is a favourite in the car industry that uses a dedicated “closer” that finishes off the sale. If the closer does not exist, they use a sales manager to close. The if there was no manager available another salesperson could always be called on to get the sale over the line.

Hands on Close – If been given an opportunity to make “hands on” use of your product or service turns your prospects into believers.  As a salesperson, your goal should be to do everything you can to make sure that your prospects are given this opportunity. The good thing with this closing style, is that once your prospects start using your product or service, most times the only way to get it back is to repossess it.

Handshake Close – Applied somewhat like the assumptive close, but with the handshake close, the salesperson gives the prospect the offer and automatically extends his or her hand. The gesture doesn’t give the prospect much time to think about things and hopefully the seller makes the sale.

Handshake Close – This close works in a somewhat similar way to the assumptive close. With the handshake close, you give your customer the offer and then automatically extend your hand and ask. “Is a handshake worth what it used to be?” It doesn’t give them much time to think and mostly you’ll get the sale.

Hands-Off – A term often applied to or used against those managers who do not directly participate when dealing with a situation in the workplace by letting the people involved decide what they want to do.

Hands-on Territory Business Plan – This is usually a hands-on, tactical process where each salesperson examines the performance of his/her territory over usually the previous 12-month period – or perhaps a shorter term such as a half-year, quarter or month. A Territory Business Plans will identify the strengths, weaknesses, competitive presence, opportunities for growth, and action plans for the upcoming period.

Happiness and Well-being – Over the years, this has developed into a significant term/s for the consideration of marketers concerning personal health and happiness in the workplace, with implications for performance, quality, organizational effectiveness and profitability. The idea of well-being, and specifically the promotion and strategic improvement of personal well-being in the workplace, is a major extension of many of the earlier principles and issues of individual stress levels and the need for viable stress management.

Happy Customer Close – The purpose of this close is to ensure the prospect empathizes with the other person, who is now a very happy customer, in the story.  “John let me tell you something.  I have customer, just like you, and just like you gave me a hard time at first, but after some persuasion he took my advise and purchased the same model as I have recommend to you.  Once he took delivery, he couldn’t stop raving about it, and since then, I have personally asked him to talk to others, just like you, and they took his recommendations as well.  I can arrange for you to chat with him is you like.  Would you want me to do that for you?”

Hard Close Technique – Like it or not, sometimes the only sales closing technique that works is in itself a hard close technique. This is face to face, belly to belly, show no fear, get the deal signed type of selling.

Hard Close  The seller stops, takes a deep breath, establishes eye contact, leans forward and says, “I can see you are very interested in what we have offered you, when do you want to start?”  No matter what they answer with, the seller simply asks an alternative question, “Would you prefer the first of the second option to start with?”

Hard Contacts – This relates to a networking term (differentiating from ‘soft contacts’) – ‘hard contacts’ may refer to members of networking groups whose purpose is mutual referral of sales prospects.

Hard Money – Generally used when money is tight or difficult to borrow, and if a loan is secured in those times it would be paid back at a very high rate of interest.

Hard Sell – Refers to what many in sales may consider to be an over-the-top aggressive or overly forceful selling technique, made popular in the 1960s, and since then regaining popularity among advocates/practitioners of old-fashioned one-way sales methods, that constantly may use high pressure and cynical so called sales tactics to cajole customers to buy. This style of selling today is rarely successful and mostly never sustainable. Contrasts with ‘soft sell’.

Hard Selling – An aggressive type of selling which many consider unethical these days that puts a lot of pressure on a prospective customer to buy a product or a service from someone in the selling field currently that is unlikely to remain in sales for too long.

Hard to Get Sales Goals Tactical Sales Plan – This is a step-by-step process with a plan that sets out what needs to ideally transpire in each of the steps in the areas identified this tactical plan if success is to be achieved.  If worked methodically and to its best effect, this tactical sales plan will help to achieve the hardest to get sales and revenue goals, a good inroad into the marketplace, fast-tracked production and deployment processes, together with the containment of costs.  It’s also important to understand that things will not work as well if any part of the tactical sales plan, that is a core to its success, is compromised.

Hardest Selling Style – This is an interesting selling style and although it is considered to be relatively easy selling, it can be one of the hardest to master.  For that reason, those in direct selling are usually paid on commission only and are usually among the highest paid in the selling industry.  This selling style is best suited to relatively simple sales environments where the prospect is more likely to give a simple yes or a simple no decision in a relatively short time.  Most direct selling is based on the need to solve single pressing problems, and mostly in a short-term setting, without the need to dig down too deeply.       

Hard-to-Get-it Close – Everyone want one or more of those objects that are not readily available or appear too expensive.  Here the salesperson is able to make the prospect prove his or her worth as a buyer, and it’s why this close works so well because it appeals to the buyers greed and to their egos. We all want what others may want but can’t have.  They also want to be accepted by others.

Hard-Working and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Harmful Poisoned Chalice – A job or situation which may seem good at first but soon could become unpleasant or harmful.

Harvest Strategy – A structured plan by an investor to dispose of a personal or business investment, such as shares in a company, to make a profit, or a business owner or group to dispose of their company, by selling the business, floating it on the stock market, ceasing to trade, handing it over to another family member, etc.

Harvesting – A term primarily used when a product is still being sold, although it is no longer being invested in, or prior to the product being withdrawn from the market.

Headhunt – A person who sets out to find a person who is specialised in a particular job, usually for a senior position in a company, and then persuade them to leave their present employment for a fee to the prospective employer they are endeavouring to place them in.

Headquarters War Room – This is an old slang term generally used in sales organizations to describe a specific location, typically the Headquarters, or at the Headquarters where the majority of opportunities are tracked and pricing and strategy decisions are made – often without consultation with the sales force.

Healthy Mix Hunter/Farmer Model – In today’s modern selling there are clearly defined roles for salespeople. These days two differing roles have emerged and are termed as either “hunter” salespeople, or “farmer” salespeople.  The “hunter” is the one that that generates new customers or new business or is able to support and upgrade existing clients whereas, on the other hand, the “farmer” is the one that works cultivating and farming existing accounts that do not need to be upgraded.  The reason for the differential between the two is that all businesses need a healthy mix of market share among their clients, and the “hunter” and “farmer” concept proves to be an ideal mix.   Many sales companies expect their salespeople to perform both roles in a given territory.

Help Me Close – The Help Me Close is what the salesperson can turn to whenever the seller is after is a bit of assistance, because it It can often be a good thing just by saying to the prospect, “Can you help me out here please…”.

Hero Close – It’s designed for business-to-business sales, although I suppose you could develop a variant for other consumer sales types too. When you call that customer to check and make sure everything is OK with the product, ask if they would be willing to tell the occasional prospect how good the product is. Then the next time you’ve got an appointment with a prospect that may say that it will take time it will take to learn a new system.

Hesitator Close – As you get up to leave you notice he also feels much the same way you do and in order to pacify you he begins to start giving you excuses you both know are not true.  “I need time to think about this, but I won’t decide now.”

Hiatus Flighting – Considered to be a cost effective method of advertising. This happens when a commercial is scheduled to appear on TV, usually when viewing figures are high (flight). There are periods in between the flights when the commercial does not appear on TV (hiatus). During the TV hiatus the product being advertised will often appear in newspapers or magazines, so the public is continually aware of it.

Hidden Intention or Smoke-Screen – Well used business term that properly represents a statement a prospect or customer makes that purposely conceals what the prospect actually plans to do or what their real intentions about a certain thing may be.

Hidden Issues Stall – A condition that exists when a prospect avoids making a decision and, in essence, puts the entire sales process on hold. Stalls often happen due to hidden issues the prospect faces and is unwilling to share them with the salesperson.

Hidden Need – This is the need behind the need.  Often used as “hot button” to encourage the prospect to consider buying a product or service.

Hierarchy and the Peter Principle – In any business hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence’. The theory that employees rise in rank in an organisation until they are finally promoted to a level, and remain there, at which they do not have the ability to do their job as effectively as they did at a lower ranking.  Originally formulated by Canadian author Laurence J Peter (1919-1990)

Hierarchy Pecking Order – This refers to hierarchy in businesses, organizations, etc, and relates to the order of people at different ranks.

High Achievers Never Say Selling is a Numbers Game  – A totally misguided belief that is based on performing some manner of sales related activities the are predicted to result in pre-determined results and are always based on the numbers and statistics. However, only those that are believers of this theory are generally untrained people who dabble in sales and in far too many cases only last one two or more years.  Professional salespeople on the other hand understand that the numbers they need to concentrate on are their personal performance statistics based on conversion and closing percentages.  The narrower the conversion number between calls and sales, the better the seller, or the sales manager that helps guide the salesperson.

High Ambition – A quick (fast-track) route in a career to success and promotion, and is usually associated with high ambition and above average futurization.

High Level Listening – High level listening is a process that is used by the salesperson when certain phrases are used by the prospect and then responded to by the seller.  The secret to this process is to listen and respond with real and personal emotion.  In other words, high level listeners make non-judgmental associations with others, and then offer acceptance through validation plus empathetic support.  In short, it is listening that does not pre-judge.

High Pressure Sell – Refers to what many in sales may consider to be an over-the-top aggressive or overly forceful selling technique, made popular in the 1960s, and since then regaining popularity among advocates/practitioners of old-fashioned one-way sales methods, that constantly may use high pressure and cynical so called sales tactics to cajole customers to buy. This style of selling today is rarely successful and mostly never sustainable. Contrasts with ‘soft sell’.

High Probability Vested Interest – This term is applied when an individual, or business or group has a special interest in something, such as property, an activity, etc., from which there is a high probability of personal and/or financial gain.

High Producing Rainmaker – A well known but now lesser used sales slang term only given to the most impressive, prodigious, consistent, high-producing salesperson or salespeople in any selling organization.

High Prominence – In any manner of sales compensation design, this factor refers to the level of influence a salesperson has within the sales process.  Most sales processes where the salesperson has an above average or somewhat high prominence, this reflects on a situation where a decision is made where its often due to the salesperson’s experience, understanding, affable characteristics and/or ability to be persuasive.

High Supply And Demand – Supply is the amount of a product or service which is available, and demand is the amount of that product or service which people wish to buy. When demand is higher than supply prices usually rise, on the other hand, when demand is less than supply prices usually fall.

High Value Questions – The questioning process within the early part of a presentation is possibly the most revered primary prep-selling tool used to explore and understand a prospects or customers situation at the time of the call. Effective questioning is considered to be among the highest level skill of the successful sales professional. Most questions can be described with multiple labels, each with different objectives. Some sample question labels may include: Strategic Questions, Big Picture Questions, High Value Questions, Clarification Questions, Act and Action Questions, etc.

Highball Close – Where the salesperson starts in the negotiation process sets the expectations for the prospect. if you start high, you can always go down, but when you start low, you can never go up.  It’s the high level that sets the yardstick for the buyer, who more often than not, will consider the price to be reasonable.  But, the higher the price, the longer the negotiations could take.  Whatever the buyer negotiates will cause a happy outcome.  All the seller needs to be aware of is what the cut-off point should be.

Higher Authority Close – To most of us mere salespeople, a higher authority is a one of our managers, or his manager or the really big boss that runs the company and we will occasionally call one of the above to clarify something or to help close a sale.  But whenever we call one of them it’s always for the same reason – to help up get a sale ‘over the line.’

Higher Quality Up-Sell – This relates to the ability to up-sell a more expensive item or higher quality product by positioning the value of the additional benefits the more expensive or higher quality product might bring.  It can also relate to up-selling larger quantities of product.

Higher Quality Up-Selling – A sales technique in which the salesperson works at persuading the prospect or customer to purchase more expensive and/or more goods than they may have originally intended.  As an example, say you committed to a mobile phone (cell phone) plan and the salesperson asked a few questions and suggested you would be better served by another plan with more calls and data for a slight increase in monthly outgoings.  If you agreed to the new plan, this is an up-sell.

Highest Paid Selling Style – This is an interesting selling style and although it is considered to be relatively easy selling, it can be one of the hardest to master.  For that reason, those in direct selling are usually paid on commission only and are usually among the highest paid in the selling industry.  This selling style is best suited to relatively simple sales environments where the prospect is more likely to give a simple yes or a simple no decision in a relatively short time.  Most direct selling is based on the need to solve single pressing problems, and mostly in a short-term setting, without the need to dig down too deeply.       

Highlighted Lockout – The best way to describe this concept approach within the selling arena is that many of the professional salespeople would avoid using it.  Having said that, it’s an interesting idea.  At times there are products or services that may be exclusive to a company, or hard to get at a certain time of the year for whatever reason.  At times like this the seller may be in a position to offer the prospect a product that no-one else is able to at that time.  This is made more powerful if the salesperson is able to confirm the exclusivity in writing from the an executive of the company.  Because no-one else can provide that product or service at the time, it is considered to be and is aptly named a “lockout.”  It’s a simple process.  Highlight what you have that no-one else can provide and you effectively “lockout” every other supplier the day you make the call.

Highlighted Red Flag – Slang term used to describe conditions that may present danger to or within the selling organization. This is generally used to highlight those areas the sales professional needs to be alert to, or must solve, in order to move the sale forward.

Highlights the List Close – Your aim is to impress them with what they are getting, and not bore them with excessive detail.  “So as well as the product we had agreed would best suit your needs, you are getting free delivery, a five-day exchange plus our extended  comprehensive guarantee.”

Highly Paid Performance-Related Pay – A performance-related payment scheme set up in the workplace in which the employees get paid according to how well they perform in their job – especially in highly paid and commission selling.

Hindrance Slowdown – Something or a factor that hinders progress. Salespeople who sell effectively generally look for bottlenecks or gaps, where problems or slowdowns may exist or become a hindrance to effective progress. By identifying these, areas of opportunity may either surface or become apparent, as this is where selling organizations can help improve productivity and overall sales performance.

Hire Purchase (HP) – A contract between a buyer and a seller in which the buyer takes possession of an item or a service and then pays for it in regular instalments, usually monthly, and does not become the owner of the item until the final payment has been made. Also referred to as ‘Buying on the never-never’.

Hire Purchase Interest Rate – A fee which the lender is charged for borrowing money, e.g., a loan from a bank or financial institution, lease arrangement, goods bought through hire purchase, and so on.

Historic Pipeline Visibility – Relates to the ability to see a a historic as well as holistic view of all movements or opportunities throughout each stage of a company’s sales process. The greater the accuracy of data at each of the stages, the greater the visibility within and throughout the pipeline for sales leaders.

Historic Probability – Refers to the likelihood that a given event will occur at some time in the near future. In defining a sales pipeline, historic probability is generally the number that will convey the likelihood that a specific sale will occur in a certain way.  Probability is typically expressed as a percentage between 10% and 100%.

Historical Passive Indicators – There are a number of leading indicators that represent those measures that are able to predict all forms of future outcomes.  Passive indicators are also measures that can suggest what happened historically and therefore are able to perhaps influence buyers.  However, far too many salespeople, sales managers and sales forces tend to focus more on passive indicators simply because it is relatively far easier to track that information than to work at creating far more aggressive appeal factors.

Historical Pattern Extrapolation – An estimated determination of what will happen in the future by extending (extrapolating) of any known information or data. The verb ‘extrapolate’ is common and means using mathematics or other logical processes to extend a proven trend or set of data. ‘What if’ scenarios and business modeling generally involves some manner of extrapolation. It’s also a way of predicting something by assuming that a certain historical pattern will continue into the future.

Historical Sales Forecasting – The hopefully precise estimation of future sales performance based on a forecast period tabled from historical data. Forecasted performances can vary widely from actual sales results, but the forecasting is designed to help salespeople plan their upcoming days, weeks, and months.  Forecasting also helps high-level employees set standards for expenses, profit, and growth.

Hoax – Intentional deception for the purpose of financial or other gain.

Hoax and Embezzlement – Dishonestly appropriated goods or monies from one’s employer for personal gain, or to steal from one’s employer by some form of electronic administrative methods, and in the process abusing a position of trust or responsibility.

Hold-Over Credibility in Sales – This is the degree that people that matter (the prospects and clients) find it easy (and worthwhile) to believe in the ideologies expressed by the salesperson.  Short term credibility is never the yard-stick that a sale is made on, but what the buyer believes will be able to hold-over into the long term.  On the other hand those that believe that all they need is to have enough credibility to make the appointment, or to get through a single meeting with a prospect are the ones that the prospect will usually deem have no credibility at all.           

Hole in The Wall – An informal but common term for a cash dispensing machine, also called an ATM (Automated Teller Machine).

Holistic Pipeline Visibility – Relates to the ability to see a a historic as well as holistic view of all movements or opportunities throughout each stage of a company’s sales process. The greater the accuracy of data at each of the stages, the greater the visibility within and throughout the pipeline for sales leaders.

Home Brand – Generally known as House Brands in the US and Home Brands in Australia.  These are the products which are sold by a retailer under the retailer’s own name, in place of the name of the manufacturer.

Home Shipping – The process of physically moving merchandise, machinery and other goods form a point of origin, like a retailer’s or wholesalers or distributors warehouse, to a destination, like a customer’s office, warehouse, shop or home.

Homework and a Research Dossier – This may typically represent a collection of a salesperson’s notes, articles and collateral that is gathered during the planning phase of the sales process. Having a prospect’s or customer’s unique research dossier with on a call, the salesperson communicates to the prospect or customer that they have done their homework properly and have their best interests at heart.

Honest and Analytical Style – Any buyer that takes an analytical to life is considered to be of a factual, serious, steadfast, realistic, hard-working, resolute, honest, exacting, unwavering, systematic, and have a truthful, yet critical nature.  This person can also be an extremely valuable ally as the sales process moves forward to its conclusion.  The most important thing to be aware of here is that the analytical buyer is totally dedicated to a cause (of his/her choosing) and lives for detail, more detail, and even more detail.

Honest Persuasion and Sales – According to sales expert Anthony Parinello the art of sales is based on proactively understanding the needs and problems of others by using the art of honest persuasion to highlight possible solutions to those problems and to encounter others to believe in what the seller says and to invest their money and time in what the seller proposes – mildly paraphrased.

Honesty and Ethics – this would not have appeared in a selling glossary, simply because the line between right and wrong is wide. Honesty, morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in the majority of effective selling methods. Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but these days they carry far greater risks. Consumers are wiser, better informed, authories and courts are less tolerant and more senstitive to transgressions. Today, poor ethics guarantee personal and/or business failure.

Honesty and Open Plan Selling – Open Plan Selling is also underpinned by strong ethical principles, notably honesty and the premise that persuasion and influence are unhelpful, and in this respect the methodology relates somewhat to modern ideas of facilitating and helping.

Horizontal Market Sector – An integral part of the market that can be described, categorised and then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics.  These sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, as an example, a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc.

Horizontal Market Segment – Relates to a sub-sector or market niche, which is basically a grouping that’s more narrowly defined and smaller than what is generally known as a sector.  A segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors.

Hostile Selling – An aggressive type of selling which many consider unethical these days that puts a lot of pressure on a prospective customer to buy a product or a service from someone in the selling field currently that is unlikely to remain in sales for too long.

Hostile Takeover White Knight – A company, individual, etc., who offers favourable terms in a takeover bid, and in the process is usually saving the acquired company from a hostile takeover by someone else.

Hot Button – A tangible and/or emotive reason a prospect considers purchasing a product or service.  The stronger the “hot button” the more likely the sale will be made.

Hot Button Closing – This can also be technically defined as being based on the fact that 80% of any buying decision is usually determined by 20% of the product features and benefits.  The salesperson needs to learn and apply how to use the power of features and benefits when the concept of “attributes” is applied.  Then once the attribute is brought to the prospects attention, product personalisation is more likely to occur.

Hot Buttons in Selling – Any tangible and/or emotive cluster of reasons a prospect may consider purchasing a product or service.  Also applies to those areas which, if known, can be used to position solutions to align with a decision maker’s most important criteria for making a purchasing selection.

Hot Potato Close – This close works exactly as it sounds.  Let’s say someone tosses you a hot potato, as soon as it’s the palms of your hands, what would you do? You’d toss it back as quickly as you could.  And that’s the way the Hot Potato Close works as well.

House Account – An account that a producer, manufacturer or importer, that for whatever reason, reserves the right to sell direct, rather than allowing a salesperson, sales representative, broker, or distributor to take on an account, and receive the margins or commissions on sales subsequent to selling to that account.

House Brand – Generally known as House Brands in the US and Home Brands in Australia.  These are the products which are sold by a retailer under the retailer’s own name, in place of the name of the manufacturer.

Household Electrics Distribution – Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditised mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electricals, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the internet.

Household Items Merchandising – The promotion of products and services through the use of collateral, retail placement, coupons, or other forms of advertising.  It also relates to the practice of promoting and selling goods. Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc., such as toys, clothing, food products, household items, etc. and includes the activities involved in displaying products and making them easily available and visually attractive to a prospective buyer.

Household Tele Canvassing – A sales method that generally typically refers to the first telephone call made to a prospective customer.  More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as ‘door-knocking’..

How to Sales Aids – A device or apparatus that is purposely devised or designed to assist the sales professional gain an advantage during a presentation . Sales aids cover a wide gamut that can be anything from sophisticated demonstration tools and assessment technologies, to paper checklists, templates, and step-by-step how to’s.

HP (Hire Purchase) – A contract between a buyer and a seller in which the buyer takes possession of an item or a service and then pays for it in regular instalments, usually monthly, and does not become the owner of the item until the final payment has been made. Also referred to as ‘Buying on the never-never’.

HR (Human Resources) – These are the people who are employed by an operator, a business or organization to be a part of a department within a company which deals with recruitment, training, employee benefit, and so on.

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) – A mark-up language that has been specifically created for the displaying web pages and applications in web browsers. Like other mark-up languages, HTML annotates a document, describing its layout and syntax.

Huge Opportunity Whale Prospect – Whenever it is used in sales terminology, a whale is a prospect at least 10 times larger than your average sale. With B2B sales a whale prospect is often a company that’s far larger than your own. It also reflects a huge opportunity, or a huge account being worked on by a senior salesperson, account manager or sales manager.

Human Resources (HR) – These are the people who are employed by an operator, a business or organization to be a part of a department within a company which deals with recruitment, training, employee benefit, and so on.

Human Resources Sales Effectiveness – Sales effectiveness is the ability for a sales organizations to “win over” the prospect at each stage of the customer’s cycle, thereby winning the business and improving sales results.  It is also the term used to cover the broad range of activities a sales organization uses in order to improve the productivity and the results of its sales teams. Sometimes the words “Sales Excellence” are used as synonyms to further explain sales effectiveness.

Human Resources Sales Effectiveness Process – Refers to a variety of systems, activities, processes and information that support and promote knowledge-based sales interactions with clients and prospects. The responsibility of this kind of limited sales enablement is typically co-owned by the sales organization and a variety of other parts of the organization, including marketing, product development, human resources and others.

Humanity Responses in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Abraham Maslow is the inventor of the “needs pyramid” that suggests that all human beings will always satisfy their needs from a triangle format that resembles a pyramid, with their primary needs being satisfied at the widest point, signifying the base.  The needs factor both reduces as it moves upwards from that point.  In Maslow’s theory, if a lower level need is not satisfied, people will continue to focus on that need before they address a higher one.  At the first level are the essentials (food, shelter) and these are automatic and not negotiable, and most of the selling is done by supermarkets, department stores and food outlets. Selling at the second level is still basic, but now encompasses a new take-it-or-leave-it level that centers around security.  Alarm system sales can satisfy these needs.  The third level centres around social needs and are catered for by clubs, restaurants and specialist groups like golf clubs etc.  The fourth level caters for status needs like luxury cars, nice homes etc.. And at the top level, where the width is the narrowest and the demand the most costly, self-actualization such as self-help products and the more exclusive and costly products such as unique travel, high-end jewelry and exclusive and very costly services.

Humiliation Close – Place them into a position where not buying would embarrass them, then dissuade them from buying cheap (rather than ‘less expensive’) options by pointing out that they are cheap, low quality, etc. and that more expensive options are much better value.

Humour Close – Get them amused by telling a joke or making witty remarks. Then either go for a relaxed close with another closing technique or weave the close into the joke.  This is useful when times are tense.  Beware of politically-incorrect humour and be sure it will be effective, but self-deprecating humour is often a safe bet and shows you to be confident and likable.

Hungry for Power Driver Style – The buyers who take on the driver style are the ones who are considered to be resolute, determined, forceful, tough, efficient, assertive, dominating, decisive, self-confident, direct, and not infrequently, hungry for power and authority, firm and single-minded.  They are also the buyers who can deliver yes and no answers quickly and then not deviating from their decision.

Hunter – A slang term in sales that refers to a canvasser, salesperson or referrer whose primary job is to find and bring in new business.

Hunter/Farmer Model – In today’s modern selling there are clearly defined roles for salespeople. These days two differing roles have emerged and are termed as either “hunter” salespeople, or “farmer” salespeople.  The “hunter” is the one that that generates new customers or new business or is able to support and upgrade existing clients whereas, on the other hand, the “farmer” is the one that works cultivating and farming existing accounts that do not need to be upgraded.  The reason for the differential between the two is that all businesses need a healthy mix of market share among their clients, and the “hunter” and “farmer” concept proves to be an ideal mix.  Many sales companies expect their salespeople to perform both roles in a given territory.

Hurry Close – Now this is a close not to my liking and has only been included within this list of closing styles because I have been convinced by a number of my peers that it is quite a well used and applied closing style. It’s called the Hurry Close and it simply works around everything far more fast paced so that the prospect has less chance of thinking of any of the reasons why they would not buy under normal circumstances.

Hush Money – Generally refers to a bribe or under the counter payment, which is often considered illegal, and is given to someone to stop them from disclosing information, or usually to prevent bad publicity or to purposely hide a crime.

Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) – A mark-up language that has been specifically created for the displaying web pages and applications in web browsers. Like other mark-up languages, HTML annotates a document, describing its layout and syntax.

Hypothetical Pro-Forma – This refers to the process of preparing a hypothetical income statement for customers, generally based on a given set of assumptions. As an example, a sales professional may need to prepare a pro-forma of revenues anticipated based on the result of a solution being accepted, and when compared to the costs being incurred.